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The Ends of Human Act

The meaning of end:

The “End” is the purpose or goal of

an act. It is either the end of the
act itself or the end of the doer.
End of the act:
 The natural termination or completion of an
Example: The end of eating is nourishment;
that of reading is comprehension; that of game
of basketball is scoring a goal, and that of talking
is communication.
The end of the doer:
 The motive or reason why a person forms an
Example: The housewives saves money
because she wants to buy an appliances or to
pay for a vacation.
• A person thinks first of a purpose before
acting. When the purpose is accomplished the
person cases to act. Hence, the motive is said
to be “first in intention” but “last in
execution”. Actions are the means for fulfilling
a person’s wishes or intention.
Kinds of Ends
1. The proximate end
-The purpose which is the doer wishes to accomplish

The remote end

-The purpose which the doer wishes to accomplish
sometime later.
2. The intermediate end
- Sought as a means of obtaining another

The ultimate end

- Desired for own sake.
Action and Motivation:
1. Every action is performed for the sake of a
definite end purpose
- Man is a motivated animal. For him to act, he
must first have a motive.
- A motive may be instantaneous (ex. When one
stand up to answer the doorbell).
- Some motives are modest and inconsequential
and some are significant and important.
• An act done for purpose is said to be
Deliberate or Intentional.

• An act that is done without an intended

purpose is said to be accidental.
2. Every action is intended towards an ultimate
- Every action is move to accomplish
something. The concept of action implies an
ultimate end, which would satisfy the need of
the doer.
3. Every doer moves himself towards an end
which he thinks suitable to him
- Man does not wish anything except that
which is beneficial or suitable for him. Hence,
every human act is tendency towards what is
good, because what is good is suitable to man.
The end as good
• - Man acts in order to obtain something good to himself.
Therefore, the concept to that of end or purpose.

• - Aristotle defines “Good” as “anything which fits or suits a


• - In a higher level, actions are good when they fit the

moral integrity of a person.

• Those acts which fit human nature are said to be good.

They are called “Maka-tao”. Those acts which are unfit to
human nature are evil. They are “hindi maka-tao”.
• Apparent good
- Evil which is presented to the mind as
something good.

• Instrumental to getting something good

- Crimes are committed, because criminals
regards their evil.
Kinds of good
1. Essential and Accidental
- An essential good to satisfy the need of
person as a human being.
- An accidental good is that which satisfies the
want of a person because of his particular
2. Real and Apparent
- Real good is anything which has intrinsic

- Apparent good is an evil which is viewed

subjectively as something of value.
3. Perfective and Non- Perfective

- Perfective good is that which contributes to

integral growth or development of a person.

- Non-perfective good is anything which merely

contribute to the external appearance or
convenience of a person.
4. Perfect and Imperfect
- Anything lacking in some qualities is imperfect.

- A perfect is a real good with all essential

qualities needed to satisfy a need.
The greatest good