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IPv4 Subnetting
KHAWAR BUTT
CCIE # 12353 [R/S, SECURITY, SP, DC, VOICE, STORAGE & CCDE]
Overview
 Subnetting Overview
 Basic Subnetting Example
 Subnetting Steps c

 Class A Subnetting Example


 Class B Subnetting Example
 Class C Subnetting Example
Subnetting Overview
 Normal Class A, B & C Networks have a lot of hosts on a single network.

 This leads to wastage of addresses on a single network.

 Subnetting allows you to use the bits that arec generally assigned to the Host portion as Network
bits. This process creates more usable networks with a smaller number of hosts on each network.

 Subnetting allows you to create multiple logical networks. These network, created by using host bits
for networks, are called Sub-networks. The main network is referred to as a Major Network.

 For example, if a company requires 20 public IP addresses for its network, the ISP would have to
assign the network from a Class with the minimum number of hosts, that is a Class C network.

 Even a class C network has 254 hosts. The ISP would have lost 234 host IP’s.

 Subnetting would break a Single Class C network with 254 hosts into a bunch of small networks
with less number of hosts on them.
Basic Subnetting Example
 Let’s break a Class C network, 200.1.1.0/24, into 8 new networks with lesser number of hosts on
each network.
 We will do this by taking the host portion [Last 8 bits] and splitting it into some bits for networks
and some bits for hosts. c

 Let’s take away the first 3 bits from the host portion and use it as part of the network portion.
200.1.1.NNNHHHH. As the subnet mask represents the Network portion, the new subnets will
have a new mask. 255.255.255.11100000, which is 225.255.255.224 or /27 as you borrowed 3
additional bits from the network portion.
 As 3 bits give you eight new combinations, you will get 8 new networks [2^3 = 8].
 The remaining bits are left for the host bits [5 in our case]. This give us 32 combinations for the
host portion [2^5 = 32]. In the new subnet, 2 addresses cannot be used. These addresses are
used to represent the Network address and the Broadcast address on the new network.
Basic Subnetting Example
 To summarize, by borrowing 3 bits from the host portion, we get the following 8 networks
all with a new mask of 255.255.255.224 or /27.
New Network (Binary) New Network First Host Last Host Broadcast
(Decimal) c
200.1.1.00000000 200.1.1.0 00000001 – 1 00011110 – 30 00011111 – 31
200.1.1.00100000 200.1.1.32 00100001 – 33 00111110 – 62 00111111 – 63
200.1.1.01000000 200.1.1.64 01000001 – 65 01011110 – 94 01011111 – 95
200.1.1.01100000 200.1.1.96 01100001 – 97 01111110 – 126 01111111 – 127
200.1.1.10000000 200.1.1.128 10000001 – 129 10011110 – 158 10011111 – 159
200.1.1.10100000 200.1.1.160 10100001 – 161 10111110 – 190 10111111 – 191
200.1.1.11000000 200.1.1.192 11000001 – 193 11011110 – 222 11011111 – 223
200.1.1.11100000 200.1.1.224 11100001 – 225 11111110 – 254 11111111 – 255
Simple Subnetting Steps
1. Find the number of networks required. This is based on your requirement.

2. Find the number of bits required to borrow to get the required networks. Use the following table to find this:

Bits to borrow 7 6 c5 4 3 2 1
Networks 128 64 32 16 8 4 2

3. Find the Increment number. Once you find the number of bits, move on the bottom line from left to right that number of
times. For example, if you need 6 networks, you need to borrow 3 bits as 2 will only give you 4 networks. To find the
Increment number, move from right to left 3 times on the bottom row. You will land on 32. 32 becomes your Increment
number.

4. Find the Subnet Mask. Subtract the Increment from 256 to get the new mask. In our example of 8 networks, the new
mask would be = 256 – 32 = 224 [255.255.255.224].

5. Write the new Subnets. Start with 0 as the first subnet. Add the increment for the next network. Keep on doing this until
you get your 8 networks. Write the First Host, Last host and the Broadcast address.
Subnetting Example # 1
 The Network Administrator requires you to break the 200.1.1.0/24 network into 10
subnets. We will use the 5 simple steps to do subnetting.

 1. Number of networks = 10 Bits tocborrow 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Networks 128 64 32 16 8 4 2
 2. Number of bits to borrow = 4
Bits to borrow 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
 3. Find the increment # = 16
Networks 128 64 32 16 8 4 2

 4. Find/write the new Subnet Mask = 256 – 16 = 240 [255.255.255.240] or /28.

 5. Write the new subnets = 200.1.1.0/28, 200.1.1.16/28, 200.1.1.32/28,


200.1.1.48/28, 200.1.1.64/28, 200.1.1.80/28, 200.1.1.96/28, 200.1.1.112/28,
200.1.1.128/28, 200.1.1.144/28 etc.
Subnetting Example # 1
 To summarize, we can get 10 networks by borrowing 4 bits from the host portion, we get the
following networks all with a new mask of 255.255.255.240 or /28 with an increment of 16.
New Network New Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast
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200.1.1.0 255.255.255.240 200.1.1.1 200.1.1.14 200.1.1.15
200.1.1.16 255.255.255.240 200.1.1.17 200.1.1.30 200.1.1.31
200.1.1.32 255.255.255.240 200.1.1.33 200.1.1.46 200.1.1.47
200.1.1.48 255.255.255.240 200.1.1.49 200.1.1.62 200.1.1.63
200.1.1.64 255.255.255.240 200.1.1.65 200.1.1.78 200.1.1.79
200.1.1.80 255.255.255.240 200.1.1.81 200.1.1.94 200.1.1.95
200.1.1.96 255.255.255.240 200.1.1.97 200.1.1.110 200.1.1.111
… … … … …
Subnetting Example # 2
 The Network Administrator requires you to break the 200.1.1.0/24 network into 6
subnets. We will use the 5 simple steps to do subnetting.

 1. Number of networks = 6 Bits tocborrow 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Networks 128 64 32 16 8 4 2
 2. Number of bits to borrow = 3
Bits to borrow 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
 3. Find the increment # = 32
Networks 128 64 32 16 8 4 2

 4. Find/write the new Subnet Mask = 256 – 32 = 224 [255.255.255.224] or /27.

 5. Write the new subnets = 200.1.1.0/27, 200.1.1.32/27, 200.1.1.64/27,


200.1.1.96/27, 200.1.1.128/27, 200.1.1.160/27 etc.
Subnetting Example # 2
 To summarize, we can get 6 networks by borrowing 3 bits from the host portion, we get the
following networks all with a new mask of 255.255.255.224 or /27 with an increment of 32.
New Network New Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast
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200.1.1.0 255.255.255.224 200.1.1.1 200.1.1.30 200.1.1.31
200.1.1.32 255.255.255.224 200.1.1.33 200.1.1.62 200.1.1.63
200.1.1.64 255.255.255.224 200.1.1.65 200.1.1.94 200.1.1.95
200.1.1.96 255.255.255.224 200.1.1.97 200.1.1.126 200.1.1.127
200.1.1.128 255.255.255.224 200.1.1.129 200.1.1.158 200.1.1.159
200.1.1.160 255.255.255.224 200.1.1.161 200.1.1.190 200.1.1.191
200.1.1.192 255.255.255.224 200.1.1.193 200.1.1.222 200.1.1.223
… … … … …
Subnetting Example # 3
 The Network Administrator requires you to break the 150.5.0.0/16 network into 50
subnets. We will use the 5 simple steps to do subnetting.

 1. Number of networks = 50 Bits tocborrow 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Networks 128 64 32 16 8 4 2
 2. Number of bits to borrow = 6
Bits to borrow 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
 3. Find the increment # = 4
Networks 128 64 32 16 8 4 2

 4. Find/write the new Subnet Mask = 256 – 4 = 252 [255.255.252.0] or /22.

 5. Write the new subnets = 150.5.0.0/22, 150.5.4.0/22, 150.5.8.0/22


150.5.12.0/22, 150.5.16.0/22, 150.5.20.0/22, 150.5.24.0/22, 150.5.28.0/22,
150.5.32.0/22 etc.
Subnetting Example # 3
 To summarize, we can get 50 networks by borrowing 6 bits from the host portion, we get the
following networks all with a new mask of 255.255.252.0 or /22 with an increment of 4.
New Network New Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast
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150.5.0.0 255.255.252.0 150.5.0.1 150.5.3.254 150.5.3.255
150.5.4.0 255.255.252.0 150.5.4.1 150.5.7.254 150.5.7.255
150.5.8.0 255.255.252.0 150.5.8.1 150.5.11.254 150.5.11.255
150.5.12.0 255.255.252.0 150.5.12.1 150.5.15.254 150.5.15.255
150.5.16.0 255.255.252.0 150.5.16.1 150.5.19.254 150.5.19.255
150.5.20.0 255.255.252.0 150.5.20.1 150.5.23.254 150.5.23.255
150.5.24.0 255.255.252.0 150.5.24.1 150.5.27.254 150.5.27.255
… … … … …
Subnetting Example # 4
 The Network Administrator requires you to break the 60.0.0.0/8 network into 30
subnets. We will use the 5 simple steps to do subnetting.

 1. Number of networks = 30 Bits tocborrow 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Networks 128 64 32 16 8 4 2
 2. Number of bits to borrow = 5
Bits to borrow 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
 3. Find the increment # = 8
Networks 128 64 32 16 8 4 2

 4. Find/write the new Subnet Mask = 256 – 8 = 248 [255.248.0.0] or /13.

 5. Write the new subnets = 60.0.0.0/13, 60.8.0.0/13, 60.16.0.0/13


60.24.0.0/13, 60.32.0.0/13, 60.40.0.0/13, 60.48.0.0/13, 60.56.0.0/13,
60.64.0.0/13 etc.
Subnetting Example # 4
 To summarize, we can get 30 networks by borrowing 5 bits from the host portion, we get
the following networks all with a new mask of 255.248.0.0 or /13 with an increment of 8.
New Network New Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast
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60.0.0.0 255.248.0.0 60.0.0.1 60.7.255.254 60.7.255.255
60.8.0.0 255.248.0.0 60.8.0.1 60.15.255.254 60.15.255.255
60.16.0.0 255.248.0.0 60.16.0.1 60.23.255.254 60.23.255.255
60.24.0.0 255.248.0.0 60.24.0.1 60.31.255.254 60.31.255.255
60.32.0.0 255.248.0.0 60.32.0.1 60.39.255.254 60.39.255.255
60.40.0.0 255.248.0.0 60.40.0.1 60.47.255.254 60.47.255.255
60.48.0.0 255.248.0.0 60.48.0.1 60.55.255.254 60.55.255.255
… … … … …
Review Exercise
1. You have a Class C address of 192.1.5.0. You would like to break it into 7 Subnets. Write the
new Subnet Mask, First, Last and Broadcast addresses for the new Subnetworks.

2. You have a Class B address of 150.5.0.0. You would like to break it into 15 Subnets. Write the
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new Subnet Mask, First, Last and Broadcast addresses for the First 5 Subnetworks.

3. You have a Class A address of 50.0.0.0. You would like to break it into 50 Subnets. Write the
new Subnet Mask, First, Last and Broadcast addresses for the First 5 Subnetworks.

4. If you have sub-netted a network 172.16.0.0 with a mask of /20. Which of the following
addresses are broadcast addresses?

A. 172.16.32.255 B. 172.16.47.255 C. 172.16.79.255 D. 172.16.159.255


5. If your mask is 255.255.255.224, which of the following addresses are valid IP Addresses?
A. 192.165.4.37 B. 195.5.2.63 C. 172.6.5.32 D. 11.5.1.94
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