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Case 2

conflict: What
happened in
the Cavite
The year 1872

– It is a historic year of two events: the Cavite

Mutiny and the martyrdom of the three priests:
Mariano Gomez Jose Burgos Jacinto Zamora
The year 1872

– These events are very important milestones in

Philippine history and have caused ripples
throughout time, directly influencing the decisive
events of the Philippine Revolution toward the
end of the century.
Significance of 1872

“Kung wala ang 1872, wala ngayong Plaridel o Jaena o Sanciongco

ni matatapang na kolonya ng mga Pilipino sa Europe: kung wala ang
1872, si Rizal ay isa ng Heswita ngayon, at sa halip na isinulat ang Noli
Me tangere, ay yaong kabaligtaran ang isinusulat. Sa harap ng mga
walang katarungan at kalupitan noong ako’y bata pa, ang aking diwa
ay nagising at isinumpa sa sariling maipgahiganti ko balang araw ang
maraming biktima, at dahil ito ang nasasa isip, nag-aral ako nang
mabuti at mababasa ito sa lahat ng aking mga ginawa at isinulat.
Balang araw, bibigyan ako ng Diyos ng pagkakataonng
maisakatuparan ang aking pangako.”
Spanish accounts of the Cavite

Jose Montero y Vidal – a Spanish historian

 His documentation was centered on how the
event was an attempt in overthrowing the
Spanish government in the Philippines.
Excerpts from Montero’s
account of the Cavite Mutiny

Reasons of the insurrection:

 The Spanish revolution which overthrew a secular
 The criminal policy of the Governor General
These gave rise among certain Filipinos, to the idea
of attaining their independence
Notes: Secular – not religious (govt rather than church)
Excerpts from Montero’s
account of the Cavite Mutiny
– It was toward this goal that they started to work,
with the powerful assistance of a certain section
of the native clergy, who out of spite toward
friars, made common cause with the enemies of
the mother country.

Notes: Spite-to defeat

Excerpts from Montero’s
account of the Cavite Mutiny

At times, the principal leaders met either in the

house of Filipino Spaniard, D. Joaquin Pardo de
Tavera, or in that of the native priest, Jacinto
Zamora, and these meetings were usually attended
by the curate of Bacoor. the soul of the movement.
Excerpts from Izquierdo’s
account of the Cavite Mutiny

“It seems definite that the insurrection was

motivated and prepared by the native clergy, by the
mestizos and native lawyers.”
Excerpts from Izquierdo’s
account of the Cavite Mutiny
Causes for the instigators to carry out their criminal project:
 The injustice of the government in not paying the provinces for
their crop, and
 Finance department directs crop owners who have to sell them at
a loss.
 Obliged the workers in the Cavite arsenal to pay tribute starting
January 1, 1872 and to render personal service, from which they
were formerly exempted.
Excerpts from Izquierdo’s
account of the Cavite Mutiny
Up to now, it has not been clearly determined if they
planned to establish a monarchy or a republic, because
the Indios have no word in their language to describe
this different form of government, whose head in Filipino
would be called hari.
- It turns out that they would place at the head of the
government a priest
The two accounts

It is apparent that the accounts underscore the

reason for the “revolution”:
The abolition of privileges enjoyed by the workers
of the Cavite arsenal such as exemption from
payment of tribute and being employed in polo y
servicios or force labor.
The two accounts

They also identified other reasons which seemingly

made the issue a lot more serious, which included the
presence of the native clergy.
According to Izquierdo, the native clergy attracted
supporters by giving them charismatic assurance that
their fight would not fail because they had God’s
Differing accounts of the
events of 1872
Pardo de Tavera’s account of
the Cavite mutiny
– On the time of 1872, there had been no intention
of secession from Spain, and the only aspiration
of the people was to secure the material and
education advancement of the country.

Notes: Just like with the present administration, it doesn’t mean you are in opposition
you would want to overthrow the admin.
Pardo de tavera – Filipino-Spanish lawyer who fought for Filipino and had bicolana wife
Pardo de Tavera’s account of
the Cavite mutiny
– According to this account, the incident was
merely a mutiny by Filipino soldiers and laborers
of the Cavite arsenal to the dissatisfaction arising
from the draconian policies of Izquierdo, such as
the abolition of privileges and prohibition of the
founding of the school of arts and trades for
Filipinos, which the General saw as a
smokescreen to creating a political club.
Pardo de Tavera’s account of
the Cavite mutiny
– Tavera is of the opinion that the Spanish friars and
Izquierdo used the cavite Mutiny as a way to
address other issues by blowing out of proportion
the isolated mutiny attempt.
Edmund Plauchut

– French writer who complimented Tavera’s

Plauchut’s account of the
Cavite mutiny
Planned reforms:
1. Changes in tariff rates at customs, and methods of collection.
2. Removal of surcharges on foreign importations.
3. Reduction of export fees.
4. Permission for foreigners to reside in the Philippines, buy real estate, enjoy
freedom of worship, and operate commercial transports flying the Spanish
5. Establishment of an Institute of Civil administration in the Philippines
rendering unnecessary the sending home of short term civil officials every
time there is a change of ministry.
Plauchut’s account of the
Cavite mutiny
Planned reforms:
6. Changes in primary and secondary eductation.
7. Establishment of an advisory council to inform the
Minister of Overseas Affairs in Madrid on the necessary
reforms to be implemented.
8. Study of direct tax
9. Abolition of the tobacco monopoly.
The Cavite Mutiny

– January 20, 1872 led by Francisco Lamadrid

Brain of the mutiny:
Maximo Inocencio
Crisanto Delos reyes
Enrique Paraiso