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SA Insect


Realised by :


introducti pollination
(Types and
on mechanisms)

Pollination In
by insects agriculture
• Pollination is the process by which plants
sexually reproduce it’s the delivery of pollen
made by the male organs of a plant (stamens
in flowers) to the female organs (stigma),
pollen may be transferred to female organs
on the same plant (self-pollination) or another
plant of the same species (cross-pollination)
Types of pollination
Abiotic : mediated
without the involvement Only 10% of flowering plants are

of other organisms, by pollinated without animal

wind, water…etc assistance
exp: conifers

Biotic : pollination by
pollinators( organisms that
carry or move the pollen) the study of pollination by

200,000 varieties of animal insects is known as anthecology

pollinators are in the wild,
most of which are insects
How do insects pollinate plants?

by insects

• Many insects eat pollen, they become

covered in it , Pollination happens when the
insect looks for an other flower to eat more
pollen .

• They eat a lot of pollen.

• They tend to be generalist feeders and eat
other parts of the plant, including the sexual
Pollination by nectar feeders

• the insect enters the flower in search of nectar it brushes

against the anthers, the pollen sticks to its body , when he
visits another flower this pollen is transferred from its body to
the stigma.

• The locality of the nectar ensures that the insect cannot avoid
touching the organs associated with pollination.
• Pure nectar feeders such as butterflies and moths do not eat
the pollen.
How do plants attract pollinators?
• plants use colored petals and scent cues to
attract and direct insects.
• Exp: Plants adapted to using moths as
pollinators typically have white petals and a
strong scent.
• bees and butterflies visit sweet smelling
Which insects are pollinators?

• Bees beetles wasps flies butterflies

are all successful pollinators.
• These insects make good pollinators because they share two
important features:
• They fly, and so are capable of visiting many plants in a short time
• They are motivated to interact with pollen , they either eat it or
food items located nearby (e.g. nectar).
In agriculture
Pollination management

• is a branch of agriculture that seeks to protect

and enhance present pollinators and often

involves the culture and addition of pollinators in

monoculture situations, such as commercial fruit.

• Bees are ideal pollinators because they visit
many flowers while carrying lots of pollen ,
The largest managed pollination is in
californian almond orchards, where nearly
half (about one million hives) of the US
honey bees are trucked to the almond
orchards each spring.
Other beeeeeeeeeees
• The alfalfa leafcutter bee is an important
pollinator for alfalfa seed in western
United States and Canada. Bumblebees are
used extensively for greenhouse tomatoes.
The American Institute of Biological Sciences

reports that native insect pollination saves the

United States agricultural economy , nearly

3 billion$ annually through natural crop

• Loss of pollinators, also known as pollinators

decline due to habitat destruction , pesticides,

parasitism /diseases , climate change and others ,

so we have to protect those small and beneficial

creatures .