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INTRODUCTION TO GSM
` The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a set
of recommendations and specifications for a digital cellular
telephone network (known as a Public Land Mobile Network, or
PLMN).
` These recommendations ensure the compatibility of equipment
from different GSM manufacturers, and interconnectivity
between different administrations, including operation across
international boundaries.
` GSM networks are digital and can cater for high system
capacities.
` They are consistent with the world-wide digitization of the
telephone network, and are an extension of the Integrated
Services Digital Network (ISDN), using a digital radio interface
between the cellular network and the mobile subscriber
equipment.
INTRODUCTION TO GSM
|     
` GSM systems use radio frequencies between 890-915 MHz for
receive and between 935-960 MHz for transmit.
` RF carriers are spaced every 200 kHz, allowing a total of 124
carriers for use.
` An RF carrier is a pair of radio frequencies, one used in each
direction.
` Transmit and receive frequencies are always separated by 45
MHz.
UPLINK FREQUENCIES DOWNLINK FREQUENCIES

890 915 935 960

UPLINK AND DOWNLINK FREQUENCY SEPARATED BY 45MHZ


INTRODUCTION TO GSM
 |  | 
` EGSM has 10MHz of bandwidth on both transmit and receive.
` Receive bandwidth is from 880 MHz to 890 MHz.
` Transmit bandwidth is from 925 MHz to 935 MHz.
` Total RF carriers in EGSM is 50.

UPLINK FREQUENCIES DOWNLINK FREQUENCIES

880 890 915 925 935 960

UPLINK AND DOWNLINK FREQUENCY SEPARATED BY 45MHZ


INTRODUCTION TO GSM
     
` DCS1800 systems use radio frequencies between 1710-1785
MHz for receive and between 1805-1880 MHz for transmit.
` RF carriers are spaced every 200 kHz, allowing a total of 373
carriers.
` There is a 100 kHz guard band between 1710.0 MHz and 1710.1
MHz and between 1784.9 MHz and 1785.0 MHz for receive, and
between 1805.0 MHz and 1805.1 MHz and between 1879.9 MHz
and 1880.0 MHz for transmit.
` Transmit and receive frequencies are always separated by 95
MHz. UPLINK FREQUENCIES DOWNLINK FREQUENCIES

1710 MHz 1785 MHz 1805 MHz 1880 MHz

UPLINK AND DOWNLINK FREQUENCY SEPARATED BY 95MHZ


V TUR S OV GSM
V TUR S OV GSM
     
` The GSM system provides a greater subscriber capacity
than analogue systems.
` GSM allows 25 kHz per user, that is, eight conversations
per 200 kHz channel pair (a pair comprising one
transmit channel and one receive channel).
` Digital channel coding and the modulation used makes
the signal resistant to interference from cells where the
same frequencies are re-used (co-channel interference);
a Carrier to Interference Ratio (C/I) level of 12 dB is
achieved, as opposed to the 18 dB typical with analogue
cellular.
` This allows increased geographic reuse by permitting a
reduction in the number of cells in the reuse pattern.
V TUR S OV GSM
 
 
` Digital transmission of speech and high performance digital signal
processors provide good quality speech transmission.
` Since GSM is a digital technology, the signals passed over a digital
air interface can be protected against errors by using better error
detection and correction techniques.
` In regions of interference or noise-limited operation the speech
quality is noticeably better than analogue.

          
` Standard interfaces such as C7 and X25 are used throughout the
system. Hence different manufacturers can be selected for
different parts of the PLMN.
` There is a high flexibility in where the Network components are
situated.
V TUR S OV GSM
        
 
` GSM offers high speech and data confidentiality.
` Subscriber authentication can be performed by the system to
check if a subscriber is a valid subscriber or not.
` The GSM system provides for high degree of confidentiality for
the subscriber. Calls are encoded and ciphered when sent over
air.
` The mobile equipment can be identified independently from the
mobile subscriber. The mobile has a identity number hard coded
into it when it is manufactured. This number is stored in a
standard database and whenever a call is made the equipment
can be checked to see if it has been reported stolen.
V TUR S OV GSM

 
` GSM uses Mobile assisted handover technique.
` The mobile itself carries out the signal strength and quality
measurement of its server and signal strength measurement of
its neighbors.
` This data is passed on the Network which then uses
sophisticated algorithms to determine the need of handover.

     


` In a GSM system the mobile station and the subscriber are
identified separately.
` The subscriber is identified by means of a smart card known as
a SIM.
` This enables the subscriber to use different mobile equipment
while retaining the same subscriber number.
V TUR S OV GSM
  |    
` Speech services for normal telephony.
` Short Message Service for point to point transmission of text
message.
` Cell broadcast for transmission of text message from the cell to
all MS in its coverage area. Message like traffic information or
advertising can be transmitted.
` Fax and data services are provided. Data rates available are 2.4
Kb/s, 4.8 Kb/s and 9.6 Kb/s.
` Supplementary services like number identification , call barring,
call forwarding, charging display etc can be provided.
V TUR S OV GSM
     
` There are total 124 carriers in GSM ( additional 50 carriers are
available if EGSM band is used).
` Each carrier has 8 timeslots and if 7 can be used for traffic then a
maximum of 868 ( 124 X 7 ) calls can be made. This is not enough
and hence frequencies have to be reused.
` The same RF carrier can be used for many conversations in
several different cells at the same time.

` The radio carriers available are allocated 2


according to a regular pattern which repeats 1 3
over the whole coverage area. 4
` The pattern to be used depends on traffic 5 7
requirement and spectrum availability. 6 2
` Some typical repeat patterns are 4/12, 7/21 etc. 1

 |

RANGE= TIMIMG DVNC * BIT P RIOD* V OCITY


2

TIMING ADVANCE = DELAY OF BITS (0-63)


BIT PERIOD= 577/156.25 = 3.693'sec =3.693 * 10e-6 sec
VELOCITY= 3 * 10e5 Km/sec
RANGE= 34.9 Km
Cell Global Identity ( CGI ) :

LAI
MCC MNC LAC CI
CGI

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Traffic Channels(TCH)

TCH/V TCH/H
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22

CCH(Control Channel)

BCH CCCH DCCH

CCH Synch. RCH CBCH SDCCH CCH


Chanels

PCH/
VCCH SCCH
SCH VCCH GCH
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` ##)+*#-)%"6" 
Cell Allocation Number(CANO)?, %8-+!*
$8!% ,+,%>$)&)+*#-$-0
?*)$%%| !*
Cell Allocation ARFCN(CA ARFCN):-   =-
$-, %+ 66".0"-) "*!"8*6 ,/1!"-0
   

/ / / /
1 < / 

/ / / / /   
1 < /  D  4
   <    
A 3 1 /  D
   3    
 4 A 1 < / 
   
` RACH Control Parameters
Access Control Class(ACC) :-"8*6'"+
A!"-0 ## -6%* $ )#*--7D0%" %"&
.% $6-$- )#*--?30!"- !*%%
*))--, %+*)#*--0 ""-$- ##+ ",
8%.)&)*##"- *## ' % 0
7 ## )*8*(8%.)&)*##0
?  '"+)#*--?3 #&)*
8*(8%.)&)*##-0
Cell barred for access(CB):-
? -
? 
   
` RACH Control Parameters
Re-establishment allowed(RE):-
? -
? 
Max_retransmissions(MAXRET)9?$8!% ,"8-
+ *86- *))--+' %(E5/51 %4F0
Tx-integer(TX):- $8!% ,-# - -6%**))--
%%*-8"--" -'+* *86-
 *))-- +-&-80
Emergency call allowed:- -2 0
   /
` &-8, %8*"  &6/8--*.) -"-- ,+
 $!##"-'+")+,"-+ ,%>$)"-
$-"+".+! %".)##-0
` + $!##"-6% :"-+ '"+",,%
,%>$)"- '+")+ 8*-$%56". '++%
+ "-""# %*)":8 0
` *)":8 5+ -+ $#8*-$% *%$)
$8!% ,,%>$)"-" %% "86% :+*))$%*)&
,8*-$%8-0
   /
` #8 5+ -+ $#8*-$% #*%.%$8!%
,,%>$)"-5- +*+"8%>$"%, %+  
*))--+' %(*,%6 '% "-%$)0
` + "-*#- ", %8'+")+
=-"8*&$-0
` -'##*- &-8, %8*"  &6/5""-*#- 6 --"!#
 +*: &-8, %8*"  &6/"-* &-8
", %8*"  &6/%56". +-"; ,+

"-0
` &-8, %8*"  &6/"-2 %*% 6" *#0
   /
` Neighbor Cell Description:-
BA Indicator(BA IND):- ## '- ",,%"*
8*-$%8%-$#-%#* ",,%#"- ,
  ,%>$)"--  0
BCCH Allocation number(BANO):-
*"-$-0
` PLMN Permitted(NCCPERM9? +"-+

) # %) -6%8"*##-+ '+")+
' %( ) # %) -  + )*%%"%-""-
*## '  8 " %'+""-"+"-)##0
0
   /
` RACH Control Parameters
Access Control Class(ACC) :-"8*6'"+
A!"-0 ##  -6%* $ )#*--7D0%" %"&
.% $6- $-)#*-- ?30!"- !*%%
*))--, %+*)#*--0" "-$- ##+ 
",8%.)& )*##"-*## ' % 0
7 ## )*8*(8%.)&)*##0
?  '"+)#*--?3 #&)*
8*(8%.)&)*##-0
Cell barred for access(CB):-
? -
? 
   /
Re-establishment allowed(RE):-
? -
? 
Max_retransmissions(MAXRET)9?$8!% ,"8-
+ *86- *))--+' %(E5/51 %4F0
Tx-integer(TX):- $8!% ,-# - -6%**))--
%%*-8"--" -'+* *86-
 *))-- +-&-80
Emergency call allowed:- -2 0
   /
BCCH ARFCN Number(BAIND):-   =-$-
, %"*"8*6 ,/1!"-

/ / / /
1 < / 

/ / / / /   
1 < /   D  4
       
A 3 1 < /   D
       
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+""& ,+)$%%
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.% $60
` @++ "-""#8 ")"-'+")+)##- 
# )( 0, %8*" !&+ , %)##-#)" 
"-*#- !% *)*-"+ &6<", %8*" 0
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±      
     
      
     



  


   <
` Control Channel Description
Attach / Detach(ATT):-
Ë## '
Ë ## '
bs_agblk:-$8!% ,!# )(%-%:, %| E?4F
Ba_pmfrms:-$8!% ,3,%*88$#"?,%*8-
!'%*-8"--"  ,6*.".8--*.-   ,
+-*8.% $6
T3212:- %" ")# )*" $6*"8%0
E?/33)"+ $%-F0
   <

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` Cell options
DTX:-@++%"-) "$ $- %*-8"--" $- %
 0
PWRC:- '%) % # + '#"(0
Ë $-0
Ë-0
Radio link timeout(RLINKT):- *" #"("8? $
"-+"8!, %* "-) )-$ ,*"#$%
" ) ".  8--*.0 -+"8% "
+  0
   <
` Cell Selection Parameters
Rxlev_access_min:- ""8$8%)":
-".*##:# *+ , %'+")+""-6%8" 
*))--+ -&-80
?A<Ë?8 71480
Mx_txpwr_cch:- *"8$86 '%+
 '"##$- '+*))--".+-&-80
Cell_reselect_hysteresis:- -, %)##
%-#)" 0
` RACH Control Parameters0
   1
` Location Area Identification0
` Cell Selection Parameters
Rxlev_access_min:- ""8$8%)":
-".*##:# *+ , %'+")+""-6%8" 
*))--+ -&-80
?A<Ë?8 71480
Mx_txpwr_cch:- *"8$86 '%+
 '"##$- '+*))--".+-&-80
Cell_reselect_hysteresis:- -, %)##
%-#)" 0
   1
` RACH Control Parameters
8*G%%*-8"--" -  
G".% 
##!*%%, %*))-- 0
?-*!#"-+8*## ' 
8%.)& *#### '
))-- % # #*-- 
   1
` CBCH Description(Optional) :
CHN:- +"-"-+)+*#$8!%, %  0"-
) % ##"%*##&" 0
TSC:- %*"". >$) 0*- *" 
# %  6*% ,  "-$-0
CBCHNO:- !- #$ )+*#$8!% ,  0
MAC:-  !"### )*" "+)##5-)%"!-+
,%>$)"- !$-"++ 66".->$)",
,%>$)&+ 66"."-$-0
   1
Hopping Channel(H):-, %8-",   +*#"-
+ 66". %-".#0
ARFCN:- ,ËH
MAIO:- ,Ë5", %8-+ '+% 
-*%+ 66".0
*#$-E?A<F0
HSN:- ,Ë5", %8-+ "
'+* %% ++ 66".-+ $#*(6#*)0
*#$-E7A<F0  Ë &)#") 66".0
MA:-")*-'+")+ 
+*#-*%$- , %+ 66".0
  $8!%-) " !"8*60
   3
`  +   + '#"( + "
")*8 0
`   5+ *#- %)":-", %8*" *! $+
 )*%%"%"*)+".+! %".)##0 +"-8*&",,%
,% 8+ --" &-8", %8*" &6/0
` "-*#- 6 --"!# +*:-&-8, %8*"  &63"-
* &-8, %8*"  &63 %56". +
-"; ,+#"-0
   3
` Neighbor Cell Description:-

BA-IND:--!&+' %( "-)%"8"*


8*-$%8-%-$#-%#* ",,%#"-- ,
 )*%%"%--!&+  &6/ %30
*#$- %",,%,% 8&6/0

BCCH Allocation number:-?*)$%%| 


!*0
   3
BCCH ARFCN:-".+! %".)##-  =-0 
*-*!"8*60
? $-
?-0

/1 /< // /

/1 /< // / / D  4


A 3 1 < /   D
 4 A 3 1 < / 
   A
` -"")*8 - ( '",+
+*-
)+*.0,- 5"8$-6%, %8# )*" $6*".'+
+)*##"-%#*-0
`  8*&)+*.!')##-'"+",,% *" #"(
"8 $* 0
` Cell Identity.
` Location Area Identification.
` PLMN permitted.
   A
` Cell options:
 
@
*" 
"("8 $0
   42

` &-8, %8*"  &6-4*) *" ##


-#)6*%*8%-0 +"%,$)" "- 
-$66#8 &-8, %8*"  &610
OCTION UPDT

   
` MSC should always know the location of the MS so that it can
contact it by sending pages whenever required.
` The mobile keeps on informing the MSC about its current
location area or whenever it changes from one LA to another.
` This process of informing the MSC is known as location
updating.
` The new LA is updated in the VLR.
` LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC
3 digits 1-2 digits Max 16 bits

MCC MNC C

MCC = Mobile country code.


MNC = Mobile Network Code.
LAC = Location area code. Identifies a location area within a GSM PLMN
network. The maximum length of LAC is 16 bits. Thus 65536 different
LA can be defined in one GSM PLMN.

    
` Normal location update
` Periodic location update
` IMSI attach

 %8*#
)*"  6*
` Mobile powers on and is idle.
` Reads the LAI broadcast on the BCCH.
` Compares with the last stored LAI and if it is different does a
location update.

   
p  p 




 

t 
t
 t

t t t 


 t

t t t 


  
p
 



 

t
p

t 
t
t
   
` Saves the network from paging a MS which is not active in the
system.
` When MS is turned off or SIM is removed the MS sends a detach
signal to the Network. It is marked as detached.
` When the MS is powered again it reads the current LAI and if it is
same does a location update type IMSI attach.
` Attach/detach flag is broadcast on the BCCH sys info.

  
   
` Many times the MS enters non-coverage zone.
` The MS will keep on paging the MS thus wasting precious
resources.
` To avoid this the MS has to inform the MSC about its current LAI in
a set period of time.
` This time ranges from 0 to 255 decihours.
` Periodic location timer value is broadcast on BCCH sys info messages.
TIM R T3101
` The MS requests for resources by sending channel request on
RACH.
` The BSS allocates a SDCCH, if available, and sends a
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message on the downlink. This
message contains the details of allocated SDCCH, TSC , TA etc.
` As soon as the BSS allocates and sends message on the AGCH,
it starts a timer T3101.
` The MS logs on the SDCCH and sends a message on the
UPLINK.
` As soon as the BSS receives this message the timer T3101 is
stopped.
` If no message is received by the BSS from the MS and timer
T3101 expires, then the BSS releases the allocated SDCCH
resource.
` This timer is set in millisecs.
TIM R T3101
 
   

p p LL
LL

 


pp

p LL
pp

p
LL
()  
p   ()

 
p  




F p   L 
L   
p 
 

F  X
 
   
V
L
  L 
LL   
@*"G"")*" 6*%*8%C "8% <//
` The MS requests for resources by sending channel request on
RACH.
` The BSS allocates a SDCCH, if available, and sends a IMMEDIATE
ASSIGNMENT message on the downlink. This message contains
the details of allocated SDCCH, TSC , TA etc.
` If no SDCCH is available, the BSS sends a IMMEDIATE
ASSIGNMENT REJECT message to the MS.
` As soon as the MS receives the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
REJECT message, it starts a timer T3122 and setes it equal to
wait_parameter_indication.
` Till the timer T3122 is running, no channel request leaves the MS.
` The next channel request is sent only after the expiry of T3122.
` This wait_indication_parameter can be set from 0 to 255 secs.
Šait_indication parameter & Timer T3122
p LL

 
!$  % L L

pp  !p!
 3122 ! p J " #
)* L $
( _ !  $!

??????????

!  % p$ ??????????????????????????????????

F 3122 &  '


p  ! !$( !
F  )*
 
C QU ING
` The MS requests for resources by sending a request to the BSS on
RACH.
` The BSS assigns a SDCCH and the call setup takes place on the
SDCCH.
` It is possible that after the call setup, their may not be a TCH available
for the MS due to congestion..
Assig. Req
` The Network is able to place
this call in a queue along with Queuing Indication
Start T11
other MS awaiting assignment
of a TCH. Assign. Compl / Fail
Stop T11
` The length of the queue can
be set in the database.
` The time for which a MS can
T11 expires. Clr Req.
stay in the queue can be set
by setting the value of T11
timer.
TCH R SOURC R PORTING

` The number of dedicated traffic channel in use within a BSS may be


useful information for the MSC.
` The number of TCH currently allocated can be indicated with a
BSSMAP REOURCE INDICATION MESSAGE.
` The message can be sent to the MSC in different modes.
` In one-off mode, the MSC asks for a report and the BSS generates
one.
` In the periodic mode, the MSC tells the BSS that it wants reports at
regular interval.
` In spontaneous mode, the report is generated in response to TCH
demand.
TCH R SOURC R PORTING

100%  * age

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T3109
` The MS and BSS monitor the appearance of SACCH messages.
` If an uplink failure occurs and the threshold of lost SACCH
messages is reached, the BSS will activate timer T3109.
` The BSS will stop sending SACCH messages to the MS.
` The MS will not receive any SACCH messages and hence T100
will expire.
` When T100 expires the MS will return to ideal mode.
` The BSS will release the channel resources once T3109 expires.
` For the downlink failure same pattern is followed except that
T100 expires first.
` T3109 should be set higher than T100 ensuring that the system
holds on to the radio link long enough for MS to release it first.
Otherwise it will be possible to have two MS on the same TCH.
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T3110 ND T3111 - Normal Release
` The system initiates the release of a channel by sending a
channel release message to the MS and will start timer TT3109.
` SACCH messages on the downlink are disconnected.
` On the receipt of the channel release, the MS starts internal
timer T3110 and disconnects the main signaling link.
` When T3110 times out or when the signaling is disconnect
confirmed, the MS deactivates all RF links and returns to BCCH
idle mode.
` When the BSS receives disconnect message, it stops timer
T3109 and starts T3111.
` When T3111 has expired all RF links are terminated.
` If T3109 times out all RF channels are deactivated and are then
free to be allocated.
` T3109 should be greater than T3110.
T3110 ND T3111 - Normal Release

Channel Release
Start timer T3109
Start timer T3110

Disconnect
Stop timer T3109

Start timer T3111

UA
Stop T3110 on the
receipt of UA
T3111 expired
Release Radio
Resources
  
 
INTRODUCTION TO FREQUENCY HOPPING

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INT RV R N
C
EFFECTS OF INTERFERENCE
` Interference is a major limiting factor in the performance of
cellular systems.
` It causes degradation of signal quality.
` It introduces bit errors in the received signal.
` Bit errors are partly recoverable by means of channel coding and
error correction mechanisms.
` The interference situation is not reciprocal in the uplink and
downlink direction.
` Mobile stations and base stations are exposed to different
interference situation.
SOURCES OF INTERFERENCE
` Another mobile in the same cell.
` A call in progress in the neighboring cell.
` Other base stations operating on the same frequency.
` Any non-cellular system which leaks energy into the cellular
frequency band.
TYPES OF INTERFERENCE
` There are two types of system generated interference
7 2   
7      

22   


2
` This type of interference is the due to frequency reuse , i.e.
several cells use the same set of frequency.
` These cells are called co-channel cells.
` Co-channel interference cannot be combated by increasing the
power of the transmitter. This is because an increase in carrier
transmit power increases the interference to neighboring co-
channel cells.
` To reduce co-channel interference, co-channel cells must be
physically separated by a minimum distance to provide sufficient
isolation due to propagation or reduce the footprint of the cell.
22   
2
` Some factors other then reuse distance that influence co-channel
interference are antenna type, directionality, height, site position
etc,
` GSM specifies C/I > 9dB.

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22   
2

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` In a cellular system, when the size of each cell is approximately


the same, co-channel interference is independent of the
transmitted power and becomes a function of cell radius(R) and
the distance to the centre of the nearest co-channel cell (D).
22   
2
` Q = D / R = È3N
` By increasing the ratio of D/R, the spatial separation between the
co-channel cells relative to the coverage distance of a cell is
increased. In this way interference is reduced from improved
isolation of RF energy from the co-channel cell.
` The parameter Q , called the co-channel reuse ratio, is related to
the cluster size.
` A small value of Q provides larger capacity since the cluster size
N is small whereas a large value of Q improves the transmission
quality.
  
 2   
` Interference resulting from signals which are adjacent in
frequency to the desired signal is called adjacent channel
interference.
` Adjacent channel interference results from imperfect receiver
filters which allow nearby frequencies to leak into the passband.
` Adjacent channel interference can be minimized through careful
filtering and channel assignments.
` By keeping the frequency separation between each channel in a
given cell as large as possible , the adjacent interference may be
reduced considerably.
  
 2   

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COUNT RING
INT RV R NC
4  2  
` RF power control is employed to minimize the transmit power
required by MS or BS while maintaining the quality of the radio
links.
` By minimizing the transmit power levels, interference to co-
channel users is reduced.
` Power control is implemented in the MS as well as the BSS.
` Power control on the Uplink also helps to increase the battery life.
` Power received by the MS is continuously sent in the
measurement report.
` Similarly uplink power received from the MS by the BTS is
measured by the BTS.
` Complex algorithm evaluate this measurements and take a
decision subsequently reducing or increasing the power in the
Uplink or the downlink.
COUNT RING
Y2
INT
 
RV R NC
` For 120 degrees sectored site as compared to an omni site almost
1/3rd interference is received in the uplink.
` The more selective and directional is the antenna, the smaller is
the interference.
` Reduction in interference results in higher capacity in both links.
     
    
         
      

    
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