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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE

Introduction to Materials Science:


Introduction
(MTN-106)

Principles of alloy formation


Solid Solution
A solid mixture containing a minor component uniformly
distributed within the crystal lattice of the major component.

Interstitial Substitution
Solid Solution Solid Solution
Solute Atom

Solvent Atom
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Hume-Rothery Rule
These are a set of basic rules that describe the
conditions under which an element could dissolve in a 
metal, forming a solid solution. 

For substitutional solid solutions, the Hume-Rothery rules


are as follows:

•The atomic radius of the solute and solvent atoms must differ by no more
than 15%:

•The crystal structures of solute and solvent must be similar.

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Subs. Continue….
•Complete solubility occurs when the solvent and solute have the same
valency. A metal with lower valency is more likely to dissolve in a metal of
higher valency.
•The solute and solvent should have similar electronegativity. If the
electronegativity difference is too great, the metals tend to form
intermetallic compounds instead of solid solutions.

For Interstitial solid solution:


•Solute atoms should have radius no larger than 15% of the radius of
solvent atoms.
•The solute and solvent should have similar electronegativity.
•They should show a wide range of composition.
•Valency factor: two elements should have the same valence.

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Alloy

Nothing but a
solid solution

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Solubility Limit

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Water-Sugar Mixture

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Phase Diagram
AUnary
phasephase diagram
may be defined as a homogeneous portion of a system
that has uniform physical and chemical characteristics. Every pure
material is considered to be a phase; so also is every solid, liquid, and
gaseous solution. For example, the sugar–water syrup solution is one
phase, and solid sugar is another. Each has different physical
properties (one is a liquid, the other is a solid); furthermore, each is
different chemically (i.e., has a different chemical composition); one is
virtually pure sugar, the other is a solution of H2O and C12H22O11.

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Binary Phase Diagrams
This type of phase diagram is one in which temperature and
composition are variable parameters, and pressure is held constant—
normally 1 atm.

Binary phase diagrams are maps that represent the relationships


between temperature and the compositions and quantities of phases
at equilibrium, which influence the microstructure of an alloy.

Types of binary phase diagrams


• Isomorphous, phase diagram
• Eutectic phase diagram
• Partial-Eutectic phase diagram

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Isomorphous phase diagram
The copper–nickel phase diagram
INTERPRETATION OF
PHASE DIAGRAMS
For a binary system of known
composition and temperature
that is at equilibrium, at least
three kinds of information are
available:
(1)the phases that are present
(2)the compositions of these
phases
(3)the percentages or fractions
of the phases

Find out the same for point


B and A in the diagram
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INTERPRETATION OF PHASE DIAGRAMS

• Phases present
• Determination of phase
composition
• Determination of phase
amounts

At point B
•Phases present (Liquid +α)
•Determination of phase
composition
(CL is the composition of the
liquid phase - 31.5 wt.% Ni–
68.5 wt.% Cu)
(Cα is the composition of the α
(C0 is the composition of the overall phase - 2.5 wt.% Ni–57.5 wt/.%
alloy - 35 wt.% Ni–65 wt.% Cu) Cu.
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• Determination of phase amounts at point B

At point B, the composition


and temperature position is
located within a two-phase
region. The tie line must be
utilized in conjunction with a
procedure that is often called the
lever rule, which is applied as
follows:
1. The tie line is constructed
across the two-phase region at
the temperature of the alloy.
2. The overall alloy composition is
located on the tie line.
3. The fraction of one phase is computed by taking the length of tie line from the
overall alloy composition to the phase boundary for the other phase, and dividing by
the total tie line length.
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• Determination of phase amounts at point B

Lever rule….
4. The fraction of the other phase is determined in the same manner.
5. If phase percentages are desired, each phase fraction is multiplied by 100. When
the composition axis is scaled in weight percent, the phase fractions computed using
the lever rule are mass fractions—the mass (or weight) of a specific phase divided by
the total alloy mass (or weight). The mass of each phase is computed from the
product of each phase fraction and the total alloy mass.

CONSIDER THE FIGURE IN THE PREVIOUS SLIDE


Let the overall alloy composition be located along the tie line and denoted as
C0, and mass fractions be represented by WL and Wα for the respective
phases. From the lever rule, WL may be computed according to

Or, by subtracting compositions,

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Composition need be specified in terms of only one of the constituents for a
binary alloy for the preceding computation, weight percent nickel will be
used (i.e., C0 - 35 wt.% Ni, Cα - 42.5 wt.% Ni, and CL - 31.5 wt.% Ni),

Similarly, for the α phase

Of course, identical answers are obtained if compositions are


expressed in weight percent copper instead of nickel.
Practice the same with copper.

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Cooling Curves
Equilibrium Cooling

Read the relevant


section from the book
(Chapter – 9, page-294)

Schematic diagram of the


development of microstructure
during the equilibrium
solidification of a 35 wt.% Ni–65
wt.% Cu alloy.

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Eutectic Phase Diagram

Some key
differences are
there from
isomorphous
phase diagram

Read the relevant section


from the book
(page-298)

The copper–silver phase diagram


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