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Steam Power Plant

 MADHUSUDAN LAMICHHANE
 075MSESP008
Introduction 2
 A steam power plant converts the chemical energy of
the fossil fuel into mechanical and then into electrical
energy.
 Raising the steam in the boilers >> Expanding it through
the turbines >> Coupling the turbines to the generators.
Steam (Rankine) Cycle 3
General Layout 4
Boiler 5
 Produces, Furnishes, Recovers and Transfers heat of
the fluid

 Classifications:
i. Horizontal, Vertical or Inclined
ii. Fire Tube and Water Tube
iii. Externally Fired and Internally Fired
iv. Forced Circulation and Natural Circulation
v. High Pressure and Low Pressure
vi. Stationary and Portable
vii. Single-tube and Multi-tube
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FIG: SIMPLE FIRETUBE VERTICAL BOILER
Turbine 7
 Prime Mover >> PE of Steam is converted into KE >>
Transferred to generator shaft
 Turbine Efficiencies:
i. Blade Efficiency – Work done on the blade / total energy
entering the blade per second
ii. Stage Efficiency - Net work done on shaft / Adiabatic
heat drop per stage
iii. Internal Efficiency – Heat converted into useful work /
total adiabatic heat drop
iv. Overall Efficiency – Work delivered at turbine coupling
per kg of steam / total adiabatic heat drop
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Fig: Steam Turbine


Steam Condenser 9
 The part where steam condenses and heat released by
steam is absorbed by water
 Classification:
i. Jet Condenser – Direct contact
ii. Surface Condenser – Indirect contact

Cooling Tower/Pond
 The part where the excess heat is rejected and from
where the cooling agent (water) is brough
Advantages 1
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 Can respond to rapidly changing loads without difficulty
 A portion of the steam can be used as a process steam in
different industries
 Can be located very conveniently near the load center –
reducing the transmission loss
 Fuel used is cheaper
 Less space is required in comparison with that for
hydroelectric plant
 Cheaper production cost compared to gas turbine
Comparisons 1
 Site - Should be near load centers with water 1
supply being near
 Initial Cost – Low as compared to Hydro and
Nuclear Power Plants
 Operating Cost – Very high as compared to hydro
and nuclear power plants
 Maintenance Cost – High
 Reliability – Low
 Environmental effect – High, because of fumes
and residues
Diesel Power Plant
Introduction 1
 Uses Diesel Engine to produce mechanical energy
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 Suitable for small power need, e.g. Hospitals,
Malls, Radio Stations, Hotels, etc.
 Capacity of 2 MW to 50 MW
Layout 1
4
Powers and Efficiencies 1
5
Cooling System 1
6
 The temperature of the burning fuel inside the
engine cylinder is in the order of 15000C to
20000C. In order to lower this temperature water
is circulated around the engine.
 The water envelopes(water jacket) the engine.
The heat from the cylinder, piston, combustion
chamber etc., is carried by the circulating water.
 The hot water leaving the jacket is passed
through the heat exchanger.
 The heat from the heat exchanger is carried
away by the raw water circulated through the
heat exchanger and is cooled in the cooling
tower.
Lubrication System 1
7
 This circuit includes lubricating oil tank, oil pump and oil
cooler.
 The purpose of the lubrication system is to reduce the
wear of the engine moving parts. Part of the cylinder such
as piston, shafts, valves must be lubricated.
 Lubrication also helps to cool the engine.
 In the lubrication system the oil is pumped from the
lubricating oil tank through the oil cooler where the oil is
cooled by the cold water entering the engine.
 The hot oil after cooling the moving parts return to the
lubricating oil tank.
Advantages 1
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 ItIt can respond to varying loads without any difficulty.
 occupies less space.
 For the same capacity diesel power plant is compact and
smaller than a thermal power plant.
 Diesel power plants are more efficient than steam power
plants in the range of 150 MW capacity.

Disadvantages
 High operating cost. High maintenance and lubrication
cost.
 The capacity of a diesel plant is limited.
 In a diesel plant noise is a serious problem.
 Diesel power plants cannot supply over loads
continuously where as steam pp can.
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Thank You.