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WEEK 12 and 13

Simulated Teaching
Implementation of the lesson plan
Feedback and review
Simulated Teaching
Implementation of the lesson plan
Feedback and review
•Simulation means role- playing or
rehearsal in which the process
SIMULAT of teaching is carried out artificially. 
•Simulated teaching is
ED a teacher training technique. It is used
to bring about modification in the
TEACHIN behavior of the teacher.

G • It introduces
pupil teacher to teach in non-stressful
What is simulation as a teaching
• Simulations are instructional scenarios where the learner is placed
in a "world" defined by the teacher.
• They represent a reality within which students interact.
• The teacher controls the parameters of this "world" and uses it to
achieve the desired instructional results. ...
• A simulation is a form of experiential learning.
A deductive approach An inductive approach In other words, the

Approach is when the rule is

presented and the
language is produced
is when the rule is
inferred through some
form of guided
former is more
teacher centred and
the latter more

es to
based on the rule. discovery. (The learner centred.
(The teacher gives the teacher gives the
rule.) students a means to
discover the rule for


grammar Both approaches have
their advantages and
In my own experience,
the deductive
The inductive
approach, on the
disadvantages. approach is other hand, is often
undoubtedly time more beneficial to
saving and allows students who already
more time for have a base in the
practising the language as it
language items thus encourages them to
making it an effective work things out for
approach with lower themselves based on
level students. their existing
Six things teachers should keep in mind
when they are teaching grammar.

• Don't Talk Too Much. ...

• Allow Your Students to Practice. ...
• Make Sure You Use Real World Examples. ...
• Pay Attention to What Your Students Already Know. ...
• Communicate. ...
• Start Simple.
Presentation, practice and production (PPP)

• A deductive approach often fits into a lesson structure known as PPP (Presentation,
Practice, Production). The teacher presents the target language and then gives
students the opportunity to practise it through very controlled activities. The final
stage of the lesson gives the students the opportunity to practise the target
language in freer activities which bring in other language elements.
• In a 60-minute lesson each stage would last approximately 20 minutes. This model
works well as it can be used for most isolated grammatical items. It also allows the
teacher to time each stage of the lesson fairly accurately and to anticipate and be
prepared for the problems students may encounter. It is less workable at higher
levels when students need to compare and contrast several grammatical items at
the same time and when their linguistic abilities are far less uniform.
Presentation (CONTEXT)
• This is where the language is introduced, or ‘presented’ to the learners, usually by way of
introducing a context or situation. For example, you could:
• Tell or act out a short story or anecdote ( “I woke up this morning with a really bad cold…
AHHH-CHOOO! I went to the doctor and…”)
• Play a short audio clip
• Show a clip from a movie or tv show
• Show objects you’ve brought in (e.g. newspaper cuttings, plane tickets, hobby materials)
• The aim is to make sure students understand the context, and to get them thinking about
it. You could elicit ideas or suggestions from students, get them talk to each other about what
they know or think about the situation, etc. This also helps them start to remember the
language and vocabulary they already know about the topic (or ‘activate the schemata’, if you
want the fancy term for it).
Practice (Accuracy)
• Here are numerous activities which can be used for this stage including gap fill
exercises, substitution drills, sentence transformations, split sentences, picture
dictations, class questionnaires, reordering sentences and matching sentences to

• It is important that the activities are fairly controlled at this stage as students have only just met the new
language. Many students' books and workbooks have exercises and activities which can be used at this
• When teaching the 2nd conditional, I would use split sentences as a controlled practice activity. I give
students lots of sentence halves and in pairs they try and match the beginnings and ends of the sentences.
• Example: "If I won the lottery," …. "I'd travel around the world."
• I would then do a communicative follow up game like pelmanism or snap using the same sentence halves.
Production (FLUENCY)
• Again there are numerous activities for this stage and what you choose will depend on the
language you are teaching and on the level of your students. However, information gaps, role
plays, interviews, simulations, find someone who, spot the differences between two pictures,
picture cues, problem solving, personalisation activities and board games are all meaningful
activities which give students the opportunity to practise the language more freely.
• When teaching the 2nd conditional, I would try to personalise the lesson at this stage by giving
students a list of question prompts to ask others in the class.
Example: do / if / win the lottery?
• Although the questions are controlled the students are given the opportunity to answer more
spontaneously using other language items and thus the activity becomes much less predictable.
• It is important to monitor and make a note of any errors so that you can build in class feedback
and error analysis at the end of the lesson.
• It is also important to note that using the PPP model does
not necessarily exclude using a more inductive approach
since some form of learner-centred guided discovery could
be built into the presentation stage. When presenting the
2nd conditional I sometimes present the language in
context and then give the students a worksheet with a
series of analysis questions to do in pairs.
PP is just one model for planning a lesson.

• Other models include TTT (Test, Teach, Test), ARC

(Authentic use, Restricted use, Clarification and focus)
and ESA (Engage, Study, Activate). All models have their
advantages and disadvantages and I, like many other
teachers I know, use different models depending on the
lesson, class, level and learner styles.

How do you implement a lesson plan?

• State desired quality of work.

• Have students paraphrase directions.
• Ensure that everyone is paying attention.
• Ensure that all distractions have been removed.
• Describe expectations, activities and evaluation
• Start with a highly motivating activity.
• Build lesson upon prior student knowledge.
Characteristics/examples of classes with low lesson
design and implementation scores

• Classes with poor lesson design and implementation are

not designed to explore students' prior knowledge or
encourage student input. These classes typically focus on
convergent problems, are completely instructor directed,
and don't provide opportunities to explore ideas before
instruction. Instructors often miss opportunities to pose
questions to students or they make generic inquiries ("Any
Characteristics/examples of classes with high lesson
design and implementation scores

• a well-designed lesson might begin with the instructor making an

effort to determine how much students already know about the topic
through a small group discussion followed by a report-out activity.
• As the lesson proceeds, the instructor can pause at key breaks in the
lesson to ask a few low-stakes multiple choice questions (individually
or in groups) to check for understanding. Alternatively, she might
assign students to work in teams to complete an exercise linked to
previous material or ask them to explore a new concept in a non-
technical way.
• This instructor solicits multiple ways to approach a problem or
investigation and provides students with opportunities to influence
the direction of the lesson.
•begins with a short exercise to assess students' pre-existing knowledge of topics
from a prior lecture.

•incorporates references to students' personal experiences or material from other

•includes opportunities for students to complete tasks in pairs or small groups on
more than one occasion during the class period.

•incorporates an exploration activity at some point that is well integrated with the
subsequent material.

•provides an opportunity for students to plan an investigation or analysis using a

method of their devising.
• I want to use and assess students' prior knowledge from previous
lessons, assigned readings, everyday experiences or other courses.
• I want to engage students in seeking and valuing alternative
modes of investigation or multiple ways to solve problems.
•  I want students to feel that they are members of a learning
community that explores content and generates ideas that
determine the direction of the lesson.
The guideline on lesson’s

The feedback and review
• How to give feedback
Task 1: List 10 ways on how to give feedback in connection
to teaching young children
Review the class
Suggest on how to review the
• 1.
• 2.
• 3.
• 4.
Simulated Teaching
Implementation of the lesson plan
Feedback and review