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Bulaqui, Khristine Angelica
De Guzman, Kaye Anne
Semon, Kathlyn
Literature defined
✣ An art; from a latin word
‘litera’ meaning letter   ✣ Because literature deals with
✣ It has been defined differently ideas, thoughts, and emotions of
by various authors. Some man, literature can be said to be
loosely interpret literature as the story of man. Man’s loves,
any matter written within a thoughts, grieves, dreams and
book, a pamphlet, or a aspirations coached in beautiful
magazine.  language is literature. 
✣ is a product of particular culture
Others define literature as a that concretizes man’s array of
faithful reproduction of man’s values, emotions, actions and
manifold experiences blended ideas. It is therefore a creation of
into harmonious expressions.  human experiences that tells
about people and their world.
Philippine literature

Gaddang proverb:
Gongonan nu usin y amam
Maggirawa pay sila y inam. 

If you pull your daddy's penis

Your mommy's vagina screams

Pre colonial time
✣ Owing to the works of our own archaeologists, ethnologists
and anthropologists, we are able to know more and better
judge information about our pre-colonial times set against
a bulk of material about early Filipinos as recorded by
Spanish, Chinese, Arabic and other chroniclers of the past.
✣        Pre-colonial inhabitants of our islands showcase a rich
past through their folk speeches, folk songs, folk narratives
and indigenous rituals and mimetic dances that affirm our
ties with our Southeast Asian neighbors.

Pre colonial time

✣ The most seminal of these folk speeches is the

riddle which is tigmo in Cebuano, bugtong in
Tagalog, paktakon in Ilongo and patototdon in Bicol.
Central to the riddle is the talinghaga or metaphor
because it "reveals subtle resemblances between
two unlike objects" and one's power of observation
and wit are put to the test. While some riddles are
ingenious, others verge on the obscene

Pre colonial time

✣   The proverbs or aphorisms express norms or codes

of behavior, community beliefs or they instill values
by offering nuggets of wisdom in short, rhyming
✣        The extended form, tanaga, a mono-riming
heptasyllabic quatrain expressing insights and
lessons on life is "more emotionally charged than
the terse proverb and thus has affinities with the
folk lyric." Some examples are the basahanon or
extended didactic sayings from Bukidnon and
the daraida and daragilon from Panay.
Pre colonial time
✣ The folk narratives, i.e. epics and folk tales are
varied, exotic and magical. They explain how the
world was created, how certain animals possess
certain characteristics, why some places have
waterfalls, volcanoes, mountains, flora or fauna and,
in the case of legends, an explanation of the origins
of things. Fables are about animals and these teach
moral lessons.
✣        Our country's epics are considered ethno-epics
because unlike, say, Germany's Niebelunginlied, our
epics are not national for they are "histories" of
varied groups that consider themselves "nations."
2. The Spanish Colonial

Spanish colonial period

✣ Spanish occupied Philippinesin ✣ The European literature

early 15th century. The First
was brought by the
Filipino alphabet is Alibata –
when Spanish colonized Spaniards and are
Philippines they changed alibatas assimilated in Filipino
into Roman alphabet. Spanish songs and indigenous
banned the use ofAlibata
themes. The early
because they believed that it is a
work of evil. So Spanish fully printing press in the
introduced theSpanish literary Philippine is run and
language using many Spanish monopolized by the
Spaniards friars.
Spanish colonial

 Religion and institutions that represented European

civilization enriched the languages in the lowlands,
introduced theater which we would come to know
as komedya, the sinakulo, the sarswela, the playlets and
the drama. Spain also brought to the country, though at a
much later time, liberal  ideas and an internationalism
that influenced our own Filipino intellectuals and writers
for them to understand the meanings of "liberty and

Spanish colonial
    Literature in this period may be classified as religious prose
and poetry and secular prose and poetry.
Religious poetry/lyrics are the meditative verses like
the dalit appended to novenas and catechisms.  Prose
narratives written to prescribe proper decorum
Secular works appeared alongside historical and economic
changes, the emergence of an opulent class and the middle
class who could avail of a European education.
The most notable of the secular lyrics followed the
conventions of a romantic tradition: the languishing but loyal
lover, the elusive, often heartless beloved, the rival.

Spanish colonial
✣ The winds of change began to blow in 19th century Philippines.
Filipino intellectuals educated in Europe called ilustrados began to
write about the downside of colonization. This, coupled with the
simmering calls for reforms by the masses gathered a formidable
force of writers like Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce,
Emilio Jacinto and Andres Bonifacio.
✣        This led to the formation of the Propaganda Movement where
prose works such as the political essays and Rizal's two political
novels, Noli Me Tangere and the El filibusterismo helped usher in the
Philippine revolution resulting in the downfall of the Spanish regime,
and, at the same time planted the seeds of a national consciousness
among Filipinos.

American colonial period
The American Colonial Period

 A new set of colonizers brought about new changes in Philippine

literature. New literary forms such as free verse [in poetry], the
modern short story and the critical essay were introduced.
American influence was deeply entrenched with the firm
establishment of English as the medium of instruction in all
schools and with literary modernism that highlighted the writer's
individuality and cultivated consciousness of craft, sometimes at
the expense of social consciousness.

The American Colonial Period
✣     The poet, and later, National Artist for Literature, Jose
Garcia Villa used free verse and espoused the dictum, "Art for
art's sake" to the chagrin of other writers more concerned
with the utilitarian aspect of literature. Another maverick in
poetry who used free verse and talked about illicit love in her
poetry was Angela Manalang Gloria, a woman poet described
as ahead of her time. Despite the threat of censorship by the
new dispensation, more writers turned up "seditious works"
and popular writing in the native languages bloomed through
the weekly outlets like Liwayway and Bisaya.
✣        The Balagtas tradition persisted until the poet Alejandro
G. Abadilla advocated modernism in poetry. 

The American Colonial Period

✣  Filipinos seemed to have taken easily to the modern short

story as published in the Philippines Free Press, the College
Folioand Philippines Herald. Paz Marquez Benitez's "Dead
Stars" published in 1925 was the first successful short story in
English written by a Filipino. 

2. Contemporary period

The contemporary Period

✣  The flowering of Philippine literature in the various

languages continue especially with the appearance of
new publications after the Martial Law years and the
resurgence of committed literature in the 1960s and
the 1970s.
✣        Filipino writers continue to write poetry, short
stories, novellas, novels and essays whether these are
socially committed, gender/ethnic related or are
personal in intention or not. 

The contemporary Period
✣ Of course the Filipino writer has become more conscious of his art with
the proliferation of writers workshops here and abroad and the bulk of
literature available to him via the mass media including the internet.
The various literary awards such as the Don Carlos Palanca Memorial
Awards for Literature, the Philippines Free Press, Philippine Graphic,
Home Life and Panorama literary awards encourage him to compete
with his peers and hope that his creative efforts will be rewarded in
the long run.
✣        With the new requirement by the Commission on Higher
Education of teaching of Philippine Literature in all tertiary schools in
the country emphasizing the teaching of the vernacular literature or
literatures of the regions, the audience for Filipino writers is virtually
assured. And, perhaps, a national literature finding its niche among
the literatures of the world will not be far behind.

The Four Main Literary Genres

Poetry Fiction Non-Fiction Drama

- probably the oldest literary genre,
dating back to prehistoric times when
poetry was still part of oral tradition.
- due to its origin in oral history, poetry
is characterized by meter and rhyme.
- from having strict meter and rhyme,
contemporary poems are often in free
verse, which is characterized by its
rhythm and sound.
Example of Poetry
✣ Florante at Laura by
Francisco Baltasar
- Written in poetic
form that has 4 lines
per stanza and 12
Example of Poetry
✣ Ibong Adarna
- Contains 1034
stanzas (8 syllables
per line, 4 lines per

- is any work that is created by the imagination,

or in other words, not real.
- these stories may be based on real events or
persons, but most of it has been altered.
- fiction often includes novels, short stories, and
- more modern fiction, such as flash fiction,
experiments on form and length.
Example of Fiction
✣ Noli Me Tangere and
El Filibusterismo by
Dr. Jose Rizal
- two novels of Rizal,
now considered as his
literary masterpieces,
both indirectly
sparked the Philippine
- this literary genre is the opposite of fiction, although
they are very similar in terms of components and
their usage of storytelling techniques.
- makes use of stories, people, or events that really
- most writers of creative non-fiction is the need to
100% true to the facts—they cannot alter any minor
detail or exaggerate anything.
- in fact, the only detail non-fiction writers can
change are the names of the characters or places to
protect the people involved.
Example of Nonfiction

✣ “I am a Filipino” by
Carlos Romulo
-an essay that
underlines the burning
desire of
the Filipinos for
Example of Nonfiction

✣ “The Educated Man”

by Jovito R. Salonga
- it is a personal essay
about his views on what
is an educated man.
✣ is a form of text that is performed in front of
an audience. It is also called a play.
✣ it is a collaboration between the playwright, the
director, light technician, costume designer, actors,
and at times even the audience. Plays primarily
make use of dialogues between characters, so stage
direction and acting are prominent components.
✣ primarily make use of dialogues between
characters, so stage direction and acting are
prominent components.
Example of Drama
✣ “Walang Sugat” by Severino Reyes
- 1898 Tagalog-language zarzuela (a
Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that
includes music, singing, and
- The play is about the injustices
Filipinos suffered under Spanish
colonial rule, including the
oppression of Filipino prisoners by
Spanish friars for expressing their
Elements of Fiction and Drama
1. Plot
2. Characters
3. Setting
4. Theme
5. Structure
6. Point of view
7. Conflict
8. Diction
1. Plot
-refers to the series of events in the story, which consist of
the introduction, action (rising and falling), climax (peak of
interest), denouement (the unravelling) and the resolution
(ending or conclusion).

2. Character
- they are the people involved in the story. They convey
and represent the themes and messages tackled or
depicted in the story.
3. Setting
- refers to the time and place of the narrative. Setting
enriches the imagination of the readers through vivid
description and imagery.

4. Theme
- pertains to the story’s main idea.

5. Structure
- it is how the story is organized. It is the framework of the
6. Point-of-view
- pertains to the perspective and narrative voice utilized
in the story.

7. Conflict
- refers to the problem which the characters try to resolve
in the story.

8. Diction
- style of speaking or writing, determined by the choice of
words by a speaker or a writer. 
Prose and poetry
2 types of Literature

✣ Prose
⨳ consists of written words within the
common flow of conversation presented in
a straightforward manner
⨳ Either fiction or nonfiction
Prose - Fiction
■ Novel
● long narrative divided into chapters. The events are taken from true-to-
life stories and span a long period of time. There are many characters
● “Noli Me Tanghere” by Jose Rizal, “Soledad’s Sister” by Jose Y Dalisay Jr.
■ Short story
● this narrative involves one or more characters, one plot and one single
● “Santiago’s Syndrome” by Arturo B. Rotor.
■ Plays
● this is presented on a stage, is divided into acts and each has many
● “May Katwiran And Katwiran” by Rolando S. Tinio, “Paraisong Parisukat”
by Orlando Nadres, “Portrait Of The Filipino” by Nick Juaqiun
■ Legends
● these are also fictitious narrative, usually about origins.
● How The Angels Built Lake Maranao, The Legend Of Maria Makiling
■ Fables
● fictitious and deals with animals and inanimate things that speak and
act like people and their purpose are to enlighten the minds of children
to events that can mold their ways and attitudes.
● The Hare And The Tortoise, Aesop's fables
■ Anecdotes
● these are merely products of the writer’s imagination and the main
aim is to bring out lessons to the reader. It can be stories about
animals or children.
● “The Moth And The Lamp” by Jose Rizal
■ Essay
Prose - Non- fiction
● expresses the viewpoint or opinion of the writer about a particular problem or
event. The best example is the Editorial page of a newspaper.
■ Biography
● deals with the life of a person which may be about himself, his autobiography or
that of others.
■ Autobiography
● gives the history of a person’s life, written or told by the person.
■ News
● a report of everyday event is society, government, science and industry, and
accidents, happening nationally or not.
■ Oration
● a formal treatment of a subject and is intended to be spoken in public. Is
appeals to the intellect, to the will or the emotions of the audience.
● “The Filipino Youth Of Today” By Ellaiza Mae T. Gravanza, “I have a dream” by
Martin Luther King

✣ Poetry
⨳ an imaginative awareness if experience
expressed through meaning, sound, and
rhythmic language choices as to evoke
emotional response
⨳ Either narrative, lyrical or dramatic
A. Narrative poetry – a poem that tells a story. Describes important
events whether real or imaginary.
⨳ Epic
■ a long narrative poem of the largest proportions. Epic is a
tale mainly about a hero concerning the beginning,
continuance, and the end of events of great significance on
tribal or national significance.
■ Biag Ni Lam-ang, Agyu
⨳ Metric tale
■ a narrative poem consisting usually a single series
connective events that are simple, and generally do not form
a plot. Examples are simple idylls or home tales, love tales,
tales of the supernatural of tales written for a strong moral
purpose in verse form.
■ “The Lady of Shallot” by Lord Alfred Tennyson
⨳ Ballad
■ the simplest type of narrative poetry. It
is short narrative poem telling a single
incident in simple meter and stanzas. It
is meant to be sung accompanying a
dance. Variations: love ballads, war
ballads, and sea ballads, humorous,
moral, and historical or mythical ballads
■ “Ballad of a Mother’s Heart” by Jose la
Villa Tierra
B. Lyric poetry – a poem that is very personal in nature. It expresses the
author’s own thoughts, feelings, moods, and reflections in musical language.
⨳ Ode
■ poem of noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no definite
number of syllables or definite number of lines in a stanza.
■ “Ode On A Grecian Urn” By John Keats
⨳ Elegy
■ expresses feeling of grief and melancholy with a theme of death.
■ “To My Sweetie Polly” By Kristine Molina- Doria
⨳ Song
■ a lyric poem in regular metrical pattern set to music. These have
twelve syllables and slowly sung to an accompaniment of a guitar
or a banduria.
■ “Florante and Laura” by Francisco Balagtas
⨳ Sonnet
■ lyric poem containing four iambic pentameter lines, and a
complicated rhyme.
■ “Shall I Compare Thee To A Summer Day” by William
Shakespear and “I Carry Your Heart With Me” by E.E. Cummings
⨳ Folksong
■ short poems intended to be sung with a common theme of
love, despair, grief doubt, joy, hope, and sorrow.
■ Pandagguhan, Sa Kabukiran
⨳ Psalm/Dalit
■ song of praise to God and contains a philosophy of life.
■ Psalm of David
⨳ Corridos/Kuridos
■ measures eight syllables and recited to a martial beat.
■ Ibong Adarna
C. Dramatic Poetry – an emotional piece which includes a
story which is recited or sung.
⨳ Comedy
■ comes from Greek word “komos” meaning festivity or revelry. It is
usually light and written with a purpose of amusing, and usually
has a happy ending.
■ “Daddy fell into the pond” by Alfred Noyes
⨳ Melodrama
■ usually seen in musical play with the opera. It is much related to
tragedy and arouses immediate and intense emotion and is
usually sad but there is a happy ending for the main character
■ Annabel Lee
⨳ Tragedy
■ involves the hero struggling mightily against dynamic forces but
doesn’t achieve success and satisfaction
■ Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet
⨳ Farce
■ A lighthearted comedy that centers around ridiculous plot that
usually involves exaggerated and iprobable events. Relies on
absurdity, physical humor, and a skillful exploitation of a
■ (Films) Home Alone, It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World
■ (Literature) “The comedy of errors” by William Shakespear,
“Tartuffe” by Moliere
⨳ Social poems
■ Either purely comic or tragic and pictures the life of today.
Aims to bring about changes in social conditions.
■ “The Seasons: Winter” by James Thomson, “The bride of
Abydos” by Lord George Byron