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ХАРАКТЕРИСТИЧЕСКИЕ ЧЕРТЫ NK-КЛЕТОК

 Фенотипические маркеры: NK1.1 (мышь), FcgRIII (CD16).

 Присутствуют у мышей SCID и nude.

 Убивают опухолевые клетки и метастазы.

 Отторгают не совпадающие по антигенам ГКГ трансплантаты, включая родительские ткани.

 Защищают против некоторых вирусных инфекций.

 Регулируют иммунный ответ и гемопоэз за счет секреции цитокинов.


ИНГИБИТОРНЫЕ РЕЦЕПТОРЫ NK-КЛЕТОК.

Трансмембранные белки, имеющие во внутриклеточном участке последовательности


триптофан-изолейцин-любая аминокислота-тирозин-любые две аминокислоты-лейцин
(ITIM – Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Inhibitory Motif).

Семейство лектинов С-типа Мышь Чело-век  

Ly49 (гомодимер) x   H-2K,D

CD94/NKG-X (гетеродимер) x x HLA-E/Qa1

Суперсемейство иммуноглобулинов      

KIR p58 (2 Ig домена)   x HLA-C

KIR p70 (3 Ig домена)   x HLA-A,B

KIR p140 (2x3 Ig домена)   x HLA-A,B


МОЛЕКУЛЫ
МОЛЕКУЛЫ КЛЕТОЧНОЙ
КЛЕТОЧНОЙ ПОВЕРХНОСТИ,
ПОВЕРХНОСТИ,
УЧАСТВУЮЩИЕ
УЧАСТВУЮЩИЕ ВО
ВО ВЗАИМОДЕЙСТВИИ
ВЗАИМОДЕЙСТВИИ В-
В- ии Тх-
Тх-
КЛЕТОК
КЛЕТОК
Т-клетка В-клетка

В CD28 CD80/CD86

CD40L CD40 Г

Д
A ТкР МНС класс II

p56kb
CD4

LFA-1 ICAM-1

CD2 LFA-3

Аг
Б
Аг
mlg
Память - индуцированное антигеном состояние иммунной системы,
заключающееся в его повышенной реактивности на антиген, с которым
организм однажды встречался, и сохраняющееся в отсутствии антигена.

Черты иммунологической памяти:


• специфичность;
• ускоренный ответ;
• большая амплитуда;
• повышенная аффинность антител.
Структуры бактериальной клетки
важные
для иммунологического
узнавания
                                                                         

Bacterial morphology.
                 
A: Cocci in clusters, e.g., Staphylococcus (A-1); chains, e.g.,
Streptococcus (A-2); in pairs with pointed ends, e.g.,
Streptococcus pneumoniae (A-3); in pairs with kidney bean
shape, e.g., Neisseria (A-4).
B: Rods (bacilli): with square ends, e.g., Bacillus (B-1); with
rounded ends, e.g., Salmonella (B-2); club-shaped, e.g.,
Corynebacterium (B-3); fusiform, e.g., Fusobacterium (B-4);
comma-shaped, e.g., Vibrio (B-5).
C: Spirochetes: relaxed coil, e.g., Borrelia (C-1); tightly
coiled, e.g., Treponema (C-2). (Modified and reproduced,
with permission, from Joklik WK et al: Zinsser Microbiology,
20th ed.
                                                                                              

                                                                             

Sizes of representative bacteria, viruses, yeasts, protozoa, and human red cells. The
bacteria range in size from Mycoplasma, the smallest, to Bacillus anthracis, one of the
largest. The viruses range from poliovirus, one of the smallest, to poxviruses, the largest.
Yeasts, such as Candida albicans, are generally larger than bacteria. Protozoa have many
different forms and a broad size range. HIV, human immunodeficiency virus. (
                                                                  

                                                                        

Bacterial structure. (Modified with permission from Ryan et


al: Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4/e, Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.)
Structure Chemical Function
Composition
Essential components
Contains many hydrolytic enzymes, including
  Cell wall
     Peptidoglycan Sugar backbone Gives rigid support, protects against osmotic pressure; is the site of
with peptide side action of penicillins and cephalosporins, and is degraded by lysozyme
chains that are
cross-linked
     Outer Lipid A Toxic component of endotoxin
membrane of
gram-negative
bacteria
  Polysaccharide Major surface antigen used frequently in laboratory diagnosis
     Surface fibers Teichoic acid Major surface antigen but rarely used in laboratory diagnosis
of gram-positive
bacteria
  Cytoplasmic Lipoprotein Site of oxidative and transport enzymes
membrane bilayer without
sterols
  Ribosome RNA and protein Protein synthesis; site of action of aminoglycosides, erythromycin,
in 50S and 30S tetracyclines, and chloramphenicol
subunits
  Nucleoid DNA Genetic material
  Mesosome Invagination of Participates in cell division and secretion
plasma
membrane
  Periplasm Space between -lactamases
plasma
membrane and
outer membrane
Nonessential components

  Capsule Polysaccharide1 Protects against phagocytosis

  Pilus or fimbria Glycoprotein Two types: (1) mediates attachment to cell


surfaces; (2) sex pilus mediates attachment of
two bacteria during conjugation

  Flagellum Protein Motility

  Spore Keratinlike coat, dipicolinic acid Provides resistance to dehydration, heat, and
chemicals

  Plasmid DNA Contains a variety of genes for antibiotic


resistance and toxins

  Granule Glycogen, lipids, polyphosphates Site of nutrients in cytoplasm

  Glycocalyx Polysaccharide Mediates adherence to surfaces


                                                                           

                                                                         
Cell walls of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Note that the
peptidoglycan in gram-positive bacteria is much thicker than in gram-negative
bacteria. Note also that only gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane
containing endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) and have a periplasmic space
where   -lactamases are found. Several important gram-positive bacteria, such
as staphylococci and streptococci, have teichoic acids.
Comparison of Cell Walls
of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative
Bacteria.Component Gram-Positive Cells Gram-Negative Cells

Peptidoglycan Thicker; multilayer Thinner; single layer

Teichoic acids Yes No


Lipopolysaccharide No Yes
(endotoxin)
                                                       

                                   
Endotoxin (LPS) structure. The O antigen polysaccharide is
exposed on the exterior of the cell, whereas the lipid A faces
the interior.
                                                                                          
                                                                          

Bacterial spores. The spore contains the entire DNA genome of the bacterium surrounded by a thick,
resistant coat.
Important Features of Spores Medical Implications
Highly resistant to heating; spores are not killed by Medical supplies must be heated to 121°C for at
boiling (100°C), but are killed at 121°C. least 15 minutes to be sterilized.

Highly resistant to many chemicals, including most Only solutions designated as sporicidal will kill
disinfectants. This is attributed to the thick, spores.
keratinlike coat of the spore.

They can survive for many years, especially in the Wounds contaminated with soil can be infected
soil. with spores and cause diseases such as tetanus (C.
tetani) and gas gangrene (C. perfringens).

They exhibit no measurable metabolic activity. Antibiotics are ineffective against spores because
antibiotics act by inhibiting certain metabolic
pathways of bacteria. Also, spore coat is
impermeable to antibiotics.

Spores form when nutrients are insufficient but Spores are not often found at the site of infections
then germinate to form bacteria when nutrients because nutrients are not limiting. Bacteria rather
become available. than spores are usually seen in Gram-stained
smears.

Spores are produced by members of only two Infections transmitted by spores are caused by
genera of bacteria of medical importance, Bacillus species of either Bacillus or Clostridium.
and Clostridium, both of which are gram-positive
rods.
                                                                        

                                                                                    
               

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