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Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 1
80-90 % of coating failures
are results of poor or inadequate:
• Steel preparation
• Cleaning
• Surface preparation
• Application
• Access
• Ventilation
• Coating selection
• Inspection and control
• Premature exposure (Exposed too soon)
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 2
Investigation by a
Insurance company has
• 95 % of all coating failures result from
– Poor surface preparation
– Poor application
• 85 % of all failures appear after 1-2 years

This fits in well with our own experience

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 3
The purpose of pre-treatment

• The performance of a paint system to a large extent

depends on the adhesion to the substrate.

• To achieve good adhesion it is necessary to have a

surface which:
– Is clean: No salts, oil, grease or other impurities
– Has a good anchor pattern (Sufficient roughness)
- Blast cleaning creates roughness
- Water jetting creates no additional roughness
- Mechanical wire brush may polish the substrate

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 4
Performance of a paint system

Good pre-treatment of the substrate

is a requirement to obtain

good performance of the paint system

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 5
General surface treatment routine

• Plan the job thoroughly

• Remove grease ,oil, salt, fouling
• Remove old, loose paint and
thick layers of rust
• Pre-treatment
• Remove dust (vacuum-cleaning)
• Painting

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 6
New buildings - New constructions
General surface treatment routine

• Plan the job thoroughly

• Steel work (sharp edges, rough welds etc.)
• Remove grease, oil and welding smoke
• Pre-treatment
• Remove dust (vacuum-cleaning)
• Painting

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 7
Surface treatment may include
the following operations
• Steel work (Pre-blasting preparation)
• Removal of rust and mill scale
• Removal of salt
• Removal of grease, oil, dirt
• Removal of old / unwanted paint
• Flattening of glossy paint
• Special pre-treatment of new aluminium
and galvanised surfaces:
- Degreasing and abrading
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 8
Pre-blasting preparation
involves the following activities
Rounding or smoothing of:
 Sharp edges
 Corners
 Welds
Grinding of:
 Laminations
 Flame cut edges
 Weld spatter
Notches minimum diameter: 30 mm
Inspected and approved before cleaning
See also draft for ISO 8501 “Visual assessment of surface cleanliness”
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 9
Steel preparation
Edges and Weld Spatters

Gas cut edge

Sharp A A. Remove by grinder or disc sander.
B. Rolled steel sections normally have
round edges. Therefore can be
B left untreated.

A A. Remove visible spatter before grit-

Weld blasting with grinder or chipping
spatter hammer.
B B. For spatter not readily removed,
remove using grinder/disc.

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 10
Pre-blasting preparation
Rounding Sharp Edges
Coating applied to a square-cut section

Sharp edge
Coating Reduced coating thickness at
sharp edges due to tension
created during drying / curing

Steel Rounded edge

Even coating

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 11
Pre-blasting preparation
Laminations, Undercuts, Welding seams

Remove using grinder

Undercuts exceeding classification ruling
should be repaired by welding and grinding.

Manual weld bead

Sharp profile peaks to be smoothed using

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 12
Steel preparation
Weld Spatter, Welding Smoke

Weld Weld
spatter Areas at risk

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 13
Work to be Carried out
in the Cleaning shop

Remove Prior to Pre-treatment:

Salt and soil: Clean water

Oil - grease: Solvent with emulsifying agent

or alkaline cleaner

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 14
Cleaning procedure
The surface shall be dry before application of cleaners
Apply the cleaner from below and upwards
Work systematically on all surfaces
Let the cleaner react, normally 1-5 minutes
Wash off from below and upwards
Final rinse from above and down

Site conditions:
Degreasing by wiping the surface with solvents
is not recommended.
Leads to spreading of a thin film of oil over a wider area
and increases risk of fire / explosion
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 15
Surface Cleanliness
Important to Remove All Contaminants
Surface preparation includes removal of:
• Salts
• Deposits of oil.
• Grease.
• Foreign matter (other contaminants)
This is achieved by
• Steam cleaning
• Washing with detergent.
• Other methods agreed upon.
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 16
Chloride Concentration on
Surfaces after Pre-treatment.
Chloride cons. (mg / m2 )
120 Hot-rolled steel (Rust grade A)
80 Pitted steel (Long term exposure)
Dry Wet Wet Surf-
Untreated blasting blasting
Blasting blasting
surface 1.6 l/min. 7 l/min.
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 17
Production Rates for Various Methods
Method Time * Achieved
min/m² standard
Blast cleaning 6  Sa 3
Power chiseling/wire brushing 9  St 2
Manual scraping / wire brushing 13  St 2
Power grinding 15  St 3
Manual scraping + power wire brushing 15  St 3
Power hammer / wire brushing 25  St 3
Power needle hammer / wire brushing 37  St 3
Water jetting, UHPWJ 6-8

* Only time required for the pre-treatment itself is given

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 18
Recommended Equipment
• Portable blast-cleaning unit
• Vacuum blasting equipment
• Air-powered grinding equipment
(Available with and without vacuum unit)
• Air-powered wire-brush
• Needle gun
(Available with and without vacuum unit)
• Air-powered chisel
• Scraper with interchangeable hard metal shears

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 19
Different Power Tool Cleaning Methods

• Reciprocating impact tools

• Rotary impact or scarifying tools
• Grinders or sanders

Available as:
• Portable, hand-held or “walk-behind” models.
• Vacuum assisted power tools, due to
environmental concerns

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 20
Grinders and Sanders

• Coated abrasive discs

- To remove paint, mill scale and rust
• Non-woven abrasive discs
- To remove paint and rust and for feathering of paint
• Wire brushes
- To remove loose rust (tends to polish surface)

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 21
Rotary Impact or Scarifying Tools

Equipment with rotating abrasive head

• Peening flaps (Roto-Peen)

- Creates a surface profile, 25 to 75 microns
• Rotary hammers - cutters
• Nylon non-woven abrasive wheels
Rotary impact tools is the
best choice for removing coatings

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 22
Reciprocating Impact Tools

• Needle scalers or guns

• Chipping guns (chisels)
• Scabblers.
- Small hand-held and “walk-behind” models.
- To break up heavy rust, mill scale and coatings.
Example: Rustibus

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 23
Evaluation of Methods
Blast cleaning Ideal
Power grinding Not as good as blast cleaning, but
best alternative.
Power wire-brushing Great risk of unwanted polishing.
Manual wire- brushing. Not recommended. Very poor.
Needle hammer Usable, but risk of unwanted rough
Power chiseling Good in combination with other
Manual scraping Usable in combination with other
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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 24
Mechanical Cleaning May
Give Unfavourable Surfaces

Needle-hammer makes a rough

surface and deep indentations

Rotating wire brushes and disc-sanders

may give a polished surface

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 25
Selection of Pre-treatment Method
Mechanical Cleaning vs. Blast Cleaning

• Blast cleaning is the best

type of pre-treatment.

• Use mechanical cleaning only when

blast cleaning is not possible

• Rotating wire brushes and disc-sanders

may give a polished surface

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 26
Maintenance - Surface Preparation.
Selection of Tools and Methods
Tools and methods must be chosen according to:
• The paint specification
• Area to be repaired
• Degree of damage to the surface
• Previous treatment and paint system
• Available tools
• Paint system to be used
• Life time requirement
See also ISO 8501 - 2
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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 27
Surface preparation
Major Advantages with Blast Cleaning

Correctly carried out, blast cleaning

gives an ideal surface for painting.

Blast cleaning is time saving

compared with mechanical cleaning

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 28
Blast Cleaning
How to Protect Blasted Areas

• Blast clean limited areas at a time

• Remove all dust and abrasive residue
• Protect with a quick drying
holding / blast primer
• Continue treating the next area

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 29
Recommendations Regarding
Blast Cleaning
• Loose paint and rust to be removed prior to blast-
• Use correct ratio between air and abrasive
• Always use good quality abrasive
• Correct air-pressure 7 kg/cm² (100 psi)
4 - 4,5 kg/cm² is a waste of time
• Remove dust and spent abrasive residue with vacuum
cleaner or eventually dry, oil-free compressed air

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 30
Blast cleaning
Factors Influencing the Production Rate

• Productivity is directly proportional to:

Pressure at Nozzle
Capacity of the air compressor

• Pressure at Nozzle 7 kg/cm² = 100% productivity

• Pressure at Nozzle 5,6 kg/cm² = 66% productivity
• Pressure at Nozzle 4,2 kg/cm² = 50% productivity

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 31
Blast Cleaning

Start The Video

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 32
Blast - cleaning
Measure the Air Pressure at the Nozzle

Nozzle Nozzleholder


Rubber hose

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 33
Blast Cleaning: Effect of Nozzle
Pressure on Cleaning Rate.
Nozzle pressures, Kg / cm²

Cleaning time: 2 minutes Remaining

Source: Clemtex Ltd. Removed
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 34
Blast Cleaning
Loss of Pressure
Air pressure, bar
10 7 bar : Recommended
< 4 bar : Waste of time

0 50 100 150 200 250
Hose length, m
Hose diameter 3/4" 1" 1 1/4" 3/4" 1" 1 1/4"

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 35
Blast Cleaning
Rule of Thumb: To Avoid Loss of Pressure
The blast hose shall have an
opening which is 3-4 times
bigger than the orifice of the nozzle.

Hose opening Nozzle opening

3 - 4 times

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 36
Blast cleaning
Impact damages May Destroy Overlapping zone
Corroded area. Subsequent spot blasting

Solid coating

corroded area

Impact by abrasives
Feathered required

(SOURCE: Munger, C.G. Practical aspects of Coating Repair.

Materials Performance, Vol. 19, No 2 p. 46 (1980)
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 37
Feathering of Overlapping Zones

Sharp edges should be feathered prior to painting

Before feathering After feathering


Steel Steel

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 38
Blast cleaning
Abrasives Will Damage the Coating
Cracks due to direct
impact by abrasives
3-Coat paint
Feathered edge

Area with Corroded and
reduced adhesion blast cleaned

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 39

Start The Video

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 40
Blast cleaning
Abrasives Will Damage the Coating
Impact of abrasive Star crack areas 3-coat paint system

Areas with reduced adhesion


May be caused by direct impact

or rebounding abrasives (ricochet)
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 41
Blast cleaning
Correct and Incorrect Sweep Blasting
Abrasives approx. 0.5 mm
Pressure approx 2-3 kg / sqcm

Star cracks

Often abrasives of
1.2 - 1.4 mm and too
high pressure is used

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 42
Blast Cleaning: Venturi Nozzles Increase
the Speed of the Abrasives
Standard nozzle abrasive speed: 300 Km/h at 7 bar

. ... ...
. ..... ..
Venturi nozzle abrasive speed: 700 km/h at 7 bar

. ...... ....
. ... .
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 43
Illustration of Various Blasting Methods

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 44
Dry blasting
Benefits and Limitations

Advantages Disadvantages

• Surface remains dry • Does not remove salt

• Good anchor pattern • Does not remove oil
for paint • Creates dust
• No pre-rusting profile

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 45
Wet Blasting
Benefits and Limitations

Advantages Disadvantages

• Surface profile is • Flash rust may

achieved develop on surface
• Removes salt
• Creates no dust.

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 46
Blast Cleaning vs. Mechanical Cleaning
Blast cleaning gives the paint system
up to 10 times longer lifetime
compared with mechanical cleaning.

Blast cleaning is time saving

compared with mechanical cleaning

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 47
Surface preparation
Metallic or non-metallic abrasives.

Blast cleaning with Metallic or

Non-metallic abrasives to specified:

• Cleanliness acc. to ISO 8501 - 1 or 2

• Roughness acc. to ISO 8503

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 48
There are Two Main Groups
1. Metallic abrasives
• Chilled iron grit (angular)
• High-carbon cast steel grit and shot (angular or round)
• Low-cast cast steel snot (round)
• Cut steel wire (cylindrical)
2. Mineral and slag abrasives
• Natural abrasives: Garnet, Olivine, Staurolite
• Slags: Copper refinery Nickel refinery
Coal furnace Fused aluminium oxide
Iron furnace

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 49
Metallic / mineral abrasives

Metallic abrasives and Carborundum

(Al.oxide) can be recycled and are
usually used more than once.

Mineral and slag abrasives are

generally used only once.

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 50
Shape of Abrasives

Three main types of abrasives

Grit (Angular)

Shot (round)

Wire cut (cylindrical)

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 51
Initial Particle Shape

Designation and initial

particle shape Symbol

Shot - round S

Grit - angular, irregular G

Cylindrical - sharp-edged C

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 52
Commonly Used Blast Cleaning
Abrasives for Steel Substrate Preparation
Metallic (M) blast cleaning abrasives
Initial particle Compa-
Type Abbreviation shape rator 1) Remarks

Cast iron Chilled M/CI G G Mainly for

Cast steel High-carbon M/HCS S or G S 2)

Mainly for
Low-carbon M/LCS S S

Cut steel - M/CW C S 2)

1) Comparator to be used when assessing the resultant surface profile. The method for evaluating the surface profile by
comparator is described in ISO 8503-2.
2) Certain types of abrasive rapidly change their shape when used. As soon as this happens, the appearance of the surface
profile changes and becomes closer to that of the shot comparator
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 53
ISO 8504-2:1992 (E)

Non-metallic, Natural Abrasives

for Steel Substrate Preparation

Initial particle
Type Abbreviation shape Comparator Remark

Silica sand N/Si

Olivine sand N/OL
Mainly for
Starolite N/ST S G

Garnet N/GA G G

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 54
Commonly Used Blast Cleaning
Abrasives for Steel Substrate Preparation
Non-metallic (N) blast cleaning abrasives.
Iron furnace slag (Calcium silicate slags) N/FE

Copper refinery slag (Ferrous silicate slags) N/CU

Mainly for
Nickel refinery slag compressed-air
Coal furnace slag (Aluminium silicate slags) N/CS

Fused aluminium oxide N/FA

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 55
Important Things to Check
Non - metallic abrasives

• Silica free : < 1 % free silica

• Particle size : Up to 3 mm
• Water soluble
contents : 25mS/m= 250 µS/cm
• Hardness : Minimum 6 Moh
• No oil : Check with water

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 56
Reduction of Coating
Thickness Above Profile
Coating thickness, µm.
300 Mean thickness Thickness above profile






0 58 88 58 88 58 88
Roughness, µm

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 57
Water jetting

• Water-jetting is an alternative
to blast cleaning.

• Water-jetting has:
- Environmental
- Technical
- Practical
………….benefits and drawbacks

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 58
NACE No. 5 / SSPC SP. 12
• Low Pressure Water Cleaning (LPWC)
Less than 34 MPa (340 bar/5 000 p.s.i.)
• High Pressure Water Cleaning (HPWC)
From 34 to 70 MPa
(340 to 680 bar/5 000 to 10 000 p.s.i.)
• High Pressure Water Jetting (HPWJ)
From 70 to 170 MPa
(680 to 1 700 bar/10 000 to 25 000 p.s.i.)
• Ultra-High Pressure Water Jetting (UHPWJ)
Above 170 MPa (1700 bar/25 000 p.s.i.)

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 59
Water Cleaning is Classified According
to the Pressure (NACE / SSPC)

Pressure, bar Classification

Below 340 LPWC
340 - 680 HPWC

680 - 1700 HPWJ

Above 1700 UHPWJ

NB - Pressure at nozzle !
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 60
Why Water-jetting ?

• The Environment is affected (to

some degree) by all types of
surface preparation.
• Water jetting has many technical
and environmental advantages,
but also some drawbacks.

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 61
From Scepticism to Optimism. Why ?
• Operators have gained a lot of experience
• Paints have been developed for
jetted surfaces
• Some conservatism among paint
• Improvements of the equipment
– Higher pressures
– Rotating nozzles
– Dedicated types for spesial applications
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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 62
• Salt level on steel surface drastically reduced.
• No dust produced.
• No grit cost (water is usually cheaper).
(Grit blasting uses 55 kg/m² costing £ 63,-/ton =
(Water blasting 127 l/m² costing £ 0,80/ton =
£ 0,10/m²).
• Close working of other trades possible.
• Abrasives can be introduced if improved surface
profile is required.
• Lower noise level than with grit blasting.
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 63
• Flash Rusting.
• Capital cost of equipment.
• No additional surface roughness.
• Equipment may be “bulky” for
narrow spaces (ballast tanks).
• Water quality and availability
• Water freeze below 0°C

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 64
Visual Surface Preparation
SSPC and NACE Definitions.
Condition Description of Surface (when viewed without magnification)

WJ-1 Free of all previously existing visible rust, coatings, mill scale,
and foreign matter and have a matt metal finish.

WJ-2 Cleaned to a matt finish with at least 95 % of the surface area

free of all previously existing visible residues. Remaining 5 containing
only randomly dispersed stains of rust, coatings, and foreign matter.

WJ-3 Cleaned to a matt finish with at least two-thirds of the surface

free of all visible residues (except mill scale). Remaining one-third
containing only randomly dispersed stains of previously existing rust,
coatings, and foreign matter.

WJ-4 All loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose coatings uniformly

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 65
Non-visual Surface Preparation
SSPC and NACE Definitions
Condition Description of Surface
• SC-1 Free of all detectable levels of contaminants as
determined using available field test equipment with sensitivity
approximating laboratory test equipment. For purposes of this
standard, contaminants are water-soluble Chlorides, Iron-
soluble salts, and Sulphates.
• SC-2 Less than 7 µg/cm² Chloride contaminants, less than 10
µg/cm² of soluble Ferrous ion levels, and less than 17 µg/cm² of
Sulphate contaminants as verified by field or laboratory
analysis using reliable, reproducible test equipment.
• SC-3 Less than 50 µg/cm² Chloride and Sulphate contaminants
as verified by field or laboratory analysis using reliable,
reproducible test equipment.

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 66
UHPWJ - Factors Influencing the
Performance of the Paint System
• Pressure
• Amount of water used
• Quality of water Cleanliness
• Degree of flash rust Adhesion
• Salts and contaminations

• Surface roughness
• Type and condition of equipment
• Workmanship
• Properties of the paint film
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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 67
Rotating Nozzles Must Be
Designed To Fit The Purpose

Rotating nozzle Here : 6 nozzles

Wide water beam:
For large areas

Narrow water beam:

For deep pits

The nozzle must be dimensioned not to exceed
the maximum available amount of water.
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 68
WJ in Action

Start The Video

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 69
Major Technical Advantage

Removes water soluble salts

Start The Video

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 70
Formation of Blisters as a Function of Salt
Concentration on Substrate (1 of 2)
Salt: 0 mg/m 2 Salt: 60 mg/m 2
Film: 150 microns Film: 150 microns

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 71
Formation of Blisters as a Function of Salt
Concentration on Substrate (2 of 2)
Salt: 100 mg/m 2 Salt: 200 mg/m 2
Film: 150 microns Film: 150 microns

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 72
Water-jetting Removes salt
An Example carried out
• 17 litres of water/min at 2500 bar
• Rotating Nozzles
• Removal Rate: 10 - 15 sq.m hour
• (Grit Blasting: 10 sq.m hour)
• Water Consumption: 50 - 150 ltrs./sq.m.
• Surface temp. increase: 10-15 degrees C

Salt levels:
Badly corroded area after Water-jetting 10 mg/m²
Badly corroded area after Grit Blasting 70 mg/m²

Start The Video

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 73
Experience Up To Now
• Short term properties on jetted
surfaces is well documented.
• Long term properties ?
– Substrate with flash rust (degree of rust ?)
– Adhesion
– Under cutting corrosion from coating defect
• Result / lifetime depends on the quality of
the work (Good workmanship).

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 74
Compatible Types of Paint
• Paint type must be compatible with the
condition of the surface.
• Water jetted surfaces require surface tolerant
products due to:
- Uneven surfaces caused by corrosion
- Possibility for flash rust on the surface.
• This limits the applicable paint types
• Recommended type:
- Modified epoxy (Epoxy Mastics)
- Reason: Surface tolerant and High Build
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 75
Definition: Standard Jetting Water
NACE No 5 /SSPC - SP 12:

• Water of sufficient purity and quality.

• Not impose additional contaminants
on the surface.
• Not containing sediments or
impurities destructive to the proper
functioning of the equipment.

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 76
The Water Quality Can Be
Influenced By Several Factors

• Source:
- Drinking water
- Lake or river
- De-salination plants
• Addition of inhibitors
• Re-circulation
• Cleaning, filtering
• Certificates or analysis

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 77
Water Quality:
Potential Sources and Risks

Potential sources Potential paint failures

Contaminations blistering

Particles “Dust” after drying

Loss of adhesion
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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 78
Horizontal Surfaces.
Concentration of Contaminants Increase
C 1 = Low conc.
Analysis of water
C 2 = High conc.
CA = Accepted conc.

C1 CA C2
C1 Evaporation C

Steel Steel
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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 79
Water quality!

Start The Video

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 80
Flash Rust May Develop
on UHPWJ Surfaces

Limits for acceptable levels are not well


Still: Flash rust is preferred to moisture /


Flash rust will make inspection more difficult

Removal of salt reduces extent of flash rust

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 81
Flash Rust Grads

Start The Video

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 82
A good Result Depends on the Workmanship

Work procedures / Specifications

Experience and qualification
Inspection and control
Standards and acceptance criteria

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 83
UHPWJ involves water jets
of very high pressure
• Education and training is required
• Learn how to operate equipment
• Always use adequate personal
• Check equipment regularly
• A minimum length of 75 cm for hand
held lances is quite often a requirement
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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 84
Equipment for Personal Protection
• Helmet with visor
• Ear protection
- (Noise: Up to 130 decibel)
• Rain coat
• Gloves
• Protective shoes
• Fresh air supply in confined spaces
- Risk of drowning in dense water mist
Always use approved equipment
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 85
Pre-treatment of Stainless Steel

• Degreasing and washing

• Sweep blasting with non-metallic
• Abrading through other means, e.g.
mechanical tools, emery paper etc

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 86
Pre-treatment of Aluminium
• Degreasing and washing
• Sweepblasting with non-metallic abrasive
• Abrading through other means, e.g. mechanical tools,
emery paper etc
• Washing with a strong alkaline cleaner followed by
washing with clean water
• Wash primer (Not in combination with Epoxy paint)
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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 87
Pre-treatment of Hot-dip
Galvanised Steel.

• T-wash
• Sweep blasting
• Etch primer, single or two - pack
• Natural weathering for at least twelve

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 88
Pre-treatment of Hot-dip
Galvanised Steel. T- Wash

• Degreasing:
– Solvent or
– Mixture of water and detergent7degreaser
• T-wash
– Application by brush is preferred
• Galvanising will turn black
• Wash down with fresh water

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 89
Pre-treatment of Hot-dip
Galvanised Steel. Etch Primer.
• Degreasing:
– Solvent or
– Mixture of water and detergent/degreaser
• Etch primer:
– Preferably two - pack
– Less than 10 microns to be applied
• Not in combination with epoxy
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 90
Pre-treatment of Hot-dip
Galvanised Steel. Sweep Blasting.
• Degreasing:
– Solvent or
– Mixture of water and detergent / degreaser
• Sweep blasting:
– Non-metallic abrasives, 0.5 mm
– Pressure at nozzle: 2.5 Bar
– Distance nozzle - structure: 0.5 m.
(Can be difficult on complex structures)
Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 91
Pre-treatment of Hot-dip
Galvanised Steel. Natural Weathering.

• Minimum 1 year of weathering

• Abrasive pads
• Wash with hot water and detergent
• Rinse with fresh water

Note: Weathering must not take place in marine

environment. Too high chloride levels.

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 92
Rust converters
What About Rust-converters ?

Rust converters are claimed to:

1. Convert rust to stable products.

2. Reduce further corrosion of the underlaying steel.
3. Render rusty steel surfaces suitable for
application of protective coatings.
4. Be suitable for application without the need for
costly surface preparation

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 93
Rust converters
Types of Rust Converters

• Phosphoric acid based (Layer of iron

phosphate on substrate)
• Tannin based (Layer of iron tannate on
• Penetrating oils
• Systems transforming rust to Magnetite
• Systems incorporating corrosion inhibitors
• Other types may be available

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JPS-E/Pre-treatment 94
Rust converters
Surface Preparation and Painting
• Light wire brushing is recommended for a
majority of the products.
• Better surface preparation improves the
• Wash the substrate before applying the paint
(Otherwise: Excessive acids not removed)
• Many types of coatings may be used on top
• Thicker paint films improve service life

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 95
Rust converters
• Rust may be only partly converted
(Thick rust layers)
• Some of the acids may remain one the surface.
• Salts in the rust will not be removed
(Washing with fresh water is required !)
• In some cases, poor adhesion to the coating.
• Blast cleaning or wire brushing give better
performance of the paint system than rust

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 96
• Thank You !

Paint School
JPS-E/Pre-treatment 97