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Iot Sensing



Input Signal Output Signal

Sensor Processor Actuato
Transducer’s input Transducer’s output

Source: “Sensor” Online:

Transducer (Contd.)
• Converts a signal from one physical form to another physical
• Physical form: thermal, electric, mechanical, magnetic,
chemical, and optical
• Energy converter
• Example:
Microphone : Converts sound to electrical signal
Speaker : Converts electrical signal to sound
Antenna : Converts electromagnetic energy into electricity and vice versa
Strain gauge : Converts strain to electrical
Definition of Sensor

 The characteristic of any device or material to

detect the presence of a particular physical
 The output of sensor is signal, which is converted to
human readable form
Sensor (Contd.)

Temperature and Gas (LPG, CH4, and CO) Ultrasonic sensor - CMOS
Humidity detector sensor HC-SR04 Camera
sensor – DH22 - MQ-5

PIR Rain detector Fire detector

sensor sensor sensor

Energ Actuato Signal

y r
Motion / Force

An actuator is part of the system that deals with the

control action required (mechanical action)
Mechanical or electro-mechanical devices
Actuator (Contd.)

A control signal is input to an actuator

and an energy source is necessary for
its operation
Available in both micro and macro DC Motor

Example: Electric motor, solenoid, hard

drive stepper motor, comb drive,

hydraulic cylinder, piezoelectric
actuator, and pneumatic actuator
Internet of Things (IoT)
What is IoT?
The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects
or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and
network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and
exchange data.

IoT allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across

existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more
direct integration between the physical world and computer-based
systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and
economic benefit.
"Things," in the IoT sense, can refer to a wide variety
of devices such as heart monitoring implants, biochip
transponders on farm animals, electric clams in coastal
waters, automobiles with built-in sensors, DNA analysis
devices for environmental/food/pathogen monitoring or
field operation devices that assist fire-fighters in search
and rescue operations.

These devices collect useful data with the help of

various existing technologies and then autonomously
flow the data between other devices.
How IoT Works?
Internet of Things is not the result of a single novel
technology; instead, several complementary technical
developments provide capabilities that taken together help to
bridge the gap between the virtual and physical world. These
capabilities include:
Communication and cooperation
Embedded information processing
User interfaces
How IoT Works?

RFID Sensor Smart Tech Nano Tech

To identify To collect and To enhance the To make the

and track process the power of the smaller and
the data of data to detect network by smaller things
things the changes in devolving have the ability
the physical processing to connect and
status of capabilities to interact.
things different part of
the network.
The Structure of IoT
The IoT can be viewed as a large network consisting
of networks of devices and computers connected through
a series of intermediate technologies where numerous
technologies like RFIDs, wireless connections may act as
enablers of this connectivity.

Tagging Things : Real-time item traceability and addressability by RFIDs.

Feeling Things : Sensors act as primary devices to collect data from the
Shrinking Things : Miniaturization and Nanotechnology has provoked the
ability of smaller things to interact and connect within the “things” or “smart
Thinking Things : Embedded intelligence in devices through sensors has
formed the network connection to the Internet. It can make the “things”
realizing the intelligent control.
Current Status & Future Prospect of IoT

“Change is the only thing permanent in this world”

IoT as a Network of Networks:

These networks connected with added security, analytics, and

management capabilities. This will allow IoT to become even
more powerful in what it can help people achieve.
Knowledge Management –
Turning Data into Wisdom

The more data that is created, the better understanding and

wisdom people can obtain.
The Future of IoT

"The Sky's not the limit. It's only the beginning with IoT."
The Potential of IoT
Unlock the Massive potential of IoT
Technology roadmap of IoT
Applications of IoT

"The Ultimate Goal of IOT is to Automate Human Life."

• Smart homes filled with connected products are loaded
with possibilities to make our lives easier, more
convenient, and more comfortable.
• Ranks as highest Internet of Things application on all
measured channels.
• The total amount of funding for Smart Home start-ups
currently exceeds $2.5bn.
• Includes prominent start up names such as Nest as well
as a number of multinational corporations like Philips,
Haier, or Belkin.
• The second hot area in IoT.
• Most of them connected with Smart
• Devices worn on wrist
• Ex.Smart Watches-SAMSUNG GEAR
• Devices put on like a spectacle
Ex. Google Glass
• Smart garments.
• Skin coloured Tatoo/patch like
• Smart city includes traffic management to water
distribution, to waste management, urban
security and environmental monitoring.
• Many Smart City solutions have promised to
alleviate real pains of people living in cities these
• IoT solutions in the area of Smart City solve traffic
congestion problems, reduce noise and pollution
and help make cities safer.
• Smart grid uses information about the
behaviours of electricity suppliers and
consumers in an automated fashion.
• This technology helps in:
• Deliver power more efficiently
• Improve operations
• Reduce emissions and management costs
• Restore power failures faster.
• Aims at improving productivity and
efficiency in businesses.
• Many market researches such as Gartner
or Cisco see the industrial IoT as the IoT
concept with the highest overall potential.
• However its popularity currently doesn’t
reach the masses like smart home or
wearable do.
Applications can be separated into two categories:
1. In vehicle applications
2. V2V (Vehicle to vehicle) applications
 Focuses on 2 areas
1. Improving the customer experience
2. Optimizing supply chain operation
Few more Applications of IoT
Building and Home automation
Medical and Healthcare systems
Environmental monitoring
Infrastructure management
Energy management
Better quality of life for elderly
... ... ...
You name it, and you will have it in IoT!
Sensors in even the holy cow!
In the world of IoT, even the cows will be connected and
monitored. Sensors are implanted in the ears of cattle. This
allows farmers to monitor cows’ health and track their
movements, ensuring a healthier, more plentiful supply of milk
and meat for people to consume. On average, each cow
generates about 200 MB of information per year.
IoT helps you in LIFE LOGGING
1. Tagging Things : Real-time item
traceability and addressability by
RFID- Radio Frequency
• Widely used in Transport and Logistics
• Easy to deploy: RFID tags and RFID
2. Feeling Things : Sensors act as
primary devices to collect data
from the environment.
3.Shrinking Things : Miniaturization and
Nanotechnology has provoked the ability
of smaller things to interact and connect
with smart devices.
4.Thinking Things :
Embedded intelligence in devices
through sensors has formed the network
connection to the Internet.
Efficient waste management in smart cities through IoT
At present IoT is faced with many challenges, such as:
• Scalability
• Technological Standardization
• Inter operability
• Discovery
• Software complexity
• Data volumes and interpretation
• Power Supply
• Interaction and short range communication
• Wireless communication
• Fault tolerance
Criticisms and Controversies
of IoT
Scholars and social observers and pessimists have doubts
about the promises of the ubiquitous computing revolution,
in the areas as:
 Privacy
 Security
 Autonomy and Control
 Social control
 Political manipulation
 Design
 Environmental impact
 Influences human moral decision making