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KALINGA INSTITUTE OF DENTAL SCIENCES

KIIT UNIVERSITY, BHUBANESWAR, ODISHA


DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY
CONTENTS:

1.OVERVIEW

2.INTRODUCTION

3.STEPS

>COLLECTION

>COAGULATION

>RAPID MIXING

>FLOCCULATION

>SEDIMENTATION

>FILTRATION

>BACKWASHING

>DISINFECTION

>RESERVOIR

4.CONCLUSION

5.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
OVERVIEW:-

• On 10th February, 2020 we, the students of Kalinga


Institute of Dental Sciences Final year BDS, visited
Bhubaneswar Water Works as a part of our academic
curriculum, Public Health Dentistry.

• We are divided into 2 groups of 35 people so as to have


individual attention. We were demonstrated about the
different stages of water purification. They daily purify
7.5 million gallon water. They supply purified water to
the half of the Bhubaneswar.

• The objective of the visit was to provide practical


knowledge about purification of water by Rapid Sand
Technique. We appreciate the effort of the management of
KIDS for executing this successful water plant visit.

• NECESSITY FOR WATER TREATMENT:-

1. Free from pathogenic agents and harmful chemical


substances and excessive amount of minerals which
could produce undesirable physiological effects.
2. Pleasant to taste i.e., free from color and odor ; and
3. Usable for domestic purpose.
INTRODUCTION :
• BHUBANESWAR WATER WORKS is a water
treatment plant run by Govt. of Odisha.
• The 41M.L.D. WATER TREATMENT PLANT,
PALASUNI, BHUBANESHWAR foundation stone
laid by Shri B.K.Biswal (Minister Of State-Working &
Housing & Urban Development, Mining and Geology)
• Date of commencement - 2-1-1983
• Date of completion- 31-1-1985
• Estimated cost was Rs 64.95 lacs.
• Capacity- 9 million gallon per Daily
• CHIEF ENGINEER- MR M . G . HYDER
• Contractor- M/s Clear Water New Delhi
• The basic physiologic requirement estimated at about
21/day:-
• For urban domestic needs – 135L/capita.
• For rural areas – 40L/capita.
• It is a gravity type rapid sand filter plant.
STEPS FOR PURIFICATION ON LARGE SCALE:-

STEP 1. COLLECTION:

The raw water which is supplied to the water


treatment plant comes from various small and big
streams of river from Kuakhai which is a branch of
Mahanadi in Odisha.
Step 2:- COAGULATION:

The raw water is first treated with chemical coagulant alum


was in the range of 5-40mg/L of water.
The dose of alum varies depending upon the turbidity, color,
temperature and pH of the water.
Observation:
Here we saw the raw water coming from KUAKHAI
River which was then mixed with alum and lime.
Chemical coagulants are added in either two ways:-
1. Alum -28 kg/MG, and lime -8 kg/MG
2. PAC (Polyaluminium chloride) -7.3mg/kg
Step 3:- RAPID MIXING:

• Treated water is then subjected to violent agitation in a


“mixing chamber” for a few minutes.
• This allows quick and rapid dissemination of alum
throughout the bulk of the water.
• Observation :-
• Here we saw the rapid mixing of alum by large
mechanized rotors powered by large diesel motors.
Step 4:- FLOCCULATION

Rotor

• This phase involves a slow and gentle stirring of the treated


water in a flocculation chamber.
• The mechanized type of rotor is most commonly used. It
consists of a number of paddles which rotates at 2-4 rpm.
• This slow and gentle stirring causes the formation of thick
copious white flocculent precipitate of Aluminium Hydroxide.
• The thicker the precipitate is, the higher is the settling velocity.
• The superficial layer of water is now removed along with the
flocculent material.
• Observation: Here we are explained about flocculation- a
slow and gentle stirring of treated water in a flocculation
chamber for about 30 mins.
Step 5:- SEDIMENTATION:

• The coagulated water is now lead into sedimentation


tank where it is detained for 2-6 hrs when the flocculent
precipitate together with impurities and bacteria settle
down in the tank.
• At least 95% of the flocculent precipitate needs to be
removed from the water before it is admitted to the
rapid filters.
• The sludge or precipitate is removed from the bottom of
the tank without disturbing the operation of the tank.
• Observation :-
• We were explained that the plant consist of three
sedimentation tank, depth 3.5m.
• The coagulated water is now lead into
sedimentation tank where it is detained for 150
mins.