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Indus Valley
Pakistan
Indus Valley Civilization
Fertile River Valleys
• 2 river valleys: Ganges and Indus
• South is dry and hilly
• Eastern and Western coasts are lush, fertile
plains.
• Monsoons
– Winter – cold, dry air from mts
– Summer – warm, wet air from
the Arabian Sea

03/31/20 11
Politics & Government
•The government divided the region
into city states-Well organized
monarch
•Governed by powerful Priests-kings
•The religion was the basis for their
government, with all of their laws
coming from their religious beliefs.
•Just like the Sumer civilization of
Mesopotamia and the Egyptian
civilization, the government of the
Indus Valley was ruled by religion
• The Indus Valley people called their
kings, rajas.
• The rulers governed through trade
and religion, instead of military
strength…
• The king did not have the highest
class or power as the kings did in
other civilizations…
• A citadel is a barrier of a civilization to
protect it from invasions and natural
disasters. In Mohenjo-Daro their was a
fortress within the citadel.
• This deals with government because the
kings and rulers of the Indus valley used
these citadels to their advantage to gain
authority. This is where the rulers held
their authority from
Indus River Valley
• This civilization is still
mysterious.
• The writing has not
been translated.
Indus River Civilization
• We do know the cities
were sophisticated
enough to have brick
walls surrounding
them for protection
against flooding from
the Indus River.
Ancient India’s Social Classes
Various artifacts found
What are artifacts?

Artifact—a human-made
object, typically of cultural or
historical interest
India’s greatest advancements were
in mathematics.
• Invented the zero and the symbol for it
(another for infinity)
• The number system we use today (1-9)
• Algebra
• Set algorithms
Ancient India’s contributions
• Farmers raised cattle, made the cow sacred and
could not be killed.
• Grew wheat, millet, barley, and rice
• Developed iron plow
• Developed a written language – Sanskitt
Ancient India’s religions
• Hinduism
• Buddhism
Hinduism
• 3rd largest in the world
• Four Vedas (sacred writings)– basic principles
formulated here
• Brahman – one universal spirit with different parts
• Brahmins – priests
• Upanishads – sacred texts
• Reincarnation
• Dharma – divine law
Buddhism
• Founded by Siddhartha
Guatama
• Nirvana – state of wisdom
• 4 Noble Truths
1. Life is full of suffering.
2. People suffer because they desire
worldly things and self-satisfaction.
3. The way to end suffering is to stop
desiring things.
4. The only way to stop desiring things is
to follow the Eightfold Path.
Indus Economy
• Just like the other river
valley civilizations, the
Indus river valley people
were mostly farmers.
• Traditional economy
• They traded with the
Chinese, with the
Sumerians
(Mesopotamians) and
sometimes with the
Egyptians.