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Motivation: Meaning , Types

& Theories

Presented by:-
by:- Rajat
Rajat Srivastava,
Srivastava, Rinku
Rinku Gupta,
Gupta, Yash
Jauhri, Sanjeev
Sanjeev Kumar
Kumar Yadav
Yadav ,, Vikas
Vikas Verma
Verma ,,
Saksham Verma
Verma && Shivam
Shivam Jaiswal

Presented to Miss. Pooja Sharma

The force within us that activates our behavior. It is a
function of three distinct components, Intensity,
Direction, and Persistence.


Intensity Direction Persistence

Motivation - Intensity
Intensity refers to the amount of mental and physical
effort put forth by the person.


Intensity Direction Persistence

Motivation - Direction
The extent to which an individual determines and
chooses efforts focused on a particular goal.


Intensity Direction Persistence

Motivation - Persistence
The extent to which the goal-directed effort is put forth
over time.


Intensity Direction Persistence

Two Types of Motivation:
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic

• Intrinsic • Extrinsic
When rewards
When doing such as pay
the job is and formal
inherently recognition act
motivating as motivators

Types of Rewards

Intrinsic Extrinsic

Sense of Pay
Job Promotion
Personal Growth security

Two Basic Categories of Rewards

Compensation Rewards:
Those given in return for acceptable
performance or effort. They can include
nonfinancial compensation.

Non-Compensation Rewards:
Those beneficial factors related to the work
situation and well-being of each person.


• Motivation is one of the key factors driving us

towards achieving something. Without motivation,
we will do nothing.
• Therefore, motivation is one of the key aspects
when it comes to corporate management. In
order to achieve the best business results, the
organization needs to keep employees motivated.
Following are 20 main motivational
theories practiced in the modern world

The Theories:
(1) Acquired Needs Theory: According to
this theory, people are motivated by the
greed for power, achievement and
affiliation. By offering empowerment, titles
and other related tokens, people can be
motivated for doing their work.
[2]Activation Theory: Humans can be aroused by their nature,
In this motivation theory, the arousal is used for keeping the
people motivated. Take an army as an example. The arousal
for eliminating the enemy is a good motivation factor.

[3]Affect Perseverance: Let’s take an example. An employee is

attracted to a company due to its reputation. Once the
employee starts working, he/she develops loyalty towards the
company. Later, due to some issue, the company loses its
reputation, but employee’s loyalty remains.
[4] Attitude-Behaviour Consistency: In this
motivation theory, the allignment of attitude and
behaviour is used for motivating people.
[5] Attribution Theory: The urge people have to
attribute is used as a motivational factor. Usually,
people like to attribute oneself as well as others in
different context. This need is used for motivation in
this theory. As an example, getting one’s name
published in a magazine is a good motivation for the
same person to engage further in writing.
[6] Cognitive Dissonance: This theory
emphasizes the fact that the non-allignment
to something could make people
uncomfortable and eventually motivate them
to do the right thing.
• [7] Cognitive Evolution Theory: This could be
considered as the most widely use motivation theory
across many domains. When we select tasks to
complete, we chunk them down to be doable tasks.
The person is motivated to do the tasks as they as
simply doable.
• [8] Consistency Theory: This theory uses our
internal values for keeping us motivated. As an
example, if we promise to do something, we will feel
bad about not doing it.
[9] Control Theory: Giving the control to someone is one of
the best ways to motivate them. People are thrilled to have
control over things.
[10] Disconfirmation Bias: People can be motivated by keeping
them in an environment which is in allignment with what they

[11] Drive Theory: People’s need to satisfy their needs is

used in this theory. As an example, imagine a case where a
person is hungry in an unknown house and find some food
under the staircase. When the same person feels hungry at
some other unknown issue house, the person may look
under the staircase.
[12] Endowed Progress Effect: This motivation theory
uses the progress as the motivation factor.
[13] Escape Theory: Keeping the person in the wrong
place may motivate that person to escape from that Place.
This is sometimes used in corporate
environments for employees to find where they
really belong.
[14] Extrinsic Motivation: This is also one of the most
used theories in the corporate world. The
employee is motivated through rewards.
[15] Goal Setting Theory: Desire to achieve goals is
the driving force behind this motivation theory.
• [16] Investment Model: The organization gets the
employees to invest on certain things. If you have invested on
something, you will be motivated to enhance and improve it.
• [17] Positive Psychology: This way, employees are
motivated by making them happy when it comes to
environment, rewards, personal space etc.
• [18] Reactance Theory: reducing the salary of a low
performer and later setting goals to get the salary back is one
of the examples for this type of motivation.
Moslow’s Motivation Theory
20 Herzberg's Motivators and Hygiene Factors

Learn How to Motivate Your Team

Herzberg's main theory and its significance

• Herzberg was the first to show that satisfaction and

dissatisfaction at work nearly always arose from different
factors, and were not simply opposing reactions to the same
factors, as had always previously been (and still now by the
unenlightened) believed.
• In 1959 Herzberg wrote the following useful little phrase,
which helps explain this fundamental part of his theory, i.e.,
that the factors which motivate people at work are different
to and not simply the opposite of the factors which cause
• "We can expand ... by stating that the job satisfiers deal with
the factors involved in doing the job, whereas the job
dissatisfiers deal with the factors which define the job
Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Herzberg's findings revealed that certain characteristics of a job are consistently
related to job satisfaction, while different factors are associated with job
dissatisfaction. These are:

Factors for Factors for

Satisfaction Dissatisfaction
Achievement Company Policies
Recognition Supervision

The work itself Relationship with Supervisor and Peers

Responsibility Work conditions

Advancement Salary
Growth Status
Herzberg's 'hygiene' needs
Examples of Herzberg's 'hygiene' needs (or maintenance
factors) in the workplace are:
1. policy
2. relationship with supervisor
3. work conditions
4. salary
5. company car
6. status
7. security
8. relationship with subordinates
9. personal life
Herzberg’s Motivators and Hygiene Factors

Traditional view:
- Less Money = dissatisfaction
- More Money = improved motivation

Herzberg's theory:
- Less Money = dissatisfaction
- More Money = satisfaction, but not
improved motivation

Motivation Theories suggest many ways of

keeping the employees motivated on what they
do. Although, a manager is not required to learn
all these motivation theories, having an idea of
certain theories may be an advantage for day-to
day activities.
These theories give the managers a set of
techniques that they can try out in the
corporate environments. Some of these
theories have been used in business for
decades, although we do not know them
Please use them to motivate your staff for greater productivity through
enhanced performance
 Thanks for Listening

2012 CMD Performance Report