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Introductory Mathematics &

Statistics

Chapter 1

Basic Mathematics

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-1
Learning outcomes

1.1 Carry out calculations involving whole numbers


1.2 Carry out calculations involving fractions
1.3 Carry out calculations involving decimals
1.4 Carry out calculations involving exponents
1.5 Use and understand scientific notation
1.6 Use and understand logarithms

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-2
1.1 Whole numbers
• The decimal system consists of
– Numerals
 Symbols, i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3 are numerals
 Represent natural numbers or whole numbers
 Used to count whole objects or fractions of them

– Integers
 Another name for whole numbers
 A positive integer is a number greater than zero
 A negative integer is a number less than zero

– Digits
 Numerals consist of one or more digits
Example: a three-digit number (e.g. 841) lies between 100
and 999

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-3
Basic mathematical operations

• There are four basic mathematical operations that can


be performed on numbers:

Multiplication: represented by 
Division: represented by either 
or
/

Addition: represented by

Subtraction: represented by 
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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-4
Rules for mathematical operations

•Order of operations
Multiplication and Division BEFORE Addition and
Subtraction

– However, to avoid any ambiguity, we can use parentheses (or


brackets), which take precedence over all four basic operations
– For example 5 + 4 ×9 can be written as 5 + (4 ×9) to remove
this ambiguity.
– As another example, if we wish to add numerals before
multiplying, we can use the parentheses as follows:

(4  9)  3  13  3
 39
continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-5
Rules for mathematical operations (cont…)

• Multiplication
– There are several ways of indicating that two numbers are to
be multiplied
 E.g. 4 multiplied by 6 can be expressed as
4  6 or 6  4
46
( 4)(6)
4(6) or ( 4)6
– Multiplying the same signs gives a positive result
 5   6   30
– Multiplying different signs gives a negative result
5   4   20 continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-6
Rules for mathematical operations (cont…)

• Division
– There are several ways of indicating that two numbers are to
be divided
6
 E.g. 6  3, 6 / 3,
3
 The number to be divided (6) is called the numerator or dividend
 The number that is to be divided by (3) is called the denominator
or divisor
 The answer to the division is called the quotient
– Dividing the same signs gives a positive result
6
 2
3
– Dividing different signs gives a negative result 3 1

6 2
continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-7
Rules for mathematical operations (cont…)

• Addition
– Addition does have symmetry

E.g. 56  65

– like signs—use the sign and add


– unlike signs—use sign of greater and subtract

• Subtraction
Two signs next to each other
– minus and a minus is a plus –(– 3) = 3
– minus and a plus is a minus –(+3) = –3

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-8
1.2 Fractions

• A fraction can be either proper or improper:


– Proper fraction—numerator less than denominator
6 23 156
•E.g. , ,
9 52 238
– Improper fraction—numerator greater than denominator

3 56 856
, ,
2 32 249

• The number on top of the fraction is called the


numerator and the bottom number is called the
denominator
continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-9
1.2 Fractions (cont…)

• The denominator cannot be zero, because if it is, the


result is undefined

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-10
Addition and subtraction of fractions

• Same denominators

Step 1: Add or subtract the numerators to obtain the new


numerator
Step 2: The denominator remains the same

• Different denominators

Step 1: Change denominators to lowest common multiple (LCM)


1 2 5 6  4  15 25 7
    1
3 9 6 18 18 18
 LCM is the smallest number into which all denominators will
divide
continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-11
Addition and subtraction of fractions
(cont…)
• Different denominators (cont…)

Step 2: Add or subtract the numerators to obtain the new


numerator

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-12
Multiplication and division of fractions

• Multiplication
Step 1: Multiply numerators to get new numerator

Step 2: Multiply denominators to get new denominator

Step 3: Use any common factors to divide the numerator


and denominator, to simplify the answer.
• Division
Step 1: Invert the second fraction

Step 2: Multiply it by the first fraction

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-13
1.3 Decimals

• Any fractions can be expressed as a decimal by dividing


the numerator by the denominator

• A decimal consists of three components:


– an integer
– then a decimal point
– then another integer
 E.g. 0.3, 1.2, 5.69, 45.687

• Any zeros on the right-hand end after the decimal point


and after the last digit do not change the number’s value
– E.g. 0.5, 0.50, 0.500 and 0.5000 all represent the same number

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-14
Rules for decimals

• Addition and subtraction


– Align the numbers so that the decimal points are directly
underneath each other.
 Example of an addition

Question : Add 2.3  0.34  1.672

 Step 1: align
 2.3
0.34
1.672
 Step 2: add  4.312

continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-15
Rules for decimals (cont…)

• Multiplication
Step 1: Count the number of digits to the right of each decimal
point for each number

Step 2: Add the number of digits in Step 1 to obtain a number, say


x

Step 3: Multiply the two original decimals, ignoring decimal points

Step 4: Mark the decimal point in the answer to Step 3 so that


there are x digits to the right of the decimal point

• Division
Step 1: Count the number of digits that are in the divisor to the right
of the decimal point. Call this number x

continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-16
Rules for decimals (cont…)

• Division (cont…)
Step 2: Move the decimal point in the dividend x places to the
right (adding zeros as necessary). Do the same to the divisor

Step 3: Divide the transformed dividend (Step 2) by the


transformed divisor (which now has no decimal point)

The quotient of this division is the answer

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-17
1.4 Exponents

• An exponent or power of a number is written as a


superscript to a number called the base

• The base number is said to be in exponential form

• This tells us how many times the based is multiplied by


itself
– E.g. 23  2  2  2  8

• Exponential form—an
– where a is the base
– where n is the exponent or power

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-18
Rules for exponents

• Positive exponents
– If numbers with same base, an and am, then product will
have the same base. The exponent will be the sum of the
two original exponents

an  a m  a n m

– For the quotient, if the two numbers have the same base,
the exponent will be the difference between the original
exponents
mn
a a a
m n

continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-19
Rules for exponents (cont…)

• Positive exponents (cont…)


– A number in exponential form is raised to another exponent;
the result is the original base raised to the product of the
exponents

a  n m
a nm

• Negative exponents
– A number expressed with a negative exponent is equal to
the reciprocal of the same number with the negative sign
removed
n 1
a  n
a
continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-20
Rules for exponents (cont…)

• Fractional exponents
– Exponents can be expressed as a fraction
1
 n is of the form k (where k is an integer)
1

 a k
is said to be the ‘kth root of a’. The kth root of a number is
one such that when it is multiplied by itself k times, you
get that number

 a   a 
m 1
1 m

a  a k k a 
n n m n

continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-21
Rules for exponents (cont…)

• Zero exponent
– Any base raised to the power of 0 equals 1

a 1
0

– Except for 00 , which is undefined

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-22
1.5 Scientific notation

– Scientific notation is a shorthand way of writing very large


and very small numbers
– It expresses the number as a numeral (less than 10)
multiplied by the base number 10 raised to an exponent
– The rule for writing a number N in scientific notation is:

N  N'  10c
where:

N’ = the digit before the reference position, followed by


the decimal point and the remaining digits in number N.
c = the number of digits between the reference position
and the decimal point

continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-23
1.5 Scientific notation (cont…)

• When c is positive
– If the decimal point is to the right of the reference position,
the value of c is positive
 E.g. 6325479.3 in scientific notation =

6.3254793  10 6

• When c is negative
– If the decimal point is to the left of the reference position, the
value of c is negative
 E.g. 0.0005849 in scientific notation =

4
5.849  10

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-24
1.6 Logarithms

• Definition
– The logarithm of a number N to a base b is the power to
which b must be raised to obtain N
logb N
That is, if x  logb N, then N  bx
 E.g. log 4 64  3, so 43  64

• Characteristics and mantissa


– Suppose that the logarithm is expressed as an integer plus a
non-negative decimal fraction. Then:
 the integer is called the characteristic of the logarithm
 the decimal fraction is called the mantissa of the logarithm
continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-25
1.6 Logarithms (cont…)

• Antilogarithms
– The antilogarithm is the value of the number that
corresponds to a given logarithm

E.g. Find the antilogarithm of 2.8756

From Table 5, the mantissa of 0.8756 corresponds to


N = 7.51. The characteristic of 2 corresponds to a factor of 102

Hence, the required number is 7.51 × 102 = 751

continued

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-26
1.6 Logarithms (cont…)

• Calculations involving logarithms


– Using the following properties we can find solutions to
problems containing logarithms

log A  B  log A  log B

log A  B  log A  log B

log A n  n  log A

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-27
Summary

• A thorough knowledge of fractions, decimals and


exponents is essential for an understanding of basic
mathematical principles

• You should not be too reliant on modern technology to


solve every problem

• You are far better prepared if you are also aware of the
processes that the calculator is undertaking when
performing calculations

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Croucher, Introductory Mathematics & Statistics, 6e 1-28