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Serves as a tool of police
and other investigators to make a record
of the scene of a crime,
to show particular item of evidences
and their relationship to the scene, and to
make a close-up records of
significant portions to the scene.

Fundamentals or concepts of photography

Application to police work

Preparation of photographic Evidence

Is defined as the art or science which deals
with the reproduction of images through the
action of light on sensitized material, with
the aid of the camera and its accessories and
the chemical process involved therein.
Mechanical And Chemical Result-
Application to Police Work
Photography is an invaluable tool in the law
enforcement service.
Provides permanent record of the facts at
the scene.
Extends man’s visuals limitation
Provides pictorial representation of the
appearance and positions of objectsat the
scene of the crime.
Johann Heinrich Schulze
Working in Germany, discovered that light
darkened the silver salts he kept stored in
This experiment became the
Humprey Davy &
Thomas Wedgewood

Found that materials that had been

sensitized with silver chloride and
exposed to sunlight would leave
momentary impression that would
later fade.
CAMERA - It is a device designed
specially to record images on light sensitive
material known as FILM.
The camera, film and photographer,
working together to produce a quality
image constitute a system of photography.
Joseph Nicephore Niepce
French inventor also examines the camera obscura
By 1816 he had succeeded in making paper negative in a
camera obscura, but he could not prevent it from fading.
Fading with paper, he turned to plates of pewter coated
with bitumen of Judea, a type of varnish that hardened
when exposed to sunlight. After placing a drawing in
contact with this plate, he exposed to sunlight for many
hours. After exposure he removed the unexposed areas
with a mixture of turpentine and lavender oil to reveal a
barely visible image of the original drawing,
He called this process HELIOGRAPHY-SUN
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre
In 1839, he presented to the world the first
practical photographic process and called it
The plate inside the camera took only 30 minutes
of exposure compared to Niepce’s eight hours.
The pictures that were produced by the
daguerreotype were sharp and clear. But only non-
moving objects could be photographed.
William Henry Fox Talbot
First captured images on paper coated with silver
chloride.By 1835 he had learned to make these images
permanent by washing them in a strong salt solution.
Talbot advanced the negative-positive principle that was to
become the basis for nearly all photography after that time.
Talbot was thus able to reduce exposure time from many
hours to less than a minute. To produce as positive image.,
Talbot resurrected his negative-positive idea and invented
contact printing. He waxed his paper negatives so that they
would better transmit light and exposed them to sunlight in
contact with photosensitive paper to produce positive prints.
In 1841 he secured a patent for his process, which at first he
called the CALOTYPE-beautiful image but which he was
later persuaded to call the TALBOTYPE.
German Eastman
In 1888, he announced his new invention;
the first hand held camera that used to roll
film- the KODAK.
He made LEICA, it was made use of much
smaller film, which nevertheless produced
fine, clear prints.
The Leica was built much smaller than the
first Kodak.
CAMERA - the primary equipment in photography in
taking photographs.
FILM - a device designed specially to record images
on light sensitive material.
camera, film and photographer, working together to
produce a quality image constitute a system of
History of Camera
CAMERA OBSCURA - this camera obscura has
a hole that was made in one of the walls of a darkened
room. 1 Light rays from a scene outside passed through this
hole and a resulting image was projected on the opposite
ARABS - in the 11th century they were already
entertaining themselves with camera obscura made out of
Giovanni della Porta (16th century) - an
Italian became interested in camera obscura. He put a lens
on the hole to make the image sharper and because of that
light rays were bent upon passing through a lens, the
image projected is upside-down.
17th Century - the camera obscura changed in size
and it was now a small chamber with a chair.
Johann Zahn - a German monk, invented the first
portable camera obscura.
Joseph Nicephore Niepce (1826) – Frenchman
who experimented with light sensitive
compounds (chemicals that are easily affected
or changed when hit by light).
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre - In 1839, he
presented to the world the first practical
photographic process and called it
Josef Max Petzval - an Austrian Mathematics
professor who invented the lens
LEICA – camera made by German Eastman. It was
made use of much smaller film, which nevertheless
produced fine, clear prints. The Leica was built much
smaller than the first Kodak. It was thus handier. It also
allowed picture taking indoors without the use of any
special lightning.
LITTLE BLACK BOX – another term for
1870 - plates were being made in such a way that
they now only required very short exposure time.
And so the shutter was invented.
1880 - camera was being made to suit all kinds of
special purposes.
German Eastman (1888) - announced his new
invention; the first hand held camera that used to
roll film- the KODAK.

Body or light tight box- s an enclosure devoid

of light. An enclosure, which would prevent light from
exposing the sensitized material inside the camera.
Lens- the function of the lens is to focus the light
coming from the subject. It is chiefly responsible for the
sharpness of image formed through which light passes
during the exposure.
Holder of sensitized material- located at the
opposite side of the lens. Its function is to hold firmly the
sensitized material in its place during exposure to prevent
the formation of a multiple or burned image of the subject.
Shutter- it served as the barrier of the rays of light that
will enter and affect the film inside the camera.

110 and Ultra-Miniature Cameras - Ultra-

miniature cameras, or "spy cameras" as they were often
called, have been on the market for many years. The films
used in these cameras were not standardized and were very
small, making darkroom work difficult at best. These
cameras were also expensive.
126 Instamatic Camera - the great commercial
success of the 126, Instamatic camera is evidence that, in
order to sell more cameras, one need only make the simple
box camera simpler.
The 35mm Camera - There are two types of 35
mm cameras in wide use:
a. Rangefinder- is independent of the main lens of
the camera. The viewfinder presents a split screen
rangefinder that is coupled to the main lens of the camera.
The view through the viewfinder is fixed and the
photographer must compensate for changed view when
using other than a standard lens. This is accomplished by
attaching a correcting lens to the viewfinder.
b. Single-lens-reflex SLR- it allows the photographer to
view a subject through the main lens of the camera. The
image seen through the viewfinder window is a replica
image; when using a standard lens the image is similar in
size and appearance to the scene before the unaided eye.
The optical system for viewing the image is comprised of
(a) main lens; (b) a mirror for diverting light away from
the film and into the rest of the system; (c) a prism for
reversing and inverting the image as reflected from the
mirror; (d) focusing screen; (e) viewfinder.
120 Medium Format Camera - it is designed to
use 120-size film. Its viewing screen shows a reversed and
inverted image.
4 x 5 Camera - the "grandfather" of police and
newspaper photography is the 4-x5 camera. It was
inexpensive, rugged and very versatile. The photographer
may take as many or as few photographs, without changing
film rolls or having to wait until a roll is completely filled.
Polaroid Camera by Edwin H. Land - Polaroid
has been a standard for amateur and professional
photographers alike for nearly 30 years. The advantage of
Polaroid film is the immediate availability of a finished
photographic print.

The major disadvantages of Polaroid
cameras and films are:

Film is expensive.
Accessories, such as lenses, are
Most are rangefinders cameras
with the same disadvantages as 35
mm rangefinder cameras.          
A. TRIPOD - a tripod is the standard means of
camera support. It is a triple leg device, which is
adjustable to any reasonable extension. This can be
used in holding the camera when the camera is bulky
or when using a shutter speed lower than one twenty
five of a second to prevent the movement that will
produce a blur images in the photographs.
B. CABLE RELEASES- Cables allow
shutter release without direct finger contact with the
camera body, and so is an important way of reducing
HOODS- Designed to fit specific lenses, most
hoods are circular which is less efficient than a
rectangular design, but easier to fit.
SHADES- More controlled shading is possible with
either a French flag and arm or a compendium shade,
which can be extended or shortened to suit lenses with
different angles of view.
E. FLASH UNITS- Flashbulbs or
electronic flash, which synchronized with the
opening and closing of the shutter. This is very
effective to augment the adverse lightning
condition of the objects being photograph.
F. LIGHT METER- a device used in
determining the intensity of light that strike the
subjects and affect the film. This light meter can
be an extinction meter or photoelectric meter.
G. EXTENSION TUBE- a device used in
photographing a minute objects. It is attached to
the lens board of the camera and the lens is
attached to it when close-up photographing is
H. FILTER- a transparent medium, which
transmit and absorbs different wavelength of lights.
They are usually made of glass or gelatin materials
placed in front or behind the camera lens.
I. CAMERA GRIP- a device used to
hold firmly the camera so as to prevent the
vibration or movement of the camera during
the exposure period.
J. LENS HOOD- a device used to
eliminate some reflection of lights, which
might destroy the image cast by objects.
K.CHANGING BAG- the best are
of heavy black cloth with a double flap for
access. With new bag, check that the inside
is free from fluff particles.
FOCUSING CONTROL - This is the most important control
on a camera. Focus is the means by which the object distance is estimated or
calculated to form sharp or clear images.

SHUTTER SPEED CONTROL - The length of time that

the rays of light will reach and affect the sensitized material (film) can be
controlled by the shutter speed control of the camera.

DIAPHRAGM CONTROL - It works like the pupil of

the eye. It may be enlarged or contracted. If it is enlarged, it allows
more light to enter, on the contrary, when it is contracted or small, it
allows lesser light to enter.
TOGETHER - They are both controlling system of the rays
of light that enters, reached and affects the film inside the camera.

1. Open the back of the camera. Pulling the rewind crank up usually
does this.
2. Load the film cassette. The rewind crack must be lifted to enable the
cassette be inserted.
3. Push the rewind crank down and pull a short length of film out of
the cassette,
4. Attach the film leader to the take-up spool. Most of the film leader
can be inserted.
5. Fire the shutter; advance the film with the film sprocket holes.
6. Take up any slack in the film by rewinding the crank handle gently.
Close the back securely.
7. Fire two blank shots and advance the film. Check the rewind crank
turns each time you advance the film to ensure the film is advancing.
8. Set the film or ISO that appeared on the film cassette or box on the
film speed selector. This is not moved again whilst exposing this roll
of film.
9. Select a shutter speed. Usually nothing slower than 1/60th of a
second you are using a tripod.
10. Move the focusing ring back and forth until your subject appears
as sharp as possible.
11. Adjust the aperture until you obtain the correct exposure. Hold the
camera firmly, frame your shot and press the shutter release gently.
12. Advance the film using the film advance lever. The shutter will
only fire when fully advanced.
13. When the last frame has been taken push the film rewind button.
14.Rewind the film smoothly back into the cassette, approximately
one complete turn per frame.
15.When you feel the film tighten and then go slack or hear the noise
of the film coming away from the take-up spool the film has rewound.
16. Remove the film from the camera by pulling the rewind crank up.
If the film leader is still visible, mark the film to indicate that it is
17. Place the film back into its container until you are ready to process
it. This will protect the film from moisture and dirt.
(Based on Nikon Camera Manual)

  Always keep the viewfinder eyepiece, lens and filters as clean as
possible. To remove loose dust and dirt, first use the blower and then
the brush of a lens brush.
 Smudges, such as fingerprints, should be carefully wiped away with
either lens tissue or a clean, soft cloth. Breathing on the lens before
Wiping is effective; but be sure to wipe away all moisture
 Never touch the mirror or the shutter leaves.
  Take care not to drop the camera or knock it against anything solid.
        Your camera is not waterproof. There are several places where
water can get inside and do a great deal of damage. Take care to
protect both body and the lens from rain or splashing water. If your
camera should get wet, dry it off immediately with a clean, soft cloth.
        If your camera becomes completely soaked, it may malfunction.
In this instance, bring it as soon as possible to an authorized camera
        The best storage place is cool, dry, clean and well ventilated. It
is risky to store your camera in a cabinet or closet. It’s also a good
idea to keep your camera in its bag or case while you are not in use.
1. Shutter Speed ISO/ Film Speed Set Ring
This regulates how the aperture stays open. The slower the
shutter speed, the more light will come in. The faster the speed,
the less light will get in to expose the film. A dial setting of 60
means 1/60 of a second, which is slow.
2. Shutter Release Button
- Used to activate the shutter so a frame of film can be
- The control that releases the aperture opening, lifts up the
mirror, and exposes the film to the light.
3. Film Advance Lever
This is used to advance or move over each small piece of film
after the picture is taken. The film comes out of the film
canister and moves across to the film take up reel.
4. Frame Counter
Used for looking at the number of films being used.
5. Neck Strap Eyelet
Where the camera strap was being attach for camera
6. Hand Grip
It is where the hand is place for gripping or holding the
camera for protection.
7. Self-Timer Lever
Permits taking a delayed action photograph.
8. Lens Release Button
It permits the lens to be removed from the camera body.
9. Hot shoe contact/Accessory shoe
Where the flash unit can be attached.
10. Film Rewind Crank
Used only after all the pictures have been taken. Used to rewind the
exposed film back to the canister.
11. Film Rewind Knob
It rewinds the film back to the film cassette.
12. Film speed Window
It is where the ISO can be check. ISO- International Standard
Organization is an index for film speed.
13. Aperture ring
The opening in the lens that controls how much light gets into the camera
and how long it is allowed to expose the film.
14. Distance Scale
It allows the lenses to focus from the nearest to farthest distance of the
Lens is a medium or system, which converge or diverge rays of light
passing through it to form images. 1 It is an optical device that gathers light
from a subject and focuses onto a screen or film. It can be a glass or
transparent material, which permits light to pass through and change the
direction of light.

NORMAL LENSES - It is the standard equipment on a camera and is
the intermediate between wide-angle and telephoto lenses. The
picture angle of a normal lens is 45 degrees, which corresponds to the
viewing angle of the human eye. Therefore a Normal lens allows you
to view your subject nearly the same as your unaided eye, neither
reducing nor enlarging the image.
WIDE ANGLE LENSES - It has a shorter focal length than the
normal lens. It covers a picture angle wider than 60 degrees. It
enables photography of a widely extended scene from a close
proximity or within a confined area. In police work, wide-angle
lenses should be used under restricted conditions when the police
officer is unable to cover the desired picture area with a lens of longer
focal length. 3 Typical uses for the wide-angle lens are for
photographing buildings, street scenes and interiors of homes where a
crime has been committed. Crimes committed in bathrooms, are not
easily photographed without a wide angle-lens.
TELEPHOTO LENSES - A telephoto, or long-focus, lens have a
longer focal length and provide a close-up image of a distant subject. 4
It also covers a smaller field of view and a shallower depth of field. It
is also used to bring inaccessible objects into the image area in greater
size. Two other operational uses of telephoto lens are: to achieve
better perspective control by being able to work at a distance, and to
maintain the relative size of objects placed at varying distances from
the camera.

ZOOM LENSES - Zoom optics offer the advantages of rapid

changing of focal length without changing lenses and having one lens
serve the purpose of several, being both economical and space
AUTO FOCUS LENSES - It allows the photographer freedom from
manual focusing so that he or she can concentrate on exposure and
framing. They are particularly advantageous when photographing
quick scenes or when the subject is moving.

MACRO LENSES - It is designed primarily for close-up work. The

advantage of macro lenses for police work is that they can focus on
small articles of evidence such as fingerprints at the scene or in the
crime laboratory without the use of microscope or lens attachments.
( Pentax Camera Manual)
To clean a lens safely:
1. Blow on it gently, either with your breath or with a rubber bulb
2. If the lens is still dirty, dust it with a soft camel's hair brush, and
blow again. Do not use this brush for any other purpose. Keep the
brush covered and protected from dust and grit.
3. A smear or fingerprint can be removed by breathing on the surface
then wiping the surface with a clean piece of lens tissue. Use a
circular motion. Do not wipe with a rag or handkerchief.
4. Brush and blow again to remove any lint left by the tissue.
SPHERICAL ABERRATION - Photographic rays passing through
the edges of a lens are bent or refracted more sharply than those
passing through the central part of the lens, thus they come to focus
nearer the lens than those of the central rays.

COMA - Sometimes known as lateral spherical aberration. It

concerns with rays entering the lens obliquely.

CURVATURE OF FIELD - When the image formed by a lens

comes to a sharper focus on curved surface than on a flat surface.
DISTORTION - Outer parts of the image produced
by the lens will be magnified either less or more than
the center image.
a. Barrel distortion - diaphragm is placed in
front of the lens.
b. Pin-cushion distortion -
diaphragm is placed behind the lens.
CHROMATIC ABERRATION - Inability the lens
to focus all the colors in the same place.
ASTIGMATISM - Inability of the lens to focus
lines running in different direction like for example a
cross. 11
MAGNIFICATION - Inability of the lens to
produce image sizes of objects with different colors.
SIMPLE MINISCUS LENS - This lens is usually
found in simple or box camera. It is unprotected lens and
therefore suffers from inherent defects of lenses.

RAPID RECTILINEAR LENS - It is a combination of

two chromatic lenses with almost the same focal length.
It is also a lens corrected for distortion.

ANASTIGMATIC LENS - A lens, which is corrected

for astigmatism and other types of lens, defects. It has
the ability to focus vertical and horizontal lines at the
same time.
ACHROMATIC LENS- A lens which is partly corrected
for achromatic lens aberration.

PROCESS LENS - A super-corrected lens for stigmatism.

It has a better color correction and has the ability to produce
the best definition of image in the photographs.

FIXED FOCUS LENS - It has a short focal length and a

greater depth of field. This is a lens in all fixed focus.


corrected for astigmatism but with a
higher correction to color.
FOCAL LENGTH - Is the distance measured from
the optical center of the lens to the film plane when
the lens is set of focused at the infinity position. As
according to focal length, lenses maybe classified
a. Wide-angle lens - A lens with a focal length of
less than the diagonal of its negative material.
b. Normal lenses - A lens with a focal length of
more than twice but not more than twice the
diagonal of its negative material.
c. Long or telephoto lens - A lens with a focal
length of more than twice the diagonal of its
negative material.
What Is a Distance Scale? Near the back of
the camera lens, by the focusing ring, there are
markings indicating the distance from the lens where
objects will appear in focus. This is commonly done
with a window, indicating distance from infinity down
to a foot or less. Close distances are sometimes
labeled macro.
The focal length of the lens is the distance between
the lens and the image sensor when the subject is
in focus, usually stated in millimeters (e.g., 28 mm, 50
mm, or 100 mm). In the case of zoom lenses, both the
minimum and maximum focal lengths are stated, for
example 18–55 mm.
The focal length of an optical system is a
measure of how strongly the system converges or
diverges light; it is the inverse of the system's 
optical power. A positive focal length indicates
that a system converges light, while a negative
focal length indicates that the system diverges
FOCAL POINT - the point at which rays or
waves meet after reflection or refraction, or the
point from which diverging rays or waves appear
to proceed.
The focal length of the lens is
the distance between the lens and
the image sensor when the
subject is in focus, usually stated
in millimeters (e.g., 28 mm, 50
mm, or 100 mm). In the case of
zoom lenses, both the minimum
and maximum focal lengths are
stated, for example 18–55 mm.
gathering power of the lens is expressed
in the F-number system. It is otherwise
called the relative aperture, by increasing
or decreasing the f-number numerically,
it is possible to:
a. Control on the amount of light
passing through the lens
b. Control the depth of field
c. Control the degree of sharpens due
to lens defects.
DEPTH OF FIELD - Is the distance
measured from the nearest to the farthest
object in apparent sharp focus when the lens
is set of focused at the particular distance.
nearest distance at which a lens is focused
with a given particular diaphragm opening
which will give the maximum depth of field.
FOCUSING - Is the setting of the proper
distance in order to form a sharp images.
Methods of Focusing
FOCUSING SCALE OF SCALE BED - A scale is usually
found at the lens barrel indicating pre-settled distance in feet or in
matters. To focus the lens of the camera, the distance of the
object to be photographed is measure, estimated, or calculated
then adjusted accordingly to said distance marked on the focusing
RANGE FINDERS - Is a mechanism that measures the
angle of the convergence of light coming from a subject
as seen from two apertures. There are two types of range
1. Split-Image - Through the range finder, the image
of a straight line in the object appears too be cut into
bales and separated from each other when the lens is
not in focus. When the image of the lines is aligned,
the lens is in focus.
2. Co-incident image - Through the eyepiece, a
single image is seen as double when the subject
is out of focus. Make the double image coincide
with each other and the lens is focused.

C. GROUND GLASS - is focused by directly observing

the image formed at the ground glass, screen placed
behind the taking lens. If the image is blurred, fuzzy, or
not clear, the lens is out of focus. The clearest image seen
is the point of focus.

D. ZONE - There are only three setting for focusing. One

for close distance (approximate 3-6 ft), another for
medium distance (approximate 6-15 ft.) and finally for
distant or far objects (approximately 15- infinity).
Two Major Characteristics of the
Camera Lens

1.  The Focal Length of a lens is the distance between the

lens and the focal point at which a sharp image of an object
at infinity position is formed.
2.  A second major characteristic of a lens is its Speed. 14
The speed of a lens indicates how much light the lens will
transmit when it is open to its widest aperture.
        f /-, such as f/1.4, f/ 1.8, or f/2.0. The more light
the lens allows to pass, the “faster” the lens and the smaller
the f/number.
       The f/-numbering system is a precise way of expressing
the relationship between the diameter (d)) of the lens at its
maximum aperture and the focal length (F) of the lens.
f/number = focal length/diameter=F/d
LIGHT is radiation. When an atom in a light source is
changed physically, it emits a photon (Electromagnetic
radiation) that behaves like a wave and, at the same time,
like a particle. For the purposes of photography, light may
be discussed as protons that behave like waves.

There are two sources of light, they are known as the

natural and artificial. Natural lights are lights which
some to existence without the intervention of man and
artificial lights are lights, which are man made. In
photography, artificial light is utilized in indoor
photography to augment the adverse lightning condition.
Speed of Light
The average speed of light is 186,000 miles per second.
Wave Length
In 1666, Isaac Newton proved that the light men see as
white as a mixture of all colors of spectrum. When he
passed beam of sunlight through a glass prism, it produces
the rainbow array of hues of the visible spectrum. The
colors from top to bottom are red, orange, yellow, green,
blue and violet. The wavelength of the visible spectrum is
from 400 to 700 millionth part of a millimeter.
Almost all artificial sources can be used in photographing objects, as long as
the light is capable of exposing the sensitized materials (film).
Photoflood lamp is also known as reflector light or spot light. This is so, because,
this type of lamp need a reflector to focus the light on the subjects. It can be a
bulb with a built- in reflector or bulb, which needs a reflector. Usually the life
span of this bulb is seven to eight hours when used intermittently. The common
wattages of this lamp are 500 watts.
Flash bulbs are chemical lamps, as they generate lights by the rapid combustion of
metal in oxygen. The bulb can be used only once as the bulb is busted when
fired electrically. There are thin filaments inside the bulb with two electrical
contacts. When the current flows through the filament, it becomes incandescent
and ignites the explosives primer that ignites the aluminum foil that burns,
giving a flash of intense light. Flash bulbs require some sort of holder
commonly called a Flash Gun. These are sometimes a permanent part of certain
small cameras, but are usually separate devices that are fastened to the camera.
Electronic flash this is the most popular and very effective
alternative light source in photography. An electronic flash
unit maybe attached to a camera and tried automatically
through the hot shoe on the camera or through a flash cord.
In some cameras however the flash unit is built-in. In some
cases a flash unit is also tried manually. This is known as
“open flash”.
Fluorescent lamps are tube lamps wherein the walls are
coated by materials capable of fluorescence. Both ends
have terminal and commonly mounted into a holder that
serves as the reflector. This type of lamp is commonly used
by anybody and not merely in photography.
Infra- red lamp is a special type of artificial light that is capable of
producing infra- red radiation. Flash bulbs designed to give a high
intensity of infra- red light was made and can be used conveniently
with a flash gun. This type of bulb is useful in photographing the
objects or subjects at dark places.
Ultra- violet lamp is a gas lamp burning disulphide vapor in oxygen or
nitric oxide. Several lamps designed to produce ultra- violet radiation,
like, followed it; the mercury vapor lamp, the electric discharge lamps
and the commercial lamps. Bulbs of high temperature discharge lamp
are made of glass transparent to ultra- violet light, which fits into an
ordinary electrical socket. This type of bulb is common to all people as
black light.
(Adopted from Vivitar 2800 electronic flash manual)
1. Flash Panel 13. Film speed selector/normal index line
2. Auto/Manual mode index
14. Film speed index dot (use with 35mm
3. Mode setting switch
wide angle panel only)
4. Light sensor
5. Adjustable bounce head 15. Aperture (f-stop) scale
(0°,45°,60°,75° and 90° ) 16. Distance scales (feet and meters)
6. Battery compartment cover 17. Blue auto range indicator line
7. PC cord socket 18. Red auto range indicator line
8. Mounting foot/locking wheel
19. Auto check indicator
9. Bounce angle indicator
10. Flash ready light 20. Open flash button
11. Power on/off switch (red=on) 21. Wide angle and color panels included
12. ASA/DIN film speed scales
Types of Flashes
FLASH BULBS- this consist of a metal wire, usually aluminum or
zirconium, inside a transparent glass or plastic housing. When fired,
the wire burns completely in a fraction of a second. A flash bulb is
used only once. After ignition, it is thrown away.

ELECTRONIC FLASH- this unit produces light by means of

electrically fried discharge tube. It has a self-contained reflector. Most
units may be powered by AC (alternative current) or by batteries. An
electronic flash is typically has a duration of 1/1000 of a second or
faster, which makes it especially suitable for stopping fast action. The
flash tube is good for tens of thousands of flashes
Light can be bent by means of a lens. As it passes through the lens,
the light is refracted and this effect can be used to produce visible
images as in cameras, microscope and telescopes. Glass is a
common material for the manufacture of lenses because of its
strength and clarity but plastic is also used. This face of a lens can
be made inwards. In simple lenses, both faces are the same but in
complex lenses one face may be convex and the other concave.
When light strikes an opaque surface, like a table-top, some of it is
absorbed and some of its reflected. The light will be reflected at
different angles depending on the type of surface. On a smooth
surface, the light rays will be reflected back at the same angle and
the surface therefore appears shiny. On a rough surface, the rays
are reflected back at many different angles and so the surface looks
This is the bending of light
when it strikes the sharp edge
of an opaque object. In
photography, this is
sometimes encountered when
we uses a very small
diaphragm opening.