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CHAPTER 3

VOLTAGE DROP
AND
SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

EEP 5252
Power Utilisation

Dr Mohd Taufiq Bin Ishak


2020@JKE/FKJ
Outlines

 Introduction
 Voltage Ranges
 Definition of Voltage Drop
 Cable Impedances
 Transformer Voltage Drop
 Voltage Drop Due to Motor Starting
 Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Fault Currents
 Equivalent System Impedance
 Short Circuit Analysis in Three-phase Systems
 Short Circuit Analysis in Single-phase Systems

2
Introduction

 Voltage drop on electrical power distribution systems is


mainly caused by cables, transformers, and motors.
 Voltage drop happens when load current (Ib) flows
through a conductor or transformer having a finite
impedance.
 Severe voltage drop will result in motor failures,
dimming of lamps, and CPU shutdown.
 Voltage drop calculation is important to system designer
for maintaining nominal voltage at servicing sides.

3
Voltage Range
 According to 17th Edition of IEE Wiring Regulations
(BS7671: 2008, Table 12A), the voltage drop
between the origin of an installation and any load
point should not be greater than the values in
Table 12A expressed with respect to the value of
the nominal voltage of the installation. Max. 100m
only. Increase 0.005% per meter if beyond 100m.

Table 12 A – Voltage drop


Lighting Other uses
i. Low voltage installation supplied
directly from a public low voltage 3% 5%
distribution system
ii. Low voltage installation supplied
6% 4
8%
from private LV supply
Phasor Diagram Representing
Voltage Drop Phenomenon
VD(R)
VD(X)

VSEND

 VREC jXSIA
IARA
IA

5
Definition of Voltage Drop

 Approximation method:

Vdrop  I b   R L  cosθ  X L  sinθ 

RL = circuit resistance in Ohms


XL = circuit reactance in Ohms
Ib = design current/ line current
 = phase angle of line current
 If VA = system voltage,
Vdrop
%Vdrop   100%
VA 6
Example 1

Determine the percentage voltage drop along a 415V,


three-phase feeder, 85ft in length, consisting of one 400
THW (Thermoplastic Heat and Water Resistant Insulated
Wire) copper conductor per phase. The current is 350A
at 0.85 PF lagging. Assume steel conduit.

7
Solution 1

From the table of 600V cables, resistance =


0.035/1000ft, reactance = 0.049/1000ft.
0.035
RL   85  0.002975
1000
0.049
XL   85  0.004165
1000
   cos1 (0.85)  31.79
Vdrop  350A   0.002975  cos(31.79)  0.004165  sin(31.79)  1.65V
1.65V
%Vdrop   100%  0.69%
239.6V

8
Definition of Voltage Drop
 Tabulated mV/A/m values:
tabulated(mV/A/m)z  I b  
Vdrop  volts
1000

 Taking account of load power factor (for AC circuits using


conductors of 16mm2 or less),
tabulated(mV/A/m)z  I b   cos
Vdrop  volts
1000

 For AC circuits using conductors of 25mm2 or greater,

[tabulated(mV/A/m)r  cos  tabulated(mV/A/m)x  sin  ]  I b  


Vdrop  volts
1000

Note: Refer to Tabulated Table of Voltage Drop (17 th IEE Regulations)


9
Example 2
A 415V three-phase AC circuit is wired in a four-core
armoured cable to BS5467 having XLPE insulation and
aluminium conductors of 35mm2 cross-sectional area. If
Ib = 120A, length = 27m, and (mV/A/m)z = 1.95, what is
the percentage voltage drop?

10
Solution 2
1.95  120  27
Vdrop  V  6.32V
1000
6.32
%Vdrop  100%  2.64%
415 / 3

11
Cable Impedances

 Three-phase voltage drop calculations is referred to as


the “one-way” impedance.
 The ohmic cable impedances:
Resistance in Ohms/1000ft
RL   (Cable length in ft)
1000
Reactancein Ohms/1000ft
XL   (Cable length in ft)
1000

12
Cable Impedances

 Single-phase voltage drop considers the load current


flowing from the source to the load and back to the
source. Thus, the ohmic cable impedances are
calculated as:
Resistance in Ohms/1000ft
RL  2  (Cable length in ft)
1000
Reactancein Ohms/1000ft
XL  2   (Cable length in ft)
1000

13
Example 3

Determine the voltage drop along a 240V, single-phase


branch circuit 135ft in length, consisting of 10 AWG
THW copper conductor. The load current is 13-25A.
Assume PVC conduit.

14
Solution 3

From the table of 600V cables, resistance =


1.2/1000ft, reactance = 0.050/1000ft.
1.2
RL  2   135  0.324
1000
0.050
X L  2  135  0.0135
1000
Vdrop  13A   0.324  cos(25)  0.0135  sin(25)  3.89V
3.89V
%Vdrop   100%  1.62%
240V

15
Transformer Voltage Drop

 The voltage drop through the transformer using


approximation method is,

Vdrop  I LS   R TR  cosθ  X TR  sinθ 

 In percentage,

Vdrop
%Vdrop   100%
VLS

16
Transformer Voltage Drop
 Three-phase transformer impedances reflected to the low-voltage
side are given by,
1  (%R)(Secondary line voltage)2 
R TR   
100  Transformer voltampere rating 
 
1  (%X)(Secondary line voltage)2 
X TR   
100  Transformer voltampere rating 
 

 If given in %ZTR and X/R ratio,

  tan -1(X/R)

%R TR  %ZTR  cos
%X TR  %ZTR  sin
17
Example 4

Determine the voltage drop through a 115kVA, 3300-


415Y V, three-phase transformer having an impedance
of 4%, and an X/R ratio of 1.8. The transformer is
operating at full load, 0.82 lagging power factor.

18
Solution 4

The impedance angle,


 = tan-1 (1.8) = 60.95
Transformer %RTR and %XTR,
%RTR = 4% x cos(60.95) = 1.94%
%XTR = 4% x sin(60.95) = 3.50%
RTR and XTR,
1  (1.94%)( 415V ) 2 
RTR     0.02905
100  115 kVA 
1  (3.50%)( 415V ) 2 
X TR     0.05242
100  115 kVA  19
Solution 4 (Cont’d)

Full-load current of the transformer,


115 kVA
I LS    cos 1 (0.82)  160  34.92 A
3  415V
Voltage drop,
Vdrop  160 A   0.02905  cos( 34.92)  0.05242  sin( 34.92)  8.61V
8.61V
%Vdrop  100%  2.07%
415V

20
Voltage Drop Due to Motor
Starting
 Voltage drop or voltage dips occurs due to large motor
starting.
 The voltage drop is large when starting large motors
applied to systems having a relatively high source
impedance.
 2 common methods to determine voltage drop due to
the motor starting:
 Constant Impedance
 Constant Current

21
Example 5

A 50HP, 415V, code letter G induction motor is to be


started with full voltage applied from a 415V/240V
system whose equivalent impedance is 0.01+j0.02
ohms/phase. Assume a locked-rotor power factor of 35%
lagging. Calculate the percentage voltage drop during
starting using (a) the constant impedance and (b) the
constant current representations.

22
Solution 5
(a) The locked-rotor kVA/HP is 6.3 (take the worst case). The
locked-rotor kVA during starting,
kVALR = 6.3 kVA/HP x 50HP = 315 kVA
The locked-rotor current,
315kVA
I LR   438.23A
3  415V
The active and reactive power during starting,
P = (315kVA) x (0.35) = 110.25 kW
Q = (315kVA) x [sin(cos-1(0.35))] = 295.1kVAr

23
Solution 5 (Cont’d)

Locked-rotor R and X,
1  110.25kW 
R     0.1913

3  438.232 
1  295.1kVAr 
X      0.5122
3  438.23 
2

Voltage at motor terminal,


 0.1913 j 0.5122 

VM  2400   230.620.24V
 0.1913 j 0.5122 0.01 j 0.02 
Voltage drop,

240V  230.62V
%Vdrop   100%  3.91% 24

240V
Solution 5 (Cont’d)

(b) Constant current,


IM = 438.23-69.51
Voltage drop (using approximation method),
Vdrop  438.23A   0.01  cos(69.51)  0.02  sin(69.51)  9.74V
9.74V
%Vdrop   100%  4.05%
240V

25
Voltage Drop Due to Motor
Starting (approximation)
 In some cases, the locked-rotor power factor (cos) of
the motor may not be known.
 In this case, it is possible to have an approximation
value of voltage drop due to motor starting by assuming
that the voltage drop is in-phase with the source
voltage.
 For previous Example 5, the Vdrop,
Vdrop = I x Z = 438.23A x 0.01+j0.02 = 9.8V.
 The %Vdrop,
%Vdrop = (9.8V/240V) x 100% = 4.08%

26
Example 6 (single-phase)

Determine the voltage drop at the service panel for the


system below. The total load is 8kVA@0.85 lagging
power factor.
415-240V
30kVA
R=1.8%
X=1.5% Service
#3/0 AWG
aluminum PVC
conduit
120ft
40A

Service entrance panel 27

8kVA, 0.85 PF lagging


Solution 6

 Step 1 – Determine all system impedances


Transformer:
1  (1.8%)( 240V ) 2 
RTR     0.03456
100  30kVA 
1  (1.5%)( 240V ) 2 
X TR     0.0288
100  30kVA 

Cable/Wire:
0.13
RL  2   (120 ft )  0.0312
1000
0.042
X L  2  (120 ft )  0.0101
1000 28
Solution 6 (cont’d)

 Step 2 – Determine load supplied at the end of each


segment or portion of the system.
The loading is 8kVA@0.85 PF lagging.

 Step 3 – Determine the load current magnitude and


phase angle.
8kVA
I  33.33 A  cos 1 (0.85)  33.33  31.79 A
240V

29
Solution 6 (cont’d)

 Step 4 – Calculate the %Vdrop along each segment of the


circuit, starting at source.
Transformer:
Vdrop  33.33 A   0.03456  cos( 31.79)  0.0288  sin( 31.79)  1.48V
1.48V
%Vdrop   100%  0.62%
240V

Cable/Wire:

Vdrop  33.33 A   0.0312  cos( 31.79)  0.0101  sin( 31.79)  1.06V


1.06V
%Vdrop  100%  0.44%
240V
30
Solution 6 (cont’d)

 Step 5 – Add the %Vdrop along each segment, starting at


the source to the point of interest.
The total voltage drop at the panel is:
Transformer : 0.62%
Cable/Wire : 0.44%
Total : 1.06%

31
Example 7 (three-phase)
Determine the %Vdrop at the Main Distribution Panel (MDP) and at
the end of the Service Panel (SP) for the system shown below.

32
Example 7 (three-phase)
Transformer TR1
800kVA
6600 – 1000V
R = 1.5%, X = 5%

30ft two 400 kcmil copper/phase, steel conduit

2000A
MDP
600kVA, 0.9 lagging PF 1500A

400A

250A

35ft #8 AWG aluminum, steel conduit


Transformer TR2
40kVA
1000 – 415V
R = 3.5%, X = 4%

12ft #12 AWG copper, aluminum conduit

150A
SP
100A 20kVA, 0.85 lagging PF
33
Solution 7

 Step 1 – Determine all system impedances


Transformer (TR1):
1  (1.5%)(1000V ) 2 
RTR1     0.01875
100  800kVA 
1  (5%)(1000V ) 2 
X TR1     0.0625
100  800kVA 
Cable (400 kcmil):

0.035
RL   (30 ft )  0.00105
1000
0.049
XL   (30 ft )  0.00147 34
1000
Solution 7 (cont’d)

Cable (#8 AWG):


1.3
RL   (35 ft )  0.0455
1000
0.065
XL   (35 ft )  0.002275
1000

Transformer (TR2):

1  (3.5%)( 415V ) 2 
RTR 2     0.1507
100  40kVA 
1  (4%)( 415V ) 2 
X TR 2     0.1722
100  40kVA  35
Solution 7 (cont’d)

Cable (#12 AWG):


2.0
RL   (12 ft )  0.024
1000
0.054
XL   (12 ft )  0.000648
1000

 Step 2 – Determine load supplied at the end of each


segment or portion of the system.
Loading until MDP is 600kVA@0.9 lagging PF.
Loading from MDP until SP is 20kVA@0.85 lagging PF.

36
Solution 7 (cont’d)

 Step 3 – Determine the load current magnitude and


phase angle.
Through Transformer TR1,
600kVA
I  346.41  cos 1 (0.90) A  346.41  25.84 A
3 1000V
Through Cable (#8 AWG),
20kVA
I  11 .55  cos 1 (0.85) A  11 .55  31.79 A
3 1000V
Through Transformer TR2,

20kVA
I  27.82  cos 1 (0.85) A  27.82 3731.79 A
3  415V
Solution 7 (cont’d)

Summary of load currents:

Load Current (A)


Transformer (TR1) 346.41  25.84 A
Cable (400 kcmil) 173.21  25.84 A / conductor
11 .55  31.79 A
Cable (#8 AWG)
27.82  31.79 A
Transformer (TR2)
27.82  31.79 A
Cable (#12 AWG)

38
Solution 7 (cont’d)

 Step 4 – Calculate the %Vdrop along each segment of the


circuit, starting at source.
Transformer (TR1):
Vdrop  346.41A   0.01875  cos( 25.84)  0.0625  sin( 25.84)  15.28V
15.28V
%Vdrop  100%  1.53%
1000V

Cable (400 kcmil):


Vdrop  173.21A   0.00105  cos( 25.84)  0.00147  sin( 25.84)  0.27V
0.27V
%Vdrop   100%  0.05%
577.35V

39
Solution 7 (cont’d)

Cable (#8 AWG):


Vdrop  11 .55 A   0.0455  cos( 31.79)  0.002275  sin( 31.79)  0.46V
0.46V
%Vdrop  100%  0.08%
577.35V

Transformer (TR2):
Vdrop  27.82 A   0.1507  cos( 31.79)  0.1722  sin( 31.79)  6.09V
6.09V
%Vdrop  100%  1.47%
415V

40
Solution 7 (cont’d)

Cable (#12 AWG):


Vdrop  27.82 A   0.024  cos( 31.79)  0.000648  sin( 31.79)  0.58V
0.58V
%Vdrop   100%  0.24%
239.6V

41
Solution 7 (cont’d)
 Step 5 – Add the %Vdrop along each segment, starting at the source to
the point of interest.

The total voltage drop at service panel is:


Transformer (TR1) : 1.53%
Cable (400 kcmil) : 0.05%
Cable (#8 AWG) : 0.08%
Transformer (TR2) : 1.47%
Cable (#12 AWG) : 0.24%
Total : 3.37%

42
Hornet…

43
Short Circuit Calculations

Types of
current

Normal Overload Short-circuit Ground-fault


current current current current

44
Normal Current
 Normal, or load, current may be defined as the current specifically
designed to be drawn by a load under normal operating conditions.
 Normal motor current varies from low values (under light loading)
to medium values (under medium loading) to maximum values
(under maximum loading).
 Normal current flows only in the normal circuit path. The normal
circuit path includes the phase and neutral conductors. It does not
include equipment grounding conductors.

45
Overload Current
 Overload current is greater in magnitude than full load current and
flows only in the normal circuit path.
 It is commonly caused by overloaded equipment, single-phasing, or
low line voltage, and thus is considered to be an abnormal current.
 Some overload currents, such as motor starting currents (or locked-
rotor current), are only temporary. Overload current is greater in
magnitude than full-load amperes but less than locked-rotor
amperes.

46
Short-circuit Current
 Short-circuit current is greater than locked-rotor current and may
range upwards of thousands of amperes.
 The maximum value is limited by the maximum short-circuit current
available on the system at the fault point.
 Short-circuit current may be further classified as bolted or arcing.
Large amounts of short-circuit current will flow into a bolted fault
than the arcing fault.

47
Ground-fault Current
 Ground-fault current consists of any current which flows outside
the normal circuit path.
 Ground-fault current flow in the equipment grounding conductor
for low-voltage systems.
 In medium- and high-voltage systems, ground-fault current may
return to the source through the earth.
 Ground-fault current on low-voltage systems may be classified as
leakage, bolted, or arcing.

48
Sources of Short-circuit Current

 Synchronous generators - when a short-circuit occurs downstream


of a synchronous generator, it may continue to produce output
voltage and current.
 Synchronous motors - delivers short-circuit current into the fault
until the motor completely stops
 Induction motors - short-circuit current decays very quickly.
 Supply transformers - Transformer impedances will also limit the
amount of short-circuit current from the utility generators.

49
Sources of Short-circuit Current

Synchronous Generator

Induction Motor

Synchronous Motor 50
Symmetrical and
Asymmetrical Fault Currents

Totally Symmetrical Current

51

Totally Asymmetrical Current Partially Asymmetrical Current


Symmetrical and

Asymmetrical Fault Currents
“Symmetrical" and “Asymmetrical” are terms used to describe the
symmetry of the short-circuit current waveform around the zero axis.
 If a short-circuit occurs in an inductive reactive circuit at the peak of
the voltage waveform, the resulting short-circuit current will be
totally symmetrical.
 If a short-circuit, in the same circuit, occurs at the zero of the voltage
waveform, the resulting short-circuit current will be totally
asymmetrical.

52
Symmetrical and
Asymmetrical

Fault Currents
The symmetrical short circuit current consists only the pure AC
component inside its sinusoidal waveform. It is applicable only for
balanced three-phase power system and can be calculated as the
total line-to-neutral voltage over the total impedances on the
power system.
 The asymmetrical short circuit current is the actual current that
flows during a fault condition. It consists of DC and AC components
that contribute to a certain amount of ‘DC offset’ in the waveform
immediately after the initiation of the fault. The amount of ‘DC
offset’ or asymmetry depends on the point when the fault occurs.

53
Symmetrical and
Asymmetrical

Fault Currents
The instantaneous peak short circuit current is the maximum peak
instantaneous fault current on the asymmetrical short circuit
current waveform. It is a function of X/R of the system.

Instantaneous peak short circuit current


Asymmetrical short circuit current

Symmetrical short circuit current

54
Symmetrical and
Asymmetrical Fault Currents
jXL i(t)
R
t=0s
+
Vm sin(t   ) Fault
-

Line-to-Neutral Equivalent Circuit


i (t )  2  I rms sin(t   Z )  sin( Z )  e  (R / X ) t 
Vm X 
I rms   Z  tan 1  
2  ZS ZS  R2  X 2
R
55
Symmetrical and
Asymmetrical Fault Currents
 First half-cycle asymmetrical fault current:

I rms ,1 2  (rms half - cycle factor)  I rms

 The rms half-cycle factor:


T
1 2
T 0
i (t )dt
First half - cycle rms multiplyin g factor 
rms Symmetrica l short circuit current

56
Example 8
The source impedance at a 12.47kV distribution substation bus is
0.4 + j1.5 ohms per phase. Calculate (a) the rms fault current, (b)
the maximum peak instantaneous value of fault current, and (c) the
rms value of the half-cycle fault current if a balanced three-phase
fault occurs.

57
Solution 8

(a) The line-to-neutral voltage:


12.47kV
VLN   7.2kV
3
The rms symmetrical fault current:
7.2kV
I rms   4638 A
(0.4  1.5 )
2 2

58
Solution 8

(b) The system X/R ratio = 1.5/0.4 = 3.75

From table, the instantaneous peak factor is determine


by interpolation:
(2.0892  1.9495)
 (3.75  3.0)  1.9495
(4.0  3.0)
 2.0543
The maximum peak instantaneous value of fault current
is
Ip = (2.0543)(4638A) = 9528A

59
Solution 8

(c) The rms half-cycle multiplying factor is determine


by interpolation from table,
(1.191  1.115 )
 (3.75  3.0)  1.115
(4.0  3.0)
 1.172
The rms half-cycle asymmetrical fault current is,
Irms,1/2 = (1.172)(4638A) = 5436A

60
Equivalent System Impedance
 To determine short circuit current, the total impedances of the
system to the fault point must be established.
 Common system impedances – equivalent system, transformers,
cables, etc.
 All impedances placed before transformer need to be reflected to
its low voltage side.

61
Short Circuit Analysis in
Three-phase

Systems
Since the three-phase fault condition results in a balanced set of
short circuit current, the rms short circuit current at a particular
fault point is calculated as:
Line - to - neutral voltage
I rms 
Z total
 The X/R ratio is used to determine the instantaneous peak factor
and half-cycle factor.
 Half-cycle factor is used to calculate the asymmetrical fault
current.

62
Example 9
Determine the RMS symmetrical, RMS asymmetrical and peak short
circuit magnitudes for a three-phase fault occurring at (a) F1 and
(b) F2 for the power system shown in Figure below.

63
Equivalent system
3-phase SC MVA = 65MVA@3.3kV, X/R = 3

Transformer TR1
750kVA
3300 – 1100V
Z = 5.75%, X/R = 5

50ft three 400 kcmil copper/phase, steel conduit

1000A

F1 1000A

400A

250A

10ft #4/0 AWG copper, steel conduit


Transformer TR2
75kVA
1100 – 415V
Z = 1.8%, X/R = 1.5

10ft 250 kcmil copper, steel conduit

400A

250A F2 64
Solution 9

Equivalent system impedance,


(3300V ) 2
Z sys   0.1675
65MVA

Impedance angle,
  tan 1 (3)  71.57

Rsys  0.1675  cos(71.57)  0.05295


X sys  0.1675  sin( 71.57)  0.1589

65
Solution 9 (cont’d)

The equivalent system impedance referred to the low


voltage side of TR1, 2
 1100V 
Rsys ( LS )  0.05295     0.005883
 3300V 
2
 1100V 
X sys ( LS )  0.1589     0.01766
 3300V 

%R and %X of TR1,

  tan 1 (5)  78.69


% RTR1  5.75%  cos(78.69)  1.13%
% X TR1  5.75%  sin( 78.69)  5.64%
66
Solution 9 (cont’d)

RTR1 and XTR1 of TR1,


1  (1.13%)(1100V ) 2 
RTR1     0.01823
100  750kVA 
1  (5.64%)(1100V ) 2 
X TR1     0.09099
100  750kVA 

Rc and Xc of 400 kcmil cable (From Table),


 1   0.035 
Rc       50 ft  0.00058
 3   1000  R  0.035 / 1000 ft
 1   0.049  X  0.049 / 1000 ft
Xc       50 ft  0.00082
 3   1000 
67
Solution 9 (cont’d)

(a) The total impedance to fault at F1,


Equivalent system : 0.005883 + j0.01766
Transformer (TR1) : 0.01832 + j0.09099
Cable (400 kcmil) : 0.00058 + j0.00082
Total : 0.024783 + j0.10947
Z sys
 0.1122 
 X / R  sys  4.42

68
Solution 9 (cont’d)

The RMS symmetrical short circuit current at F1,


635.09V
I RMS   5,660 A
0.1122 
Instantaneous peak factor (interpolation),
(2.1924  2.0892)
 (4.42  4.0)  2.0892
(5.0  4.0)
 2.1325
Peak instantaneous current,
Ip = (2.1325) x (5,660A) = 12,070A

69
Solution 9 (cont’d)

Half-cycle factor,
(1.263  1.191)
 (4.42  4.0)  1.191
(5.0  4.0)
 1.2212
Half-cycle RMS asymmetrical current,
IRMS/1/2 = (1.2212) x (5,660A) = 6,912A

70
Solution 9 (cont’d)
(b) Rc and Xc of #4/0 AWG cable (from table),

 0.063 
Rc    10 ft  0.00063
 1000  R  0.063 / 1000 ft
 0.051 X  0.051 / 1000 ft
Xc    10 ft  0.00051
 1000 
Rc and Xc (#4/0 AWG) referred to low voltage side of TR2,

2
 415V 
Rc  0.00063     0.00009
 1100V 
2
 415V 
Xc  0.00051    0.00007
 1100V  71
Solution 9 (cont’d)

  tan 1 (1.5)  56.31


%R and %X of TR2,
% RTR 2  1.8%  cos(56.31)  1.00%
% X TR 2  1.8%  sin( 56.31)  1.50%
1  (1.00%)( 415V ) 2 
RTR 2     0.02296
100  75kVA 
1  (1.50%)( 415V ) 2 
X TR 2     0.03445
100  75kVA 

72
Solution 9 (cont’d)

The Rc and Xc of 250 kcmil cable,


 0.054  R  0.054 / 1000 ft
Rc     10 ft  0.00054
 1000  X  0.052 / 1000 ft
 0.052 
Xc    10 ft  0.00052
 1000 
R and X up to point F1 reflected to the low voltage side
of TR2,
2
 415V 
Rsys,TR 2  0.024783     0.00353
 1100V 
2
 415V 
X sys,TR 2  0.10947     0.01558 73
 1100V 
Solution 9 (cont’d)

The total impedance to F2,


Equivalent up to F1 : 0.00353 + j0.01558
Cable #4/0 AWG : 0.00009 + j0.00007
Transformer (TR2) : 0.02296 + j0.03445
Cable 250 kcmil : 0.00054 + j0.00052
Total : 0.02712 + j0.05062

Z sys
 0.05743

 X / R sys  1.87

74
Solution 9 (cont’d)

The RMS symmetrical short circuit current at F2,


239.6V
I RMS   4,172 A
0.05743
Instantaneous peak factor (interpolation),
(1.7560  1.5122)
 (1.87  1.0)  1.5122
(2.0  1.0)
 1.7243
Peak instantaneous current,
Ip = (1.7243) x (4,172A) = 7,194A

75
Solution 9 (cont’d)

Half-cycle factor,
(1.042  1.002)
 (1.87  1.0)  1.002
(2.0  1.0)
 1.0368
Half-cycle RMS asymmetrical current,
IRMS/1/2 = (1.0368) x (4,172A) = 4,326A

76
Short Circuit Analysis in
Single-phase

Systems
In single-phase system, the only possible fault is line-to-ground
fault across 240V.
 The short circuit current is calculated as:

Line - to - neutral voltage 240V


I rms  
Z total Z total

77
Example 10
Determine the rms symmetrical, rms asymmetrical, and peak short
circuit current magnitudes for a single-phase, line-to-ground fault
occurring at point F1 for the power system shown below.

78
Equivalent system
Three-phase: MVA = 65MVA@6.6kV, X/R = 3
Single-phase: ILG = 2kA, X/R = 2.4

50kVA
6600 – 415V
R = 1.9%
X = 2.2%
240V
Service
100ft #4/0 AWG AL,
Steel conduit

240V

50ft #12 AWG


copper, steel conduit
F1 79
Solution 10

The equivalent system impedance,


6600V / 3
Z sys,1   1.9053
2000 A
  tan 1 (2.4)  67.4
Rsys,1  1.9053  cos(67.4)  0.7322
X sys,1  1.9053  sin( 67.4)  1.7590
Reflecting system R and X to the 240V,
2
 240V 
'
Rsys ,1  0.7322     0.002905
 6600V / 3 
2
 240V 
'
X sys ,1  1.7590     0.006978 80
 6600V / 3 
Solution 10 (cont’d)
Transformer R and X referred to low voltage side,
1  (1.9%)( 415V ) 2 
RTR     0.06544
100  50kVA 
1  (2.2%)( 415V ) 2 
X TR     0.07578
100  50kVA 
Transformer R and X for the half-winding (or single-phase)
condition,

RTR ,1  1 / 3 (0.06544)  0.02181


X TR ,1  1 / 3 (0.07578)  0.02526
81
Solution 10 (cont’d)
The Rc and Xc of the #4/0 AWG AL cable,

0.1
Rc  2  100 ft  0.02
1000
0.051
Xc  2   100 ft  0.0102
1000
The Rc and Xc of the #12 AWG copper cable,

2.0
Rc  2   50 ft  0.2
1000
0.0541
Xc  2   50 ft  0.0054
1000
82
Solution 10 (cont’d)
Total impedances to F1,

System impedance : 0.002905 + j0.006978


Transformer : 0.02181 + j0.02526
Cable #4/0 : 0.02 + j0.0102
Cable #12 : 0.2 + j0.0054
Total : 0.244715 + j0.047838

Z total  0.2493
X / R ratio  0.2

83
Solution 10 (cont’d)
The rms symmetrical short circuit current,

240V
I rms   962.7 A
0.2493
The instantaneous peak factor = 1.4142, and the half-cycle rms
factor = 1.0.

The peak current,


Ip = 1.4142(962.7A) = 1,361.5A

The rms first half-cycle asymmetrical current,


Irms,1/2 = 1.0(962.7A) = 962.7A

84