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Transmission Overview

Sept 22-23

-S.Naga Kishore
INDEX

1. Schedule
2. Purpose
3. Transmission required?
4. Day 1, 2 sessions
5. Conclusions
Day 1

Morning session:

• Fundamentals of Transmission
• What is E1?
• Summary

Post Lunch session:

• PDH/SDH
• Summary
Day 2

Morning session:
• Fundamentals of Fiber optics
• Link Budgeting
• Measurements
• DWDM
• Summary

Post Lunch session:


• Fundamentals of Microwave
• Link Budgeting
• Measurements
• Summary
The Purpose

This training is intended to give overview on the following:


1. Transmission principles - Modulation, Multiplexing, Digital modulation

2. Media of Transmission - Microwave, Fiber Optic, Satellites

3. Measurements & Test instruments of Transmission


4. Equipments of Transmission
5. Over view of PDH, SDH
6. Link budgeting
1. Is Transmission required?

“Mr.Watson come here, I want you”- This is the first


sentence delivered(transmitted) by A.G.Bell on Mar 10th
1876.

If there are three phones the connection could be


A -- B -- C—|
|_ _ _ _ _|

If there are three thousand? I don’t think it is easy!! Will you!!!


Fundamentals
Transmission made Simple:

1. Frequency (Lamda)
2. Power
3. Band width
Frequency - Band Designation, Old and New
BANDDESIGNATIONS FREQUNCY WAVELENGTH
OLD NEW GHz
HF A
3-30MHz
VHF
0-250MHz 0.1 3m
0.15 2m
300-1000MHz 0.2 1.5m
B 0.3 100cm
UHF 250-500MHz
C 0.5 60cm
300-1000MHz
500-1000MHz 0.75 40cm

L D 1.0 30Ccm
1-2GHz 1-2GHz 1.5 20cm

S E 2.0 1.5cm
2-3GHz 3 10cm
F
3-4GHz 4 7.5cm
C G 5 6cm
4-6GHz 6 5cm
H
6-8GHz 8 3.75cm
X I
8-10GHz 10 3cm
8-12.4GHz J
I Ka
12.4GHz-18GHz 10-20GHz 15 2cm
K
18-26.5GHz K 20 1.5cm
Q Ka 20-40GHz 30 10mm
26.5-40GHz
U L 40 7.5mm
33-50 40-60 40-60GHz 50 6mm
GHz GHz
V E O M 60 5mm
50-75 60-90
GHz GHz 60-140GHz 75 4mm
W 100 3mm
75-110G Hz 110
T
110-170GHz 140 2mm
POWER: Power Ratio dBm –mW - W

dBM Watts Vs. dBM


0 +40

-10 +30

-20 +20

-30 +10

-40 0
1 mW 10 mW 100 mW 1W 10W

100nW 1µW 10µW 10µW 10 µW


Bandwidth
Bandwidth:

It is the width of the channel. Form Freq. X to Freq. Y

Bandwidth = X(8 Khz) ~ Y(4 Khz) = 4 Khz

1 3 n-1
2 n-2

0 4KHz 8KHz 12KHz f

Bandwidth used = n x 4 kHz


PRINCIPLES OF DIGITAL TRANSMISSION
Multiplexing:
Channel multiplexing is essential for telephone transmission. This technique makes it possible
to reduce, very substantially, the number of links required to connect the subscribers.

Frequency Division Multiplex:


This system is based on the position of the different channels to be transmitted in terms of
frequency. Each channel uses a maximum frequency band of 4 KHz. The no. of channels
transmitted is thus calculated by dividing the multiplexed frequency band by 4 KHz.
This multiplexing mode makes it possible to obtain a high number of channels in a restricted
bandwidth but involves a number of disadvantages which tend to cause relatively rapid
degradation of the data transmitted: high sensitivity to external interference and aggregation
and amplification of distortion up to the final destination.

1 3 n-1
2 n-2

0 4KHz 8KHz 12KHz f

Bandwidth used = n x 4 kHz


Time Division Multiplex (TDM)
Principle: The signal to be transmitted is fully defined by its instantaneous values sampled at
regular intervals, subject to certain conditions (Shannon Theorem). It is therefore possible to
Insert samples of n-1 other channels between two samples of a particular channel, to constitute a
Time Division Multiplex (TDM) frame of n channels.
The sampling of the original voice signal is made at 8 KHz I.e. twice the maximum frequency
In the signal being transmitted (300 Hz – 3400 Hz).

1 1
n
n t

2
2

Channel Repetition (Te) Frame of n channels (Te)

Te Te
DIGITIZATION PRINCIPLE
Component elements of a low rate link:

☎ J
U
HDB 3
J
U

BIN
N N
2.048 M C C TNE 1
TNE 1
T T
I I
32 analog BIN O O 32 analog
channels channels
N HDB 3 N

A low rate link multiplexes 32 telephone channels giving a digital transmission rate of 2.048
Mbps. This type of link has two basic elements, these being the PCM multiplexer (TNE1) and
the line terminal (TNL). The CCITT recommendations, designed to define standards common to
all equipment, apply at line terminal junction level.
The TNE1 provides the five basic ADC or DAC operations:
Sampling / quantification / compression / coding / time-division multiplexing
The TNL provides the following three functions:
Junction between multiplexer and telephone link / transcoding / junction and line testing.
A/D CONVERSION

Sampling
Analog signal Se, already compressed in order to limit its dynamic range, is sampled by clock Signal Sh.
Resultant signal Ss comprises a series of pulses, the amplitudes of which represent the levels
Of input signal Se when the sampling gate opens.

Se Ss

Modulating Signal

t
Te Amplitude modulated pulses

Sh

Sampling pulses
S/N
Compression:
As the majority of levels to be transmitted are between – 50 dB
30dBM and 0 dBM, a compression law must be found
where the S/N ratio is satisfactorily throughout this 40 dB
amplitude range. The optimum result is obtained by 33 dB
reducing the size of the steps for weak signals. The 30 dB
compression law therefore has a linear part, comprising a
series of small, equal steps, followed by a logarithmic
20 dB
part for the other steps.
10 dB

dBM
Coding:
- 70 - 60 -50 - 40 - 30 - 20 - 10 0

s A B C W X Y Z 98% of cases

Sign Segment Position in segment

When the first signal has been quantified, the value of the steps which it occupies at the sampling times is
Transmitted in binary code form. The coding law uses 12 straight line segments, each with 16 ranges
(giving a total of 256 ranges). The ranges occupied are coded in 8-bit binary word form as mentioned above.
HDB3 Code:
(third other high density binary code)
This code must comply with the following rules:
• bipolarity rule: “1” bits coded alternately +1 and –1, with RZ in the next half-period. When two
successive “1” bits have the same polarity this corresponds to violation of the bipolarity rule.
• there must not be more than 3 consecutive “0” bits. To achieve this, the 4th “0” bit is replaced by a “1”
bit. To detect this substitution for deletion of the spurious “1” bit at the reception end, it is sent a violation
of the bipolarity rule (V), as shown in the following example.

Binary
0 0
Code 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 0

HDB3
Code 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
1 1 V

• successive violations must be of opposite polarity. If all violations in a sequence of “0” bits have the same
polarity, the mean value of the signal would be non-zero. When the number of “1” bits between two
violations is not odd, a packing bit at “1” (P) is added in place of the first “0” bit.

Binary
Code 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1

HDB3
0 0 0 V 0 0 0 0 1
Code 1 1 P V P V
1
The HDB3 code shows slightly modified spectral distribution with respect to the binary RZ code.

W (f) HDB 3 Code

Bipolar RZ Code

Frequency

1
T
Nevertheless, the redundancy of the HDB3 code allows detection of line transmission errors.
High rate link.

32 2.048 Mpbs
PCM / ME
channels Order 1

8.448 34.368
PCM / ME PCM / ME Mbps PCM / ME
4xME 1 2/8 Mbps 8/34 34/140 139.264
Mbps

2.048 Mpbs
32
channels PCM / ME
Order 1 A high rate link is the result of a succession of PCM/ME multiplexing
stages, serving to increase:
• digital transmission rate
• link channel capacity.
OPTICAL FIBER:

COAXIAL CABLE

R F LINK

HIGHER HIGHER
ORDER ORDER
MULTI- MULTI-
PLEXER PLEXER

SATELLITE

OPTICAL FIBER CABLE


Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
PLESIOCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY
(PDH)
2.048 Mb/s 8.448 Mb/s 34.368 Mb/s 139.264 Mb/s
HD B3 HD B3 HD B3 HD B3
Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary
1 1 1 1 1
Primary 280Mb/s

Audio PCM M 1-2 M 2-3 M 3-4 280Mb/s


Multiplex
1.2Gb/s
30 4 4 11 Etc.

Limitations / Disadvantages of PDH:


1. Inability to drop lower bit rates directly from 3rd or 4th order
2. Alternate Routing - Data lost during rerouting
3. Frame slip - Due to lack of Synchronization

T e l e p
4. Limited NMS Support - No spare signal capacity
5. Higher Bit rates are proprietary - no possibility of inter working
Multiplexer Mountain
34 Mbps
140M 140/34 140/34 140M

8 Mbps
34/8 34/8

2 Mbps

8/2 8/2

Customer
SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY
(SDH)
• Background/History:
CCITT Study Group XVIII formed in June 1986
November 1988 - First SDH standards were approved
- G 707, 708 & 709.
• Advantages:
1. No need for Mux banks as per hierarchy to drop lower data
rates.
2. Common standard enabling multi-vendor network
3. Better Management - TMN
- nearly 5% of signal bandwidth
4. Accommodates both existing and future services -
ATM, B-ISDN etc.
5. Fast provisioning
6. Better network survivability
SDH HIERARCHY (CCITT)

• Synchronous Transport Module

STM - 1 - 155.52 Mb/s


STM - 4 - 622.08 Mb/s
STM - 16 - 2.488 Gb/s

Equivalent SONET (USA) standards are


(Optical Carrier) OC1, OC3, OC12 & OC48
SDH NETWORK ELEMENTS
• Line Terminal Mux (LTM): Can accept a no. of Tributary
signals and multiplex them to the appropriate optical / electrical
SDH rate carrier i.e. STM-1/4/16.
The input tributaries can be either PDH/lower rate SDH Signals.
TMs form the main gateway from the PDH to SDH network

STM-N
(N=4 or 16)
140MB or

STM1 LTM
1+1 Protection Switching
SDH NETWORK ELEMENTS

• Add Drop Mux (ADM): A particular type of Mux designed to


add / drop channels from the ‘through’ signal. Generally available
at STM-1/4 interface rates and signals at 2/34/140 Mb/s.
ADM function is one of the major advantages of SDH, eliminating
the need for banks of hardwired back-back terminals.

STM1

STM1
East
ADM West

2MB 2MB
SDH NETWORK ELEMENTS
• Synchronous Digital Cross Connect (SDxC): They can function as
semi-permanent switches for transmission channels and can switch
at any level from 64kbps to STM-1, generally having interfaces at
STM-1/4.
Can be rapidly reconfigured under software control, to provide digital
leased lines and other services of varying bandwidth.

DXC

STM-1 STM-1
SDH NETWORK ELEMENTS
• Regenerator: For SDH Transmission over 50km, regenerators
are required with spacing dependent on transmission
technology. They have alarm reporting and performance
monitoring capability.

STM-N
STM-N
SDH FRAME STRUCTURE
• SDH Terms:
STM-N: Synchronous Transport Module ‘n’ (n=1,4, 16) consists of
‘FRAMES’ into which data is filled.
VC-4 : Virtual Container Level 4. A defined area to carry user data;
140Mbps.
TU: Tributary Unit Signal. Subdivision of VC-4 to carry lower rate
services (2,34MB)
Analogous to Road Transport System:
STM Frames

A B
Optical Carrier VC-4

A B
TU Frames

A B
Pallets = TU Frames
SDH FRAME STRUCTURE

• SDH - a transport system


The transport system adopted in SDH is analogues to a road
transport system. If you need to deliver items between 2 points
you need trucks. Depending on the quantity of items to be
moved you need small or large trailers. Depending on the size
of the items being shipped you need “pallets” to allow simple
stacking with the trailer payload area. For different item types
you have different pallets and different loading instructions.
SDH has exactly the same concepts wit different names:
Road - Optical Carrier
Truck - Synchronous Transport Module
Trailer - Virtual Container level 4
Pallets - Tributary unit frames
Synchronous Transport Frame for STM-1

155. 52 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 Etc.
Mbit/s
810 BYTES
Framing Bytes STM-1

A1 A2

9 ROWS
SECTION STM-1 Virtual Container
(VC-4)
OVERHEAD

9 261
270 COLUMNS
2430 BYTES/FRAME * 8 BITS/BYTE * 8000 FRAMES/SEC = 155. 52 Mbit/s
A1 = Frame word = 11110110; B1 = 00101000
Synchronous Transport Frame for STM-1

Six Framing Bytes (3 X A1 followed by 3 X A2 Bytes) act as a marker,


allowing any byte in the frame to be easily located.
The concept of Transporting Tributary Signals intact across a
Synchronous network has resulted in the term, ‘Synchronous
Transport Frame’, consisting of two parts -
a VC part & a Section Overhead part.
VC: Individual tributary signals are arranged within the VC for end-to-
end transmission. VC is assembled and disassembled only once,
even though it may be transferred from one transport system to
another many times.
Section Overhead (SOH): this provides facilities (such as alarm
monitoring, BER monitoring and datacom chls.) required to support
and maintain the transportation of a VC between nodes in a
synchronous network. SOH pertains only to an individual transport
system and is not transferred with the VC between transport systems.
Synchronous Transport Frame for STM-1
• Section Overhead (SOH): To ensure that the clock can always be
recovered from the received data , all bytes in the frame except those
in the first row of SOH are scrambled.

Tributary Transport Transport Tributary


Signal System ‘X’ System ‘Y’ Signal

Transport Transport VC ASSEMBLY


VC ASSEMBLY Frame ‘X’ Frame ‘Y’ NODE
NODE

Section Section
Overhead ‘X’ Overhead ‘Y’

SDH NETWORK
NODES
SDH MUX HIERARCHY
140MB/ S
xN x1
STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4 C-4
x3
Admin Unit
Group
TUG-3 TU-3 VC-3

x7 34 MB/ S

Tributary Unit C-3


Group
x3
TUG-2 TU-12 VC - 12 C - 12
2MB/ S

C - 12 Container Tributary Unit (TU)


+ Overhead = + Pointer
STM-1 -> 155 52MB/S
-- 63X2 MB/S
-- 3 X34 MB/S
-- 1X140 MB/S
= Addressing Unit (AU)
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM –
N signal

A corresponding arrangement is used for demultiplexing


Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
2.048 Mbps 1 2 3 32

(E1) 32 Bytes

Stuffing Bytes

C-12 1 23 32

34 Bytes

POH (Lower Order)

VC-12 1 23 32

35 Bytes
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
Pointer

TU-12
36 Bytes

TU 12 is arranged
Into Matrix of 9 X 4 9 Rows

4 Columns
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
TU-12 TU-12 TU-12

9 Rows

4 Columns 4 Columns 4 Columns

Multiplexing

TUG-2 9 Rows

12 Columns
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
7 TUG-2s

X 7 TUG-2 TUG-3(multiplexing)
Stuffing Bytes

TUG 3

84 Columns
86 Columns
STM-1 frame structure
1-3 rows RSOH
4th row AU Pointer
PAY LOAD
5-9 rows MSOH

9 Columns 261 Columns

270 Columns
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
VC - 4

9 rows Pay Load


POH

261 Columns
AU – 4 (Adding Pointer)

AU Pointer
POH

4 th Row
Pay Load

9 Columns
261 Columns
Path OverHead

TCM – Tandem Connection Monitoring


SDH MUX HIERARCHY
To take care of small timing differences in the synchronous
network and simplify Mux / demux and cross connection of
signals, VC-4 is allowed to float; may begin in one frame and
end in next.
Additional bytes called ‘AU Pointer’ in SOH, contains a Pointer
value to indicate the location of the first byte of VC-4.

TRIBUTARY PAYLOAD
SIGNAL PAYLOAD CAPACITY SYNC.VC
140 MB/S MAPPING Mapped VC - 4
(C - 4) 140MB/S 150.34 MB/S
at 149.76MB/S
PATH
OVERHEAD VC - 4
STUFF BITS Assembly Process
SDH PROTECTION
1. Hardware / Board Protection:
For 2MB protection of Card failure
Switching time ~ 2 Sec.

2. MS (Multiplex Section) Protection:
for TMs - DoT PoIs
for STM Aggregate protection against card failure
Switching time ~ 2 Sec
3. SNCi (Sub Network Control-inherent monitoring) Protection -
ADMs:
Path protection against fiber cut / node failure.
STM-1 protection - data parallely sent on both directions and
better one is selected or available one incase of failure.
Switching time < 100ms.
Digital Microwave
BELL Digital Multiplex Hierarchy
1.544 Mb/s 6.312 Mb/s 44.736 Mb/s
B8ZS B6ZS B3ZS
DS1 DS2 DS3
1 1 1 1
☎ Primary 90 Mbps
PCM M1-2 M2-3 180 Mbps
Audio
Multiplex 432 Mbps
☎ 24 4 24 n
565 Mbps
etc.

European Digital Multiplex Hierarchy


2.048 Mb/s 8.448 Mb/s 34.368 Mb/s 139.264 Mb/s
HDB3 HDB3 HDB3 CMI
Primary Secondary Teritary Quaternary

☎ 1
Primary
1 1 1 1
280 Mbps
565 Mbps
PCM M1-2 M2-3 M3-4
Audio 1.2 Gbps
Multiplex
etc.
30 4 4 4 n

BELL Digital Multiplex Hierarchy
The various digital services, whether they are digitized
telephony (64 kbps PCM or 32kbps ADPCM), data, videotex or
facsimile etc., are time division multiplexed (TDM) together to
form higher rate bit streams. This is done in stages as shown in
this slide of the North American and European digital
hierarchies. These are the most commonly used hierarchy
rates, different hierarchies are used in Japan and in some
military systems. The output of each multiplex stage may form
the tributary stream for the next stage of multiplexing in a high-
capacity system, or may pass directly to the transmission
system in a lower-capacity route.
Digital Transmission System
MEDIA

LINE (COAX CABLE)

Terminal DIGITAL Radio Terminal

Higher Higher
Order Order
Multiplex Multiplex

SATELLITE

CCITT CCITT
INTERFACE INTERFACE
OPTICAL FIBER
Digital Transmission System
The bit rates and interface codes etc are all standardized by CCITT
(International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee) and are
independent of the particular transmission medium used. The
transmission system may carry traffic at any of the bit-rates in the
hierarchy, depending on the capacity through-put requirements of the
system. The testing and the performance of the system at these
interfaces relates to network performance in the IDN and again is specified
by CCITT independent of the transmission media. These standards have
been adopted by CEPT in Europe and by the ANSI/ECSA*TI Committee in
North America.

This slide shows the four commonly used methods of transmission. Optical
fiber is the most popular for high-capacity routes in Network Operators
(PTT’s Telcos and Common Carriers) where existing routes or “way-
leaves” exist. However, Microwave Radio and Satellite have many
applications in lower capacity routes, in difficult terrain and in private and
military communication networks where the advantages of flexibility,
security and speed of installation offered by Radio and particularly
valuable.
FIRST REPEATER SECOND REPEATER

RF IF REGEN IF RF

REPEATER

CCITT INTERFACE CCITT INTERFACE


IN MOD IF RF RF IF DEMOD OUT

Transmit Terminal Receive Terminal


A practical Radio relay system often consist of several hops as the
maximum distance between transmit and receive antennas or “hop
length” is normally 30 – 60 km (20-40 miles) in a line-of-sight system. The
intermediate stations are called repeater stations and the traffic data
stream may not necessarily be brought down to CCITT interface at these
points, but simply regenerated at the binary level. Some Radios use a
direct IF repeater without regeneration. This saves cost, but some of the
benefits of digital transmission are lost because of the build up of noise
and distortion in a similar way to analog Radio systems.

The microwave frequency bands and the Radio channel spacing in these
bands have all been standardized by CCIR (International Radio
Consultative Committee) and FCC in North America. Some typical
frequency bands are 2 GHz (used for lower capacity), 4,6,7,8,11 and 14
GHz. Above 11 GHz rain attenuation becomes a greater problem
necessitating a shorter hop length for a given system availability. There is
a new generation of Radios becoming available, operating in the range
15-50 GHz which provides low and high capacity short-haul links in cities
for interconnecting business centers with main transmission centers. The
small physical size of antennas at these frequencies makes this type of
link very easy to install.
Digital Radio Block Diagram
C ~
O ~ ~
D
MOD
E ~
R

~
UPCONVERTER

~ D
E
~ ~ C
DEMOD ~ O
D
E
R
~
DOWNCONVERTER

Here is a simplified block diagram of a digital Radio transmitter and receiver.


Those of you familiar with analog Radio will recognize a strong similarity in the
block diagram, though the modulator and demodulator sections are very different
as we shall see later.
Digital Radio Block Diagram
This block diagram shows IF modulation and demodulation (at the familiar
70 MHz or 140 MHz IF) with up and down conversion to the microwave
transmit frequency. Most high-capacity digital Radios use this system but
there are quite a number of low-capacity Radios with simple modulation
schemes which use direct modulation at microwave frequencies. In this
case the modulator is connected directly to the power amplifier.

Most Radios use the same receiver structure with down-conversion to the
IF where the automatic gain controlled amplifier (typically 50 - 60 dB
range) maintains a constant level to the demodulator during fading.

Notice the various filters through the transmitter and receiver. These are
very important in the overall design as we shall see later. First we will look
at the coder and decoder section sections which provide the interface to
the outside world.
Coding DATA AT
Radio CLOCK RATE
SERVICE CHANNELS, ALARMS, ETC. e.g. 141 MHz
CODED/BINARY TO
BUFFER
CONVERTOR MODULATOR
STORE

• BINARY
STANDARD DATA
CCITT MULTIFLEX PARITY SCRAMBLER DIFFERENTIAL
AND CHECK ENCODER
CODED FRAMING
INTERFACE

e.g. 139Mb/s CI CLOCK


34Mb/S HDB3 (CCITT) CLOCK RATE
44.7 Mb/sB3ZS CONVERSION

TYPICAL DIGITAL Radio CODER

At first this block diagram looks rather complicated; however, its function is simply
to provide the standard CCITT interface to the integrated digital network and then
adapt the sequential bit stream to add the additional information used by the Radio.
The result is that the Radio operates at a higher bit rate than the CCITT interface.
The additional information such as digital service channels* and alarms are
multiplexed into the data stream along with framing signals to allow the receiver to
sort out which bit is which.
Coding
After this, a parity circuit adds a parity bit to produce an even or odd number of
ones in a given block of data. Then the signal is passed through a scrambler
to randomize the data being transmitted. The parity check is used by the
receiver to check for errors in transmission and to initiate protection switching.
The differential encoder provides the interface to the digital modulator and
decides how the binary data will be encoded on the individual phase states.
In practical Radios, two or more of these blocks may be combined into a single
function or even one integrated circuit! At the receiver the decoder performs a
similar function in reverse. Note at a repeater station where no CCITT
interface is required, some of the blocks may not be required. Generally this
digital circuitry is highly reliable and does not require testing in installation or
maintenance with the exception perhaps of jitter testing at the CCITT interfaces
(G823 CEPT Standards, G824 North American Standards and Bell Technical
References 43501 and 43806 and ECSA TIX1.3 Committee).
*Service Channel and Alarm capabilities are typically short haul, “part-line” communication
channels used for maintenance of the Radio system. Some Radios do not use digital service
channels but instead frequency modulate the audio channel directly onto the carrier signal
independently of the digital transmission.
Encoding the Input data
0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
CCITT Standard
input Data

Binary Equivalent
0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 Rate Conversion

Framing and
Service Channel

Scrambling

I Mapping and

Q Differential Coding
Here is an example of how the coding circuits of a Radio might modify an
incoming data stream. In our example, the incoming return to zero signal is
converted to a typical non-return to zero format. Depending on the rates the
signal may be TTL or ECL. The Radio will add additional information to the
incoming data. Therefore, to accommodate this additional information the
original data is converted to a higher rate. The Radio specific information is
then added. This original data may contain a long sequence of zeroes. If
transmitted this would alter the desired spectrum and confuse the receiver.
The avoid this problem, a pseudo random sequence is modulated onto the
data stream. This sequence is known by the receiver so that the original
signal can be recovered. One of the final steps is to create two signals, I and
Q, which are fed to the modulator. These signals determine the resulting
digital format of the transmitted signal.
Frequency Shift Keying
Frequency modulation and phase modulation are closely related. A static
frequency shift of +1Hz means that the phase is constantly advancing at the
rate of 360 degrees per second (2 rad / sec), relative to the phase of the
unshifted signal.

FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) is used in many applications including cordless


and paging systems. Some of the cordless systems include DECT (Digital
Enhanced Cordless Telephone) and CT2 (Cordless Telephone 2).

In FSK, the frequency of the carrier is changed as a function of the


modulating signal (data) being transmitted. Amplitude remains unchanged.
In binary FSK (BFSK or 2FSK). A “1” is represented by one frequency and a
“0” is represented by another frequency.
Analog Vs. Digital Modulation

AM

FM

PM

Digital

With digital modulation information is in the phase and amplitude of the signal.
Analog Vs. Digital Modulation

The coder and modulator work together to put the data information onto the
carrier. Digital data can be put on a carrier using analog modulation like
amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM) or phase modulation
(PM). Digital modulation is very similar to analog modulation in many
respects. In fact, digital or I-Q modulation is a combination of amplitude and
phase modulation. However, I-Q modulation transmits data more efficiently
than analog modulation and is more immune to noise.
QPSK Modulation
4 Possible States
Q
V 00
01 q

I
V
j

11
10
QPSK Modulation – 4 Possible States

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK or 4-PSK) again uses constant


carrier magnitude but now four different phase values (I.e. 450 , 1350 ,
2250 and 3150) are used. The modulation phase states can be
generated by adding together appropriate amplitudes of in-phase and
quadrature carrier (Vi and Va), or alternatively by phase – shifting the
microwave carrier directly using an electronically switched phase
shifter such as wave guide stubs or delay lines.

because we have four discrete states or symbols, we can transmit more


information per state – in this case, as you can see, 2-bits of binary
data, or a symbol, are encoded on each of the states. Because the
serial data is taken 2 bits at a time to form the symbol, the symbol, the
symbol-rate is half the bit-rate is half. This is because the bandwidth
required is proportional to the “symbol rate” not the “data rate”.
Some Typical Modulation Formats
• • • •
• •
• •
• •
• • • •
BPSK QPSK 8PSK

• • • • · · · ·· · · ·
· · · ·· · · ·
• • • • · · · ·· · · ·
· · · ·· · · ·
• • • • · · · ·· · · ·
· · · ·· · · ·
• • • • · · · ·· · · ·
· · · ·· · · ·
16QAM 64QAM
Some Typical Modulation Formats
In summary here are some common digital Radio modulation
schemes from simple BPSK to complex 64QAM. It is interesting to
compare the bandwidth efficiency of these schemes with analog
FM Radio when transmitting telephony. When carrying 64Kbit
PCM, only 64QAM can match an FDM/FM Radio! So why does
anyone bother with simple modulation schemes? The answer is
that with 64 QAM the states are so close together that the immunity
to noise and interference is greatly reduced compared with BPSK
and QPSK. In hostile or noisy conditions (e.g. satellite) the simple
schemes are favored. In high-capacity line-of-sight systems where
signals are strong, bandwidth efficiency is often considered more
important, 256 QAM systems are now being put into use.
Symbol Rate:

“The rate at which the carrier


moves from one point in the
constellation to the next point”

The symbol rate is important because it tells you the bandwidth required
to transmit the signal.
QPSK Modulator
BALANCED
MODULATOR
SYMBOL RATE:
Fs = fb / 2 I

00
fb SERIAL TO I.F
PHASE
PARALLEL CARRIER COMBINER BPF
SHIFT
BINARY CONVERTER
NRZ 900
INPUT
SIGNAL 01 00

Fs = fb / 2
10
Q 900 11
QUADRATURE DATA STREAM
BALANCED COMBINED VECTOR
MODULATOR STATE DIAGRAM
QPSK Modulator

In QPSK the incoming bit-stream is divided into two parallel streams so


that one bit is fed simultaneously to both I & Q balanced modulators to
construct the 2 bit symbols. The carrier output from the modulator is
switched under the control of the digital bit-stream and by adding together
the I and Q outputs the phase state diagram is generated. In this case the
band limiting filter is a band pass filter if IF, though, provided the
modulators are linear, the filtering could have been implemented with LPF
filters before the balanced modulators, thereby shaping the spectrum of
the incoming pulses. Practically, some band-limiting is required before the
modulators, otherwise the very wide sin x/x spectrum will fold around de
and overlay the desired central lobe of the spectrum
QPSK Demodulator
Phase
Demodulator

Thresh
LPF
Comp. I
Fb/2

OO
Symbol Parallel to
Power Car Phase Timing Serial
BPF Splitter Rec. Splitter Rec. (STR) Convertor

IF 900
Input
Fb/2

O O
Thresh
LPF
Comp.
Binary
NRZ
Phase
Demodulator fb
QPSK Demodulator
The QPSK demodulator works in a similar way to the modulator, extracting
the I and Q streams by demodulation using in-phase and quadrature
carrier signals. The demodulator is more complicated because it must
recover a carrier signal and timing signal from the incoming IF. Carrier
recovery is usually implemented using a non-linear process such as
frequency multiplication followed by a phase-locked loop. Symbol-timing is
recovered from the demodulated data stream by a tuned circuit or phase-
locked loop filtering out the clock component in the data stream. The
scrambler in the transmitter ensures there is always a clock component
independent of the data fed to the Radio input.

The demodulator I and Q streams are filtered to remove unwanted IF


signals and then passed into threshold detectors where a signal is
sampled by the symbol-timing clock to determine whether a ‘1’ or ‘0’ is
present and to regenerate the data stream. It is during this sampling and
regeneration process that errors occur as we shall see later when we
consider the effects of noise.
I, Q, Eye Diagram and Constellation

I +1
-1

+1

Q -1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Q EYE

5
2 •

3
• • 1,4
CONSTELLATION
I, Q, Eye Diagram and Constellation
Notice in the previous picture that the modulator uses an I and a Q
signal. These signals determine the type of modulation created by
the modulator. In this picture both the I and Q signals carry one bit of
information. This means that each signal has two levels. This tells
us that the output will be QPSK. The top two waveforms are I vs.
time and Q vs. time. They are marked at equally spaced “timing
instants”. At these instants the waveform has settled to one of its
predefined levels (two possible levels for QPSK). If we plot I vs. Q
we see the constellation. I and Q each have two possible states so
there are four states in the constellation.

The EYE diagrams are simply I vs. Time and Q vs. time as these
waveforms appear on an oscilloscope which is triggered at the timing
instants.
Required Bandwidths

As we shall shortly see, the spectrum used by a digital Radio is a


percentage of its main lobe. Therefore, if this lobe is wider, more
spectrum is used in transmission. Filters are used throughout the Radio
to limit the spectrum and the minimum tolerable bandwidth is determined
by the symbol rate.
Unfiltered Digital Radio Spectrum

fc-5F8 fc-4F8 fc-3F8 fc-2F8 fc-F8 fc fc+F8 fc+2F8 fc+3F8 fc+4F8 fc+5F8

The unfiltered output of the digital Radio modulator occupies a very wide
bandwidth, theoretically infinite defined by the sin x/x characteristic. The
digital signal modulating the Radio is random, so the spectrum analyzer
shows a noise spectrum picture with a spectral density shown in the side.
In fact, the spectrum of Radio should be independent of the data input to
the Radio - this is the purpose of the scrambler. The nulls in the
spectrum occur at multiples of the symbol rate of the Radio. The
absence of the scrambler could cause a line spectrum to appear with
some repetitive incoming data streams.
A FILTERED Radio

C
O
D MOD U/C
E
R

Signal requires less


bandwidth but data is
filtered.

D
E
C
D/C DEMOD O
D
E
R
A FILTERED Radio
For practical application the Radio spectrum must be restricted
to avoid interference with adjacent channels. The Radio filters
are designed to do this while, at the same time, not degrading
the data transmission.

Our signal is filtered so that it is completely contained in a


relatively small bandwidth. In this way, other Radios can
transmit at frequencies close to our transmit frequency.
However, filtering our signal will make it difficult to decode. In
fact, without careful attention to the pulse shaping effects of
filters, the error rate can increase dramatically.
The Filtering is Distributed in the
Radio
C ~
O ~ ~
D
MOD
E ~
R

~
UPCONVERTER

~ D
E
~ ~ C
DEMOD ~ O
D
E
R
~
DOWNCONVERTER
The Filtering is Distributed in the
Radio
The overall filtering function we have been considering is the effect of cascading all the
filters in the transmitter and receiver from the output of the coder in the transmitter to the
input of the regenerator in the receiver. The overall response must have flat group-delay.
The main band shaping is usually shared between transmitter and receiver, for example
a square-root raised cosine filter characteristic in each.
This shaping is often done by the IF filters and BB low-pass filters with RF sections being
flat. Individual filters will not necessarily have the raised cosine response we have
discussed and of course, will not always have a flat amplitude response familiar in
analog Radio.
Comment:
Practical Radio filters may not have exactly are the theoretical response described in this
section. Modern computer optimization techniques enable a variety of amplitude and
group delay characteristics to be synthesized which approximate to the zero ISI
requirement.
Another variant in filter design is the so-called partial response system (PRS) or
correlative system. In this design the channel bandwidth is deliberately restricted to less
than the Nyquist bandwidth so that controlled ISI produces a multi-level signal. An
adaptive filter or correlative detector issued in the receiver. Examples of these systems
are 9 QPR (filtered QPSK) and 40 QPR (filtered 16 QAM). In common with other
complex modulation schemes, greater bandwidth efficiency is achieved at the expense of
noise immunity.
Spectral Efficiency
Theoretical Limit

BPSK 1 bit/sec/Hz
QPSK 2 bit/sec/Hz
16 QAM 4 bit/sec/Hz
64 QAM 6 bit/sec/Hz
256 QAM 8 bit/sec/Hz

AM Radio is not a very efficient way to send digital information. The 16


QAM Radio in the previous example doesn’t use all of its potential
efficiency. However, wasting a little capacity could make the des.ign
easier to implement and more reliable, and for many applications this type
of Radio is quire adequate. In general, analog Radio is more efficient at
transmitting voice channels than digital Radios. However, digital Radios
are far more efficient for transmitting digital information and the signal
quality is higher.
Block Diagram of a Radio Link with
Impairments
MODERN IMPAIRMENTS

INTERSYMBOL INTERFERENCE
DATA DECISION
SOURCE DEVICE

FADING

B B
R R
A A
MOD N N DEMOD
C C
H H
I I
f or f N
H
N
H f or f
F F
I I
L L
IF T T IF
E E
FILTER R R FILTER
S S
LO
LO
INTERFERERS
PHASE TERMINAL
NOISE NOISE
NON LINEARITIES
Block Diagram of a Radio Link with
Impairments
A practical digital Radio can suffer from a number of impairments
which give rise to error generation in the system. The most common
causes of degradation are illustrated on this slide*.
As you can see, some of these impairments are due to propagation
and interference effects and are external to the Radio equipment, while
others are due to imperfections in the digital Radio itself.
First we will look at how we characterize the performance of a Radio.
After this we will stress the Radio to predict its ability to cope with
transmission impairments, and finally we will measure individual
impairments.
*”Comparison of High-Level Modulation Schemes for High-Capacity Digital Radio
Systems” by Michel Borgne. IEEE Transactions on communication,
Vol. Comm-33 No.5 May 1985. pp 442-449.
Frequency / Power
M
O
D
C
U
O
L
D
A
E
T
R
O
R

Fader O TTS
O O

Power Meter RF
Frequency / Power
A power meter and frequency counter are probably the two most commonly
used pieces of test equipment used on a digital Microwave Radio. Initial
alignment procedures include adjusting LO frequencies. Therefore,
monitor points are readily available. Transmitted power frequency are
logged on a routine basis for virtually every Radio.

Radio transmitters carry high power levels often in excess of 30 dBm.


Therefore, use the appropriate attenuators to avoid destroying test
equipment. In general, the IF section of the Radio will have 75 Ω
terminations while the RF section will have 50 Ω . Use a 50 to 75 Ω
adapter where appropriate to assure accurate power measurements.
Error Performance Testing
PRBS OUT-OF SERVICE

DIGITAL Radio SYSTEM

PATTERN TRANS- ERROR


RECEIVER
GENERATOR MITTER DETECTOR

IN-SERVICE
Radio ALARM PANEL
PARITY CHECK O
O
O

TRANS-
TRAFFIC RECEIVER TRAFFIC
MITTER

PARITY OUTPUT ERROR


PULSES ANALYSER
Error Performance Testing
Error Performance measurements can be made in two ways:
– Out-of Service, where the traffic is removed and a Pseudo-Random Binary
Sequence (PRBS) is applied to the transmit terminal, and the received data
stream checked bit by bit for errors. Sequence lengths of 215-1and 223-1 are
specified by CCITT. This is the preferred method for assessing the performance
of the Radio particularly during commissioning since every bit is checked for
errors. Normally the pattern-generator and error-detector are connected at the
coded CCITT interface on the terminal. Alternatively, the connection may be
made at a binary data and clock interface depending on the terminal design.

– In-service, where the Radio operates normally carrying revenue-earning traffic


and the error performance is measured internally by parity checking on data
blocks. This works quite well at moderate or low error ratios, but becomes
inaccurate during bursts of errors, for example during multi path fading, when
there is a possibility of parity error cancellation in the data block. The result of
this simple test is usually displayed on the Radio Control Panel. Alternatively the
parity error detection may be available as an electrical pulse which can be
connected to the “external error input” of the error analyzer. ‘Through-data’
options of the HP3764A AND HP3784A offer through data jitter modulation. This
allows the user to make measurements of jitter tolerance on equipment which
needs framing bits to be present in the test signal eg. Demultiplexers.
Jitter Measurements in the Digital
Network
JITTER JITTER
GENERATOR RECEIVER

PATTERN MOJ/MIOJ
GENERATOR MTIJ

Tx Rx

DIGITAL RADIO
LINK

ERROR
JTF DETECTOR

MTIJ = Maximum Tolerable Input Jitter MIOJ = Maximum Intrinsic Output Jitter
MOJ = Maximum Output Jitter JTF = Jitter Transfer Function
Jitter Measurement in the Digital
Network
Perhaps the most common Jitter measurements are made at the standard
CCITT interface on the Radio which connects with the Digital Network. A
number of Jitter specifications have been laid down by CCITT for the
CCITT standard hierarchy rates. The idea is that if a piece of equipment
meets the specifications at its input and output, then it can be connected
freely within the Digital Network without degrading Jitter performance and
causing errors.

There are three classes of Measurements:


– Maximum Tolerable Input Jitter: Which is tested by applying
increasing Jitter to an input data stream and determining the onset of
bit errors.
– Maximum Output Jitter(AND Intrinsic Output Jitter: Which is the
level of output jitter with a jittered (or jitter-free) input signal.
– Jitter Transfer Function: Which is a measure of how the Jitter is
attenuated by passing through the system, a necessary specification to
prevent jitter accumulation in the network.
Jitter Measurement in the Digital
Network
Although Jitter measurements are mostly made within the factory where
equipment should be fully checked to the appropriate specification, they are
sometimes made in the field, particularly with large networks where there
may be a chance of Jitter accumulation.

The Jitter options of the HP 3764A and HP3784A perform these


measurements to the CCITT standards, so are well suited to performing
these jitter measurements.
Return Loss

CRYSTAL WG to Coax
DETECTOR Adapters

Fader O TTS
O O

Power Meter RF

LEVELLING DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA


HEAD COUPLER FEED

LOCATE DAMAGE PREVENT DISPERSION


Return Loss
Even a perfectly adjusted Radio may not operate properly if attached to
a damaged or poorly installed antenna system. Multiple reflections
within the antenna feeder system can recombine and cause dispersive
fading (a non-flat transfer function). Return loss is a common measure
of the health of an antenna feeder network. A minimum acceptable
return loss is often specified in the radio manual. For example, 64
QAM radios often require that the antenna have a return loss of 24dB
or better.

DRTS is ideal to measure return loss. For a description of the


measurement see AN 379-2 “Measuring Microwave Radio Antenna
Return Loss using the HP 11758T Digital Radio Test System”.
Practical C/N Vs BER Curves
BER
10-3

10-4 Implementation
Margin
10-5

10-6 RF
BACK TO BACK
10-7 IF
10-8 BACK TO BACK
10-9 IDEAL
10-10 (Theoretical or
10-11 Background BER
Design
10-12
20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
C/N RATIO (dB)
Practical C/N Vs BER Curves
When we look at the performance of an actual Radio, the results depart from
the theoretical values in the way shown in this slide*. The difference
between theory and practice is sometimes called the implementation margin
and results from all the imperfections that can occur in practical Radio.
The poorer the performance, the greater the required C/N for a given bit
error ratio (BER). At high C/N ratio the digital Radio performance becomes
asymptotic to the low-level background (or dribble) BER.
* The practical results shown, are for a 64-QAM Radio, and are plotted on
“error-function” paper which has a vertical scale such that the theoretical
curve plots as a straight line. Deviations from this line for practical systems
are then clearly seen.
Comment
Normally a Radio will be worse than the theoretical curve, I.e. it will require a higher
C/N ratio for a given BER. The exception is for systems using forward error correction
(FEC) when the practical system can have an overall performance better than
theoretical, in which case, bandwidth is being exchanged for better BER. Some line-
of-sight Radios use this technique, and it is quire common in satellite systems.
Inter-symbol Interface


•••
••
••
Inter-symbol Interface

We wish to send a signal which has only a specific number of


possible values at the timing instants. If we poorly filter our data
stream the result will be many possible levels on the output. In fact,
the output level resulting from a ‘1’ being transmitted can change
depending on the data which preceded it. This problem is called
inter symbol interference.
Adjacent Channel Interference and
Spectral Occupancy Tests
C ~
O ~ ~
D
MOD
E ~
R

SPECTRUM
~ UPCONVERTER
SPECTRUM
ANALYSER
ANALYSER

~ D
E
~ ~ C
DEMO ~ O
D D
E
R
DOWNCONVERTER
~
Adjacent Channel Interference and
Spectral Occupancy Tests
These two tests are generally made with a Spectrum Analyser. The Spectral
Occupancy test is a measure of how well unwanted sidebands and spurious signals
have been suppressed by the successive filters in the transmitter. To minimize
interference to adjacent radio channels it is very important that the Radio complies with
the occupancy mask laid down by the local regulating authority (e.g. the FCC in the
USA or a PTT in a European country etc.).

The levels of interface present at the receiver can also be checked using a spectrum
analyzer with the associated transmitter switched off. Sources of interference include:
• Adjacent Channel - due to poor out-of-band suppression from adjacent
transmitters.
• Co-channe - from another Radio on the same frequency possibly using
an opposite polarization.
• External Sources - such as Radar Systems.

Interference causes eye-closure in the demodulator and results in a C/N


penalty or loss of receiver sensitivity.
Nyquist Filtering


Raised Cosine



Nyquist Filtering

There are certain types of filters which don’t cause inter-symbol


interference (ISI). These filters limit the spectrum to provide
high spectral efficiency. In addition, these filters resonate in
such a way that, although the path between timing instants
varies depending on the data sequence, the number of possible
states at the timing instant remains unchanged. The result is
that the output signal can be decoded once the timing instants
are determined by the receiver.
Digital Radio Links
• Planning Objectives:
The main goal of Radio link route planning is to achieve in the most economical way, the
transmission performance corresponding to the users needs. The criteria for this are set
by the requirements for the total connection based either on the CCIR recommendations
and national specifications (public telephone networks) or the users’ own performance
requirements (dedicated networks).
• Availability Objectives:
A digital Radio-relay system is considered to be in an unavailable state if in at least one
direction of transmission, one or both of the following conditions occur for at least 10
consecutive seconds.
1. The digital signal is interrupted (including alignment and timing losses).
2. The BER is greater than 10-3

This unavailability may be caused by equipment failures, adverse propagation


conditions, interference or other reasons.

the CCIR HAS GIVEN Rec.557 for availability objectives in the high grade portion of an
ISDN/3/. For medium and low grade circuits there exist no recommendations for the
present.
For the high grade portion of ISDN (2500KMHRDP) the availability objective is 99.7% of
the time corresponding 0.033% unavailability for a 280KM section.
• Clearance:
To determine the clearance the terrain profile of the hop is usually drawn on a
hop profile chart, made for the value of k equal to 4/3. In this case, the Radio
wave propagation path during normal conditions forms a straight line on the
chord. The clearance at a given point is then the distance between the terrain
surface and the chord joining the transmitting and receiving antennas. When
calculating the clearance one should take into account buildings and they
average height of trees (in temperate climates typically 10…20 m in tropic 20…
40 m.)
rF = 17.3 * d1 * d2 (d*f)

rF is the radius of the first Fresnel zone (m),


F is the Radio frequency (in GHz).
d is the total hop length (km)
d1 and
d2 are the distances from the point under consideration to the end
points (km); d = d1 + d2
For f > 3 GHz

i) 100% of the radius of the first Fresnel zone is free for k = 4/3

ii) At least zero clearance for the first Fresnel zone is obtained
for a small value of k (i.e grazing path).
• Space diversity reception:

On long (> 30 km) hops with large reflecting surfaces, the only efficient
countermeasure against reflection fadings is space diversity reception.
The optimum vertical distance is between the centres of the diversity
antennas is given by Eq. (2.8).
S = 75 * d / (f * ht)

s is the optimum distance between the space diversity antennas


(m)
d is the hop length (km)
f is the Radio frequency (GHz)
ht is the height of the opposite transmitting antenna
above the reflecting surface (m)
Lho = Lo+Lad +Lbr +Lc1 +Lc2 -Ga1 -Ga2

Lho is unfaded hop loss


Lo is free space loss
Lad is additional terrain loss
Lbr is antenna branching loss
Lc1 and
Lc2 are antenna feeder losses
Ga1 and
Ga2 are antenna gains

(all quantities are expressed in decibels)


ANTENNA GAINS

Lho = 20*log(Da) + 17.8

Ga is the antenna gain (dB)


Da is the antenna diameter (m)
F is the Radio frequency (GHz)
• Examples of Hop Design
Isolated (no interference) hop: This situation is common in practice
because by proper design interference may often be kept small for
example by selecting high gain antennas for star points and small
interference has only minor effect on systems using modulation
methods with few signal states (e.g. 2PSK, 4PSK, MSK). The first
example also demonstrates use of space diversity on overwater paths.
The second example sketches the calculations procedure under the
presence of non-correlated interference. The actual case deals with
adjacent channel interference at a star point.
• Ordinary Hop:
The phases of a normal route calculation are:
– selecting the antenna heights
– Calculating the fading margin
– Calculating the outage time
– Repeating steps 2 and 3 with varying combinations of antennas and
feeders and possibly using diversity until an economic solution
which gives the required performance is achieved.
Design Formulae
•Radius of the first Fresnel zone
rF = 17.3 * d1 * d2 (d*f)
•Fading Margin
M = Ptx – Lho – Prxth
•Total Hop Loss
Lho = Lo+Lad +Lbr +Lc1 +Lc2 -Ga1 -Ga2
•Free Space Loss
Lo = 92.5+20 * log(d) + 20 * log(f)
•Antenna gain
Ga = 20 * log (Da) + 20 * log (f) + 17.8
MW LINK BUDGET CALCULATION

INITIAL SURVEY
• LOS Survey to be done
• Collect information – Coordinates, Ht. Of the bldng., Connectivity to nearby sites etc.

PATHLOSS TOOL for LINK ANALYSIS


• Load them in the Pathloss tool
• Check for the path profile between the 2 sites and adjust the antenna hts. so that there
is enough clearance.
The Pathloss gives Distance and the Azimuths between the 2sites.

PARAMETERS TO BE CONSIDERED
• Determine the type of Antenna 0.6 / 0.8 / 1.2 / 1.8 mtr.

• Determine the Frequency 18 /15 / 7 GHZ

• Hi – Lo frequencies, of a particular spot freq., at the 2 sites of the link to be decided.


(No Hi-Lo violations allowed at a particular site.)

• Input the values for Antenna Model, Antenna gain(dBi), TX Power(16/17 dB ),


Emission Designator, Rx Threshold level(-66/-71dB), Max. Receive signal(-20dB)
All Vendor Specific
MW LINK BUDGET CALCULATION
PARAMETERS TO BE CONSIDERED

• Determine Polarization – Vertical / Horizontal

• Add the Rain fall of that region

• Run the Interference Analysis

• See for any Errors in Error log, Hi-Lo violations and Interference.

• If any Interference check/change the following parameters


i)HEIGHT ii)POLARIZATION iii)FREQUENCY iv) TX POWER

• Following are the important parameters to be checked for in the result:


Availability 99.995 %
Thermal Fade Margin around 35 dB
Receive Signal Level around -30 dB
15GHz Link Analysis
Sithaphal Mandi Nallakunta
MW=G+5+17.5 MW=G+4+6mtr
Total=35.5 mtr Total = 21mtr
Elevation (m) 523.76 476.14
Latitude 17 25 46.00 N 17 23 55.00 N
Longitude 078 30 58.00 E 078 30 26.00 E
True azimuth (°) 195.47 15.47
Vertical angle (°) -1.03 1.01
Antenna model 1.2--VHLP4-142 0.6--VHLP2-142
Antenna height (m) 35.69 20.43
Antenna gain (dBi) 42.90 37.10
Circ. branching loss (dB) 0.50 0.50
TX filter loss (dB) 0.00 0.00
RX filter loss (dB) 0.00 0.00
Other RX loss (dB) 0.00 0.00
Frequency (MHz) 15000.00
Polarization Horizontal
Path length (km) 3.54
Free space loss (dB) 126.97
Atmospheric absorption loss (dB) 0.10
Field margin (dB) 1.00
Net path loss (dB) 49.07 49.07
Radio model DMC-ALTIUM DMC-ALTIUM
TX power (watts) 0.05 0.05
TX power (dBm) 17.00 17.00
EIRP (dBm) 59.40 53.60
Emission designator 28MOD7W 28MOD7W
TX Channels 13 A -H 15271.0000H 13A-L 14851.0000H
RX threshold criteria BER 10-3 BER 10-3
RX threshold level (dBm) -68.00 -68.00
Maximum receive signal (dBm) -20.00 -20.00
RX signal (dBm) -32.07 -32.07
Thermal fade margin (dB) 35.93 35.93
Dispersive fade margin (dB) 43.00 43.00
Dispersive fade occurrence factor 1.00
Effective fade margin (dB) 35.15 35.15
Geoclimatic factor 1.41E-03
Grazing angle (mr) 18.93
Path inclination (mr) 17.76
Average annual temperature (°C) 30.00
Worst month - multipath (%) 100.00000 100.00000
(sec) 0.01 0.01
Annual - multipath (%) 100.00000 100.00000
(sec) 0.05 0.05
(% - sec) 100.00000 - 0.10
Rain region ITU Region N
0.01% rain rate (mm/hr) 95.00
Flat fade margin - rain (dB) 35.93
Rain rate (mm/hr) 174.72
Rain attenuation (dB) 35.93
Annual rain (%-sec) 99.99884 - 364.53
Annual multipath + rain (%-sec) 99.99884 - 364.63

Thu, Sep 19 2002


Sithaphal Mandi (H1.2) Nallkunta(L0.6).pl4
Reliability Method - ITU-R P.530-6
Rain - ITU-R P530-7
18GHz Link Analysis
TIRUMAL ALWAL
MW =27 mtr MW = 25 mtr
Elevation (m) 552.30 570.13
Latitude 17 28 04.20 N 17 30 13.60 N
Longitude 078 30 31.70 E 078 30 48.70 E
True azimuth (°) 7.19 187.19
Vertical angle (°) 0.26 -0.29
Antenna model VHLP2-180 VHLP2-180
Antenna height (m) 25.00 26.24
Antenna gain (dBi) 38.70 38.70
Miscellaneous loss (dB) 0.50 0.50
Frequency (MHz) 18000.00
Polarization Vertical
Path length (km) 4.01
Free space loss (dB) 129.63
Atmospheric absorption loss (dB) 0.22
Net path loss (dB) 53.45 53.45
Radio model Nera Citylink Nera Citylink
TX power (watts) 0.04 0.04
TX power (dBm) 16.50 16.50
EIRP (dBm) 54.70 54.70
Emission designator 28MOD7W 28MOD7W
TX Channels F8 -L 17865.0000V F8 - H 18875.0000V
RX threshold criteria BER 10-6 BER 10-6
RX threshold level (dBm) -72.00 -72.00
RX signal (dBm) -36.95 -36.95
Thermal fade margin (dB) 35.05 35.05
Dispersive fade margin (dB) 43.00 43.00
Dispersive fade occurrence factor 1.00
Effective fade margin (dB) 34.40 34.40
Geoclimatic factor 4.45E-05
Grazing angle (mr) 12.65
Path inclination (mr) 4.76
Average annual temperature (°C) 30.00
Worst month - multipath (%) 100.00000 100.00000
(sec) 4.23e-03 4.23e-03
Annual - multipath (%) 100.00000 100.00000
(sec) 0.02 0.02
(% - sec) 100.00000 - 0.04
Rain region ITU Region N
Flat fade margin - rain (dB) 35.05
Rain rate (mm/hr) 138.23
Rain attenuation (dB) 35.00
Annual rain (%-sec) 99.99685 - 992.05
Annual multipath + rain (%-sec) 99.99685 - 992.09

Fri, Sep 20 2002


TIRUMAL-ALWAL.pl4
Reliability Method - ITU-R P.530-6
Rain - Crane
Fiber Optics
Why Use Fiber Optics?

1. Wide Bandwidh
• High carrying capacity including voice, data and Video

• WDM Technology supports lakhs of channels on a pair of optical fiber

• Can carry hundreds of HDTV Channels.


2. Why Use Fiber Optics?

• Digital Transmission is superior to analog transmission because the original


signal transmitted can be faithfully reproduced at the receiving stations.

• Light pulses spread much less compared to other signals

• Low Bit error rates.

3. Low Attenuations
• Spacing between the repeater stations can be increased.

• Speed of transmission increases as the number of repeater stations is reduced

• Cost of the systems will reduce with the reduction in repeater stations.

• Reliability increases as the no. of repeater stations is reduced


4. Electro Magnetic Immunity

• Not affected by stray magnetic fields.

• Does not create electro-magnetic radiation

• Extremely good for applications in areas with high magnetic field like induction
equipment, high tension over head lines etc.

• Ideal for computer networking process control etc.

5. Small Size
• Fiber Optic cable is only one tenth the size of co-axial cable for the same
carrying capacity.

• Can replace co-axial systems in underground ducts directly.

• Replacement of co-axial cable by fiber optic cable of the same size, the
capacity increases by many folds.
6. Light Weight

• Easy to install and maintain

• Ideal for applications like airplanes, rockets, satellites, submarines etc.

7. Safety

• Superior resistance to most of the acids, alkalis, water, nuclear radiation etc.

• Best suited for applications in hazardous areas and difficult terrain.


8. Security

• Fiber optic cables do not radiate any electro magnetic energy. So, it is very
difficult to tap the same.

• Extremely good for applications like security agencies, Defense etc.

9. Reliability

• Does not react with most of the known chemicals

• Does not react with water

• High resistance to nuclear radiation and heat

• Very few breakdowns

• No insulation failures
10. Ease of Installation & Maintenance

• Easier to install in comparison to a copper cable.

• Automatic splicing machines have improved the splice loss to 0.02dB per splice

• Latest joint closures, termination boxes, splice trays etc. are extremely easy to
handle.

• Advanced test instruments can localize the faults within 1m in a few minutes.

11. Upgradability

• Capacity can be increased considerably by just changing the terminal


equipment

• No need to replace the cables

• Same fiber can also operate at different wavelengths using WDM technology
increase the capacity further.
12. Price

• Very good price to performance ratio

• Prices of cables, equipment, accessories and test instruments are steadily


coming down due to high volumes.

• Multimedia and more such services in the same fiber will bring down the cost
further in the future.
Fiber Optics - Basics

Optical Fiber - Medium of Communication

Light - Carrier of Information

Optical Fiber - Core and Cladding


(Core inner part and Cladding outer part)
Speed of light and refractive index in different media

Refractive Index(n) of a medium = Speed of light in vacuum/speed of


light in the medium.
Material Refractive Index(n) Speed of light (kmps)

Vacuum 1.0 300.000


Air 1.0003(I) 300.000
Water 1.33 225.000
Fused Quartz 1.46 205.000
Glass 1.5 200.000
Diamond 2.5 120.000

Reflection
Normal
Angle of Incidence Angle of Reflection

Reflecting Surface

Angle of Incidence = Angle of Reflection


Refraction
Normal
Angle of Incidence
n2>n1

n1

n2

Angle of
Refraction

Refraction
Normal
Angle of Incidence
n1>n2

n1

Angle of
Refraction
n2
How Fibre Works

The operation of an Optical Fibre is based on the principle of


Total Internal Reflection (TIR).

Light reflects or refracts (bends) depending on the angle at


which it strikes a surface. This occurs because different
interfaces between materials refract light in different ways.
Critical Angle

Normal
Critical Angle of
Incidence

n1

Angle of
Refraction

n2
Total Internal Reflection

Normal
n1

Angle of Incidence Angle of Reflection

n2

n1 n2
Propagation of Light in Optical Fibre

n=1.49 n3

81 81
81 81
n=1.48 n2

n=1.8 n1
Core and Cladding
CORE CLADDING
CORE CLADDING

GLASS GLASS

GLASS PLASTIC

PLASTIC GLASS

Different Types of Optical Fibres


TYPES OF
OPTICAL FIBRES

MULTIMODE SINGLE MODE

GRADED STEP DEPRESSED MATCHED


INDEX INDEX CLAD CLAD

DISPERSION DISPERSION
SHIFTED FLATTERED
Core and Cladding
An Optical fibre consists of two different types of highly pure, solid
glass to form the core and cladding, over which a dual layer
protective coating is applied to protect the fibre during
cabling / laying / terminating process.

Refractive Index

Cl adding n2

Core n1

Reflected
Cl adding

Refracted
FIG - 1 n1> n2 - Total Internal Reflection
Velocity of light in a Vaccum
n =
Velocity of light in the Medium Vaccum = 1.0; Pure Silica = 1.4469 (@1300nm)
Single Mode and Multi Mode Fibres
• MULTI MODE:
Multi mode fibre was the first type of commercial fibre, which has larger core
diameter (50 or 62.5nm) allowing multiple modes of light to propagate through
the fibre simultaneously.
It is used primarily for short distances (<2KM) such as LAN communication, due
to more loss and less bandwidth capacity.
• SINGLE MODE:
Single Mode fibre has a much smaller core (8-10nm) that allows only one mode
of light at a time to propagate through the core.
This is widely used for all voice/data transmission applications over long
distances and high capacities.

50 - 62.5
8-10 micrometre
micrometre

Single Mode
Multi Mode

125micro 125
metre micrometre
SINGLE MODE FIBRE PERFORMANCE
CHARACTERSTICS:
The two key parameters are:
1) Attuenuation and 2) Dispersion
1) Attenuation: It is the reduction of signal strength or light power over the length of the
fibre and is measured in dB/KM. Lower attenuation (loss) means lesser repeaters, thus
reducing cost and increasing reliability. Typical values are 0.35dB at 1310nm and
0.25dB at 1550nm.

2) Dispersion: It is the smearing or broadening of an optical signal that results from the
many wavelength components travelling at different rates. This limits the max. data rate
carrying capacity of a SM fibre link.

Input Output

Amp

Distance
2) Dispersion (Contd....)

The wavelength at which the Dispersion equals zero is called


the ‘Zero-Dispersion Wavelength’, which is the wavelength at
which the fibre has its max. information carrying capacity.
For SM fibres, it is around 1310nm. It is measured in
Pico-seconds / nm-KM. It is possible to shift the zero dispersion
wavelength to 1550nm by manufacturing techniques, to allow
more bandwidth and longer distances.
Cut Off Wavelength

• It is the wavelength at which a single mode fibre will start acting as


multimode fibre. This is lower than the operating wavelength.
Related Accessories / Terminology

Fusion Splice: To form permanent connections between fibres in


the system using fusion (arc) Technique.
Typical Loss - 0.04 to 0.1dB.

Mechanical Splice: Alternate method for emergency restoration.


Higher loss - 0.1 to 0.5dB.
Connectors: Provide remateable connections, typically at
termination points.

Pigtails, Patch cords: Short length of flexible fibre optic cables for
terminations at the Equipments .
Fusion Splicer
• Inset heat shrinkable sleeve to one of the fibres
• Mount the prepared fibre in the Splicing machine
• Align the fibres
• Fuse the fibres
• Check the splice loss using OTDR
• If the plice loss is within thelimit, remove the splice put the splice protector
• After the sleeve shrinks remove the same fix it in the splice protection tray
• Keep the splice protection tray in the joint closure of fibre distribution frame
frame and close it.

Factors which can affect the loss of a Fusion splice?


• External factors like dirt, dust etc.
• Cleave angle
• Fibre positioning or view angle
• Geometry of the fibres
• Eccentrically positioned fibre cores
• Problems with the machine itself
How to identify the factors which gives high loss?

1. Clean the fibre and the V-Grooves weel to ensure that the external parameters
are not affecting the splice loss.

2. View the splice parameters while splicing so that the cleave angle, view angle
and geometry of the fibre can be verified.

3. Check whether the machine is okay.


Mechanical Splice

• Install mechanical splice in the splice tool


• Insert the prepared fibre into one side of the mechanical splice
• Insert the second prepared fibre to the other side of the mechanical splice.
• Push both the fibres till they touch each other and fix the fibre on the tool
to avoid movement.
• Check the insertion loss using an OTDR
• Press the top of the mechanical splice loss using the tool if the splice loss
is within the limits
• Remove the mechanical splice and fibres from the tool and put the same
in a splice holding tray.
• Close the splice holding tray and transfer the same to joint closure or fibre
distribution frame depending on the application.
Fibre preparation for splicing and connectorisation

OPERATION TOOL USED

1. Remove cable outer coating to the required length Cable Slitter


2. Remove loose tube or tight tube jacket to the Loose tube stripper or
required length. Cord stripping pliers.
3. Cut the Kevlar in the case of tight jacket Ceramic Scissors.
fibre to the required length
4. Remove jelly using isopropyl alcohol in case of Isopropyl Alcohol dispenser and
5. loose jacked fiber tissuepaper
5. Strip the fiber to the required length Fiber stripper 250/125um, 900/125um
6. Cleave the fibre to the required length High Precision or Ordinary Cleaver
7. Clean the Fibre Isopropyl Alocohol
Test Instruments

• OTDR : Optical Time Domain Reflectometer -To detect


faults/breaks in the FO links.

• Optical Power Meter : To measure the optical power at the end


of Fibre.

• Optical Source : To send light source in to the Fibre for testing-


Laser/LED.
Application in TTL Netowork

1. To all the DoT PoIs


2. From Main Switch to Concentrator sites
3. Main Switch to a few CDMA Cell sites.
4. In future to Customers (ISPs) for high capacity leased lines.

Present Intracity capacity - STM-1 (155MB/s ≈ 1890 voice chls)


STM-4 (622MB/S ≈ 7560 voice chls)
Future Backbone Capacity - STM-16 (2.5Gb/S)
DWDM - Dense Wavelength Division
Multiplexing (n x STM-16)
11.06.2003

A presentation on
DWDM
DWDM
Dense
Wavelength
Division
Multiplexing

Some times called stacked SDH/SONET


…What is DWDM ?
A multi channel fiber optic transmission system in which
one fiber transmits No of client signals provided by
different Wavelength optical carriers
Why DWDM ?
a) Overcome fiber exhaust / lack of fiber availability
problems (Better utilization of available fiber)
b) Space & Power savings at intermediate stations
c) Easier capacity expansion
d) Cost effective transmission
e) No O-E-O conversion delays
f) Wave length leasing instead of Bandwidth leasing
…Why DWDM ?
Traditional Network with Repeaters, no WDM
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
LTE LTE

WDM Network 75% fewer fibers


with Repeaters
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
LTE LTE

WDM Network with 75% less equipment


Optical Amplifiers
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
Any Disadvantages of this Technology ?
Yes of course…

a) Multi channel failure due to line failure


b) Requirements for more deliberate design of
Dispersion management,
gain profile management
& launched power due to broader Wavelength range
to be handled
WDM Classification:
WDM Classification is based on the Channel spacing
between 2 Wave lengths

Channel spacing > 200GHz is called CWDM


Channel spacing > 100 GHz is called WDM
Channel spacing < 100GHz is called DWDM
Channel spacing < 25GHz is called UDWDM

100 GHz is equal to 0.8 nm


Infrared Spectrum

O-Band E-Band S-Band C-Band L-Band

1360-1460nm
1260-1360nm

1460-1530nm

1530-1565nm

1565-1625nm
Future
CWDM CWDM DWDM DWDM DWDM
0.3
Low-loss range
L
O
S
S 0.2 C-Band L-Band
db/km

0.1

0.0
1300 1400 1500 1600 Wavelength (nm)
Carrier
Carrier

number
Channel
frequency
wavelength
C40 196.0 1530.33
C39 195.9 1531.12
C38 195.8 1531.90
C37 195.7 1532.68
C36 195.6 1533.47
C35 195.5 1534.25
C34 195.4 1535.04
C33 195.3 1535.82
C32 195.2 1536.61
C31 195.1 1537.40
C30 195.0 1538.19
C29 194.9 1538.98
C28 194.8 1539.77

3. C13 is the Centre Wavelength


C27 194.7 1540.56
C26 194.6 1541.35
C25 194.5 1542.14
C24 194.3 1542.94
C23 194.2 1543.73
C22 194.1 1544.53
C21 194.0 1545.32
Tone ch. 193.9 1546.12
C20 193.8 1546.92
C19 193.7 1547.72
C18 193.6 1548.52
C17 193.5 1549.32
C16 193.4 1550.12
C15 193.3 1550.92
C14 193.2 1551.72
C13 193.1 1552.52
C12 193.0 1553.33
1554.13
Wavelength allocation in C-Band

C11 192.9
C10 192.8 1554.94
2: Tone channel is dedicated for operation & maintenance support.

C09 192.7 1555.75


C08 192.6 1556.56
C07 192.5 1557.36
C06 192.4 1558.17
C05 192.3 1558.98
C04 192.2 1559.79
C03 192.1 1560.61
Note 1: Optical carriers are allocated on ITU-T 100 GHz (0.1 THz) grid in Rec. G. 692.

C02 192.0 1561.42


C0 191.9 1562.23
1
(nm)

(THz)
Main Components in DWDM
1) Transponder
2) Omux/Odmux
3) Optical Amplifier
4) OADM
5) Regenerator
…DWDM Components
Client signals WDM aggregate signals Client signals

IL-AMP IL-AMP IL-AMP IL-AMP


#1 #n #1 #n
x u me d/ x u ml aci t p O

x u me d/ x u ml aci t p O
x u me d/ x u ml aci t p O
noi sr ev noc ht gnel eva W

noi sr ev noc ht gnel eva W


noi t ar e ne ger l a ngi s- h C
IL-AMP Intermediate (n-1)
span regenerator IL-AMP spans
TERM TERM
system Line system system
Transponder

A device that takes an optical signal, performs electrical


3R regeneration & re-transmits the signal in optical form
In to Wavelength grid as per G.192

It allows any Wavelength as input to DWDM


For every input Wavelength, one transponder is required
Its very useful for Wavelength leasing, as customer can
Send any wavelength
Omux/Odmux

Various Transponder outputs (Wavelengths) will be


provided as Inputs to Mux. Each input is equipped with
A selective filter of certain Wavelength. The output of
these filters are coupled to a Single Mode fiber

At the Receiver end, these Wavelengths are separated


again by a Demux & directs them to individual
Transponders

Both Mux & Demux are identical components,


only difference is that they are driven in opposite
direction
OMUX
OMUX

Wavelength Channel
λn #n
λ1 λ2 λ(n-1) λn
λ(n-1) #(n-1)
λ(n-2) #(n-2)

100 GHz Transmit


Amplifier
(TXA)
t neil C

Aggregate Signal
over n-channels with
wavelengths ranging
from λ1 to λn.
λ3 #3
λ2 #2 Channel spacing is
λ1 #1 100 GHz and even.

OMUX
Optical Amplifier

Where do we require Optical Amps ?


a) Booster/Post Amp
Boosts the signal at Transmitter end to compensate
relatively low output power of laser transmitters
b) Line Amp
Used at regular intervals to compensate fiber
transmission loss
c) Pre Amp
Boosts signal prior to Optical detectors to increase the
Rx sensitivity
…Optical Amplifier

Tx Rx Booster/Post Amplifier

Tx Rx Preamplifier

Line
Tx Rx
amplifier
…Optical Amp

Erbium Doped Fiber Amp (EDFA)

1) EDFA Characteristics:

EDFA changed the WDM world

One device amplifies all the Wavelengths & hence


extended distance between Regenerators
It is simply an Optical Amp
Supports both C-Band & L-Band
…EDFA

Does not reshape or retime the signal


Does not correct Dispersion
Amp gain is not constant for all Wavelengths
Gain profile depends on input Wavelengths
& signal power

Gain Flattening
Art of getting equal amount of amplification over a
Range of Wavelengths
…Optical Amps

EDFA Operation:

Erbium is a rare metallic earth element that is used to


amplify light signals sent along fiber optic cable
When Erbium is doped to a fiber optic material like glass,
and light is pumped through it at 980/1480nm, result is
An EDFA

If photon of light in 1550nm range collide with excited


electrons, the electrons give off photons of the same
Wavelength, same phase & direction as the original photon
…EDFA
OADM

In general, not all transmission channels have the same


start & destination
Hence A special type of Mux is designed called
Optical Add/Drop Mux

With an Add/drop facility, new channels can be added to


& others can be dropped off the transmission link
This Add/Drop function is completely in Optical form
…OADM
Regenerator

Regenerator is nothing but an Amplifier, with addition of


3R function

Since noise level also amplifies along with original signal


in an ordinary amplifier, it requires to supress this noise
at intermediate stations
No need to convert the original signal in to electrical form
while regeneration

Regeneration requires at every 600kms distance


Amplifier Vs Regenerator
What is 3R generation ?
Re-amplification – 1R
Boost up the received weak signals to transmit further
It is done by Optical Amps

Re-shaping – 2R
Correcting noise & dispersion
Remove noise from a digital signal & shape it in to
clear 1’s & 0’s
Done by DCF & OEO
Re-timing – 3R
Synchronizing with Network clock
Adjusting the precise location of 1’s & 0’s in a detected
signal in order to match them to the bit rate of system
By using PLL & optical clock recovery
Here is a list of parameters to be considered for a Optical Link Budget:
 Find out the Route Distance “d” between Node A & Node B & Consider 3% excess of this distance
for bends & loops , of this Distance “d”. The New Distance = “D” in Kms
 Choose the Optimal Drum Length of OFC in case the distances are more viz a Backbone Case
 Understand how many Splices “N” are expected between both nodes over the distance D
In Case of Backbone it is for every 3.85 Kms
In Case of access it is for every 280 Mtrs.
 Choose Fiber type – G.652 or G.655. At Present TTL has G.652 Fibers live in it’s network both on BB
 Choose Laser Wavelength window based on application
Backbone – since “D” is always more than 50 Kms, 1550 nm Window is chosen
Access – Since “D” is always less than 30 Kms, 1310 nm Window is chosen
Assumptions:
 Loss per Km @ 1310 nm Operation on a G.652 Fiber = 0.4 dB = LF
 Loss per Km @ 1550 nm Operation on a G.652 Cable = 0.22 dB = LF
 No. of Splices between 2 Nodes = “ N”( N=1+ (D/0.280) for access & N=1+(D/3.85) for BB Networks)
 Average Splice Loss LN = 0.05 dB per splice
 Optical Penalty due to dispersion (Applicable practically to Backbone systems only) = LD = 2 dB Max
 Insertion Loss of Fiber optic Patch cords per hop = L I = 1 dB Max.
 No. of Cuts expected to happen per year (applicable for Backbone) = 2 No’s
 Life period of the OFC = 20 Years
 Total Losses expected between 2 Stations on Fiber over a period of 20 Years = LT
LT = LN*N + LF*D + 0.05*2*20 + LD+ L I
LT = LN*N + LF*D + 5 dB
Example of a Backbone Link Budget:
 Route Distance between Both Stations = d = 80 kms
 Wavelength of Operation = 1550 nM
 Fiber Cable Type – G.652
 OFC Distance = D = 80*1.03 = 82.4 Kms
 No. of Splices = N = 1+ (D/3.85) = 1+ (82.4/3.85) = 1+ 22 = 23
 Total Losses on OFC LT = LN*N + LF*D + 5 = 0.05*23 + 0.22*82.4 + 5 = 24.278 dB

 Minimum Launch Power = S = -2 dBm (Manufacturer Spec. sheet)


 Receiver sensitivity = R = -30 dBm (Manufacturer Spec. Sheet)
 S-R Delta = 28 dB
 Margin available = S-R Delta – LT
 Margin available = 28 – 24.5 = 3.5 dB (Even after considering @ 2 Cuts per year between nodes)
Example of a Access Link Budget:
 Route Distance between Both Stations = d = 20 kms
 Wavelength of Operation = 1310 nM
 Fiber Cable Type – G.652
 OFC Distance = D = 20*1.03 = 20.6 Kms
 No. of Splices = N = 1+ (D/0.280) = 1+ (20.6/0.280) = 1+ 73 = 74
 Total Losses on OFC LT = LN*N + LF*D + 3(No LD in this case)
= 0.05*74 + 0.40*20.6 + 3 = 14.94 dB

 Minimum Launch Power = S = -10 dBm (Manufacturer Spec. sheet)


 Receiver sensitivity = R = -30 dBm (Manufacturer Spec. sheet)
 S-R Delta = 20 dB
 Margin available = S-R Delta – LT
 Margin available = 20 – 15 = 5 dB (Even after considering @ 2 Cuts per year between nodes)
Backbone O F
S e c tio n N a m e