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Navigation VII

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Specification of minimum standard of competence for officers

in charge of an navigational watch on ships of 500 gross
tonnage or more
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Navigation at the Management Level

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Plan a voyage and conduct navigation (ML)

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Learning Objective:

After completing this subject, the cadet will be able to:

• Voyage planning and navigation for all conditions by acceptable methods

of plotting ocean tracks, taking into account, e.g.:
1. restricted waters
2. meteorogical conditions
3. Ice
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4. restricted visibility
5. traffic separation schemes
6. vessel traffic service (VTS) areas
7. areas of extensive tidal effects

• Routeing in accordance with the General Provisions on Ships’

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Voyage planning
The purpose of voyage planning is to adequately prepare for a voyage,
provide the necessary support to the bridge team and aim to establish
the most favorable route while maintaining appropriate margins of
safety and safe passing distances..
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Voyage Planning
All navigators must be briefed regarding the proposed navigation
throughout the voyage berth to berth. The voyage plan should be in
compliance with all statutory requirements and the practice of good
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Voyage Planning
Principles of passage planning

There are four main stages in the planning of a safe voyage:

• Appraisal
• Planning
• Execution
• Monitoring
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Voyage Planning

Before planning can commence, the charts, publications and other
information suitable for the voyage will need to be gathered and studied
to ensure they are appropriate.. Make sure that only approved official
charts and publications are used.
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Appraisal of all information relevant to the voyage, including information
• Routeing Charts are essential for use in
Routieng Chart
passage planning for ocean voyages. They
include routes and distances between
major ports, ocean currents, ice limits,
load lines and wind roses, with expected
meteorological and oceanographic
conditions for each month of the year.
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Voyage Planning
• Ocean Passages of the world - Information of ocean routes
applicable to power and sailing vessels with distances between
ports and important positions. Details of weather, currents and
ice hazards, route diagrams and effects of climate, wave heights
and load line zones.
Voyage Planning

Admiralty Total Tide - gives comprehensive tidal
prediction program provides fast, accurate tidal height
and tidal stream predictions.
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• Sailing Directions - include detailed coastal and
port approach information, using the largest
scale chart of the area. Publications contains
information about the coastal weather, currents,
ice, dangers, features, ports, and key to the
charts available for the area. 
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• Pilot Charts - depict averages in prevailing winds and currents, air and
sea temperatures, wave heights, ice limits, visibility, barometric pressure,
and weather conditions at different times of the year.
• List of lights is a publication describing lighthouses and other aids to
maritime navigation. Most such lists are published by
national hydrographic offices.
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• Ship’s Routeing Guide provides information on

traffic separation schemes, other routeing
measures adopted by IMO to improve safety at sea
include two-way routes, recommended tracks,
deep water, precautionary areas and areas to be
avoided etc.
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• International Convention on Loadlines

The regulations take into account the

potential hazards present in different zones
and different seasons.  It was based on the
principle of reserve buoyancy, although it was
recognized then that the freeboard should
also ensure adequate stability and avoid
excessive stress on the ship's hull as a result
of overloading.
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• Guide to Port Entry

The most accurate and comprehensive port

information resource, Guide to Port
Entry, assists you in planning port calls to
over 9,700 global commercial ports and
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• Meteorological information - Weather

routing has been in existence for many
years with sailors learning how to take
advantage of the seasons and the
currents to devise the best route.
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• Notices to Mariners
A notice to mariners of important
matters affecting navigational safety,
including new hydrographic information,
changes and aids to navigation, and other
important data.
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• Navigational Warnings - are issued regularly and contain information
about persons in distress, or objects and events that pose an
immediate hazard to navigation. The four types of Navigational
are categorized by their location.
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Voyage Planning

The voyage plan should incorporate the following details:
• Safe speed having regard to the maneuvering characteristics of the ship and,
in ships restricted by draft, due allowance for reduction of draft due to squat
and heel effect when turning.
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Voyage Planning
• Course alteration points with wheel over positions - where appropriate, on

• Planned track to make good, showing the true course of each leg.

• large scale charts taking into account the ships turning radius at the planned

• Maximum allowed off track margins for each leg with suitable parallel index
lines and navigational reference mark.
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• Port of departure

• Estimated Draft On Departure - this part must always be completed prior to

• Port of destination

• If the port of destination is known, the general details must be completed.

• Times of high and low water may be entered later when a more accurate time
of arrival is available
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• Charts and publications to be used during the voyage
 The numbers of all charts to be used during the voyage shall be
entered, followed by NZ for New Zealand, Aus for Australia, etc.
• Navigational information between waypoints to be completed only
when there is significant information between waypoints. If the
additional information permits, more waypoints may be entered on one
page (e.g. Ocean Passages, Great Circle, etc.).
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Voyage Planning
• Ship reporting requirements Vessel Traffic Services and other reporting areas
• Ensures that charts, ECDIS, course cards and other voyage plan
documentation are prepared.
• All officers involved in navigating the vessel, including deck cadets, are to
study the plan prior to departure, and sign acknowledgement and
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Voyage Planning

Decide upon the key elements of the plan, these should include but not
be limited to:
• Ensures that adequate fuel, water and provision are available.

• Speed alterations necessary to achieve desired ETA’s en-route, e.g. where

there may be limitations on night passages, tidal restrictions etc.
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• Areas of extensive tidal effects

• The planned track should be plotted to clear hazards at as safe a distance as

circumstances allow. A greater distance should always be accepted in
preference to a shorter, more hazardous route.
• Air draft clearance required, as appropriate

• Minimum clearance required under the keel in critical areas

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Voyage Planning
• Points where accuracy of position fixing is critical and the primary and
secondary methods by which such positions must be obtained for
maximum reliability
• Vessel’s condition, trim and handling characteristics
• Contingency arrangements i.e. alternative routes, emergency anchoring
etc. in the event of an emergency
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Voyage Planning

• Monitoring of the vessel’s progress along the pre-planned track is a continuous
process. The officer of the watch, whenever in any doubt as to the position of the
vessel or the manner in which the voyage is proceeding, should immediately call
the master and, if necessary, take appropriate action for the safety of the vessel.
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Voyage Planning
Advantage should be taken of all the navigational equipment with which the vessel is fitted
for position monitoring, bearing in mind the following points:
• positions obtained by electronic positioning systems must be checked regularly by
visual bearings and transits whenever available;
• visual fixes should, if possible, be based on at least three position lines;

• transit marks, clearing bearings and clearing ranges (radar) can be of great assistance;
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Voyage Planning
• it is dangerous to rely solely on the output from a single positioning system;

• the echo sounder provides a valuable check of depth at the plotted position;

• buoys should not be used for position fixing but may be used for guidance when
shore marks are difficult to distinguish visually; in these circumstances their
positions should first be checked by other means;
•  the charted positions of offshore installations should be checked against the most
recent navigational notices;
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Voyage Planning
• the functioning and correct reading of the instruments used should be
• account must be taken of any system errors and the predicted accuracy of
positions displayed by electronic position fixing systems; and
• the frequency at which the position is to be fixed should be determined for
each section of the voyage.
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Voyage Planning

Execution of the plan should be carried out taking into account the factors
listed in the Guidelines. The Master should take into account any special
circumstances which may arise, which may require the plan to be reviewed
or altered and ensures that proper log and voyage records are maintained in
accordance with maritime shipping acts and other laws and regulations.
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Deck Log Book is a clear and accurate

record of the activities of the ship are
kept, as the Log book will form a main
part of the collection of evidence in
case of any incidents.
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Entries to be made in the Deck Log Book should cover, but not be
limited to the following information:
• Standard Meteorological data which must be carefully assessed
• Record of Navigational and Pilotage events during watch
• Record of Vessel Position at regular intervals
• Behavior of Vessel and Effect of Heavy seas
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• Behavior of Vessel and Effect of Heavy seas

• Change from Hand to Auto steering and vice versa including Trial of
Hand Steering every watch 

• Verification of Compass error also including mention if unobtainable.

• Record of Inspections, Trainings and Emergency drills (preferably in

Red pen)
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• Information on Cargo work and other activities in port

• Visits by various Officials and Authorities

• Stemming of Bunkers, Freshwater, Stores, etc

• Search for Stowaways, Contraband and SSP related items

• All other information considered pertinent to the watch

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Voyage data recorder, or VDR, is a data

recording system designed for all vessels required to
comply with the IMO's International
Convention SOLAS Requirements in order to collect
data from various sensors on board the vessel. It
then digitizes, compresses and stores this information
in an externally mounted protective storage unit.
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Ships Routeing System

The purpose of ships routing is to improve safety of navigation in
converging areas and in areas where the density of traffic is great or
where freedom of movement of shipping is inhibited by restricted
sea-room, the existence of obstructions to navigation, limited
depths or unfavorable meteorological conditions.
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Ships Routeing System

Coastal states have established ship reporting systems in order to

monitor the ships in their waters.

In addition, reporting systems may be used and rescue purposes. The

master should comply with the requirements of ship reporting systems
and report all information required.
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Ships Routeing System

By using Routeing system some condition must be taken into account:

• Mandatory or recommended requirements including the IMO Routeing


• Various weather

• Necessity of extra manoeuvers

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Ships Routeing System

• Average passage speed and fuel consumption

• Under keel clearance

• The effect of meteorological and tidal influence on water depths

• distance
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Ships Routeing System

• Availability of position monitoring

• safety of life, property and the environment

• weather routeing information received from shore based providers

• weather routeing techniques using synoptic and prognosis information

observed and received from ashore
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Ships Routeing System

Weather Routeing

Ship weather routing develops an optimum track for ocean voyages

based on forecasts of weather, sea conditions, and a ship’s individual
characteristics for a particular transit.
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Ships Routeing System
The ship routing agency, acting as an advisory
service, to alert the commanding officer or
master about approaching unfavorable
weather and sea conditions which cannot be
effectively avoided by a diversion by issuing
initial route recommendations prior to sailing.