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The Need for

Content and Language Integrated


Learning
(CLIL) Development

'The Impact of Language Frameworks on Assessment,


Learning and Teaching:policies, procedures and
challenges.'
Defining CLIL
 Content and Language Integrated Learning
(CLIL) is a dual-focused educational approach
in which an additional language is used for
the learning and teaching of both content
and language. Coyle, Hood and Marsh 2010:1
 CLIL is generally defined as a pedagogical
approach which has a dual (integrated) aim:
learning of the subject matter (content) and
learning of the (second/foreign/target)
language used as the medium of
instruction for the content
 CLIL is seen as a continuum or an „umbrella
term” for all those approaches in which
some form of specific and academic
language support is offered to HE students in
order to facilitate their learning of the
content through that language
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4 Cs Conceptual Framework

(Coyle 2005)

 Content (subject matter)


 Communication (language learning and
using)
 Cognition (learning and thinking processes)
 Culture* (developing intercultural
understanding and global citizenship)

Note! *Culture (the 4th C is sometimes called Citizenship or Community)

http://blocs.xtec.cat/clilpractiques1/files/2008/11/slrcoyle.
pdf

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CLIL Matrix - 4 dimensional core framework
It is an Internet-awareness raising tool for teachers who wish to consider
the skills and knowledge necessary for achieving quality CLIL to
examine the extent to which they are prepared for teaching through
CLIL

It is built around the core elements of CLIL


 Content,
 Language,
 Integration
 Learning

These four elements are realised through a set of four parameters:


 Culture,
 Communication,
 Cognition
 Community

It was developed in the years 2004 – 2007


There are 16 indicators (the basis for ensuring quality CLIL in learning and
teaching of both content and language)
There are 80 questions
Authors: Anne Maljers (Netherlands), David Marsh (Finland), Stefka Kitanova
(Bulgaria), Dieter Wolff (Germany), Bronislawa Zielonka (Poland), ECML, Graz
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CLIL Matrix – a 4 dimensional core
framework
CLIL CONTENT LANGUAGE INTEGRATION LEARNING
CULTURE Appropriate target Developing cultural Identifying cultural Opportunities to engage in
language input aspects of using objectives, intercultural learning (self-
Authentic materials, language, establishing contacts reflection)
choice of language with external people
and the choice of who speak the target
location language

COMMUNICATION Interactive learning Maximise learner- Transactional Communication skills


Pair and group work learner and learner- (teacher-centered include all kinds of
teacher type of strategies (to avoid
communication in communication) vs misunderstandings, to
the target language interactional negotiate meanings, to
(teachers and jointly build up content, to
learners regulate interactions (turn-
communicate with taking), and to close
each other) interactions)
communication
COGNITION Learners should: learners have to Team teaching, close Focus on cognitive
•get teacher support grasp the cooperation b/n demands connected with
(understand relationship between content and language content and language
academic terms), the linguistic sign teachers learning („balancing out
•should learn how to and the cognitive this dual-focus”)
use dictionaries concept, concept-
effectively building
•effective reading
strategies
COMMUNITY Positive and supportive Classroom is not Inviting parents and Building up a positive
community (different sufficient to allow for other interested learning environment, a
stakeholders: school, high quality CLIL, citizens to participate CLIL project by the wider
parents, town, local receiving practical in school life (project community
industries ) training abroad, days, theatre
-Exchange programmes performances)
participate in the
town's social and 7
cultural life,
CLIL Teacher competences

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A Framework for CLIL teacher
education
Structure of the
Framework
 The framework for each area is presented as a grid
showing the various dimensions of teacher
competence and development.
It has five columns:
 KNOWLEDGE: CLIL teachers need to know .…
 VALUES: CLIL teachers need to appreciate...
CLIL teachers need to be able to...
 SKILLS:
 TEACHER DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: CLIL teachers
can develop values and skills by...
/ LEARNING OUTCOME: CLIL teachers can
 ACTIVITY
provide evidence of competence in the area of
XXX with…
8 areas of CLIL teacher
competence
LEARNER NEEDS
PLANNING
MULTIMODALITY
INTERACTION
SUBJECT LITERACIES
EVALUATION
COOPERATION AND REFLECTION
CONTEXT AND CULTURE
Advantages to the CLIL
approach
CLIL
 develops confident learners
 enhances academic cognitive processes and communication
skills.
 encourages intercultural understanding and community
values
 learners become more sensitive to vocabulary and ideas
presented in their first language as well as in the target
language
 learners gain more extensive and varied vocabulary in the
target language
 learners reach proficiency levels in all four skills of L, S, W, R

Source: Johnstone, R and McKinstry, R (2008) Evaluation of Early Primary Partial Immersion
document

 ‘CLIL induces the learner to be more cognitively active


during the learning process’,

Source: Van de Craen, P, Mondt, K, Allain, L and Gao, Y (2008) Why and How CLIL Works
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Problems with CLIL
CLIL teachers admit having some problems:
 the lack of materials available,
 the absence of collaboration,
 the lack of interest from the teachers of the
same class or of the same school,
 having difficulties in properly integrating
content and language,
 creating an authentic and real setting in the
classroom.

Source: Infante, D., Benvenuto, G., Lastrucci E., (2009)


The Effects of CLIL from the Perspective of Experienced
Teachers In. Marsh, D. and Mehisto; P. Wolff, D., Aliaga, R.,
Asikainen, T., Frigols-Martin, M. J., Hughes, S., Langé, G.,
(eds.) CLIL Practice: Perspectives from the Field.
http://www.icpj.eu/?id=title
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What do we need?
 Focus on both: increasing content in FL lessons and
the use of FL in a subject class
 Integration of FL and content-specific skills
 Team teaching, collaboration, observing≈reflective
practice (constant dialogue across different
departments)
 Material development (awareness of CLIL pedagogies),
authenticity, sharing (Resource Banks – IT, subject )
 Learner (learner-centred approach,
LbT≈microteaching, cooperative learning)
 Stakeholders
 Benchmarking (teaching, learning, assessment,
training)
 Assessment
 Quality assurance (Komorowska, 2010: 65-66)
(accreditation for CLIL courses?)
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