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AGC

DSP
IIR Digital Filter Design

Standard approach
(1) Convert the digital filter specifications into
an analogue prototype lowpass filter
specifications
(2) Determine the analogue lowpass filter
transfer function H a (s )
(3) Transform H (s ) by replacing the
complex variablea to the digital transfer
function
G (z )
Professor A G Constantinides
1
AGC
DSP
IIR Digital Filter Design
 This approach has been widely used for
the following reasons:
(1) Analogue approximation techniques
are highly advanced
(2) They usually yield closed-form
solutions
(3) Extensive tables are available for
analogue filter design
(4) Very often applications require
digital simulation of analogue systems
Professor A G Constantinides
2
AGC
DSP IIR Digital Filter Design
 Let an analogue transfer function be
Pa ( s )
H a (s) 
Da ( s )
where the subscript “a” indicates the
analogue domain
 A digital transfer function derived from
this is denoted as
P( z )
G( z) 
D( z )
Professor A G Constantinides
3
AGC
DSP
IIR Digital Filter Design
 Basic idea behind the conversion of H a (s )
into G (z ) is to apply a mapping from the s-
domain to the z-domain so that essential
properties of the analogue frequency
response are preserved
 Thus mapping function should be such that
 Imaginary ( j ) axis in the s-plane be
mapped onto the unit circle of the z-plane
 A stable analogue transfer function be

mapped into a stable digital transfer


function
Professor A G Constantinides
4
AGC
IIR Digital Filter: The bilinear
DSP
transformation
 To obtain G(z) replace s by f(z) in H(s)
 Start with requirements on G(z)
G( z ) Available H(s)

Stable Stable
Real and Rational in z Real and Rational
in s
Order n Order n
L.P. (lowpass) cutoff c L.P. cutoff cT
Professor A G Constantinides
5
AGC
DSP
IIR Digital Filter
 Hence f (z ) is real and rational in z of
order one
 i.e. az  b
f ( z) 
cz  d
 For LP to LP transformation we require
s  0  z  1 f (1)  0  a  b  0
s   j  z  1 f ( 1)   j  c  d  0
 Thus  a  z 1
f ( z )   .
 c  z 1
Professor A G Constantinides
6
AGC
DSP
IIR Digital Filter
 The quantity a  cT   c
is fixed from
c
 ie on  a T
C : z 1 f ( z ) c   . j tan
c 2
 Or  a cT
j c   . j tan
c 2
 
  1
and  c  1 z

s .
 tan  cT   1  z 1
  
  2  Professor A G Constantinides
7
AGC
DSP
Bilinear Transformation
 Transformation is unaffected by scaling.
Consider inverse transformation with scale
factor equal to unity
For z  1 s

1 s
s   o  j o
(1   o )  jo 2 (1   ) 2
  2
z z  o o
(1   o )  jo (1   o ) 2  o2
 and so
o  0  z 1
o  0  z 1
o  0  z 1
Professor A G Constantinides
8
AGC
DSP

Bilinear Transformation
 Mapping of s-plane into the z-plane

Professor A G Constantinides
9
AGC
DSP
Bilinear Transformation
j
 For z  e with unity scalar we have
 j
j  1  e  j tan( / 2)
 j
1 e
or   tan( / 2)

Professor A G Constantinides
10
AGC
DSP
Bilinear Transformation
 Mapping is highly nonlinear
 Complete negative imaginary axis in the s-
plane from  to is mapped
0 into
the lower half of the unit circle in the z-
plane from to z  1 z 1
 Complete positive imaginary axis in the s-
plane from   to
0    is mapped
into the upper half of the unit circle in the
z-plane from z to1 z  1
Professor A G Constantinides
11
AGC
DSP Bilinear Transformation
 Nonlinear mapping introduces a
distortion in the frequency axis called
frequency warping
 Effect of warping shown below

Professor A G Constantinides
12
AGC
DSP

Spectral Transformations
 To transform GL (z ) a given lowpass
transfer function to another transfer function
that may
GD (zˆ ) be a lowpass, highpass,
bandpass or bandstop filter (solutions given
by Constantinides)
z 1 has been used to denote the unit delay

in the prototype lowpass filter and


GL (z )
to denote
1 the unit delay in the

transformed filter to avoid confusion
GD (zˆ )
Professor A G Constantinides
13
AGC
DSP

Spectral Transformations
 Unit circles in z- and ẑ -planes defined
by j j̂
ze zˆ  e
,
 Transformation from z-domain to
ẑ -domain given by
z  F (zˆ )
 Then GD ( zˆ )  GL {F ( zˆ )}
Professor A G Constantinides
14
AGC
DSP

Spectral Transformations
 From z  F (zˆ ) , thus z  F (zˆ ) ,
hence  1, if z  1

F ( zˆ )  1, if z  1
 1, if z  1

 Therefore 1 / F ( zˆ ) must be a stable allpass


function 1 L  1  * zˆ 
     ,   1
 
F ( zˆ ) 1 zˆ   Professor
 A G Constantinides
15
AGC
Lowpass-to-Lowpass
DSP
Spectral Transformation
 To transform a lowpass filter GL (z ) with a
cutoff frequency  c to another lowpass filter
GD (zˆ ) ̂ c
with a cutoff frequency , the
transformation is
1 1   zˆ
z 1
 
F ( zˆ ) zˆ  
 On the unit circle we have
 jˆ
e  e jˆ
 j

which yields 1 e

tan( / 2)   1    tan(ˆ / 2)

 1    Professor A G Constantinides 16
AGC
Lowpass-to-Lowpass
DSP
Spectral Transformation
 Solving we get sin  ( c  ˆ c ) / 2 

sin  ( c  ˆ c ) / 2 
 Example - Consider the lowpass digital filter
0.0662(1  z 1 )3
GL ( z )  1 1 2
(1  0.2593 z )(1  0.6763 z  0.3917 z )
which has a passband from dc to 0.25
with a 0.5 dB ripple
 Redesign the above filter to move the

passband edge to
0.35 Professor A G Constantinides
17
AGC
Lowpass-to-Lowpass
DSP
Spectral Transformation
 Here sin(0.05 )
    0.1934
sin(0.3 )
 Hence, the desired lowpass transfer
function is GD ( zˆ )  GL ( z ) zˆ  0.1934 1
z  1

1 0.1934 zˆ 1

-10
Gain, dB

G (z) G (z)
L D
-20

-30

-40
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
w /p Professor A G Constantinides
18
AGC
DSP Lowpass-to-Lowpass
Spectral Transformation
 The lowpass-to-lowpass transformation
1 1 1   zˆ
z  
F ( zˆ ) zˆ  
can also be used as highpass-to-
highpass, bandpass-to-bandpass and
bandstop-to-bandstop transformations

Professor A G Constantinides
19
AGC Lowpass-to-Highpass
DSP
Spectral Transformation
 Desired transformation
1
1 zˆ  
z 
1   zˆ 1
 The transformation parameter  is given by

cos ( c  ˆ c ) / 2
 
cos ( c  ˆ c ) / 2
where is the cutoff frequency of the lowpass
filter and c is the cutoff frequency of the desired
highpass filter ̂ c
Professor A G Constantinides
20
AGC
Lowpass-to-Highpass
DSP
Spectral Transformation
 Example - Transform the lowpass filter
1 3
0.0662(1  z )
GL ( z ) 
(1  0.2593 z 1 )(1  0.6763 z 1  0.3917 z 2 )
 with a passband edge at 0.25 to a
highpass filter with a passband 0.55edge at
 Here   cos(0.4 ) / cos(0.15 )  0.3468
 The desired transformation is
1
1 ˆ  0.3468
z
z  1
1  0.3468 zˆ Professor A G Constantinides
21
AGC Lowpass-to-Highpass
DSP
Spectral Transformation

 The desired highpass filter is


GD ( zˆ )  G ( z ) z 1

zˆ 1 0.3468
10.3468 zˆ 1
0

- 20
Gain, dB

- 40

- 60

- 80
0 0.2p 0.4p 0.6p 0.8p p
Normalized frequency
Professor A G Constantinides
22
AGC
DSP Lowpass-to-Highpass
Spectral Transformation
 The lowpass-to-highpass transformation
can also be used to transform a
highpass filter with a cutoff at  c to a
lowpass filter with a cutoff at ̂ c
 and transform a bandpass filter with a
center frequency at  o to a bandstop
filter with a center frequency at ̂ o

Professor A G Constantinides
23
AGC
DSP
Lowpass-to-Bandpass
Spectral Transformation
 Desired transformation
2 2 1   1
zˆ  zˆ 
1  1  1
z 
  1 2 2 1
zˆ  zˆ  1
 1  1

Professor A G Constantinides
24
AGC
DSP Lowpass-to-Bandpass
Spectral Transformation
 The parameters  and are given by
cos (ˆ c 2  ˆ c1 ) / 2

cos (ˆ c 2  ˆ c1 ) / 2 
  cot (ˆ c 2  ˆ c1 ) / 2 tan(c / 2)
where  c is the cutoff frequency of the
lowpass filter, and
ˆ c1 and ˆ care2
the
desired upper and lower cutoff frequencies of
the bandpass filter
Professor A G Constantinides
25
AGC
DSP Lowpass-to-Bandpass
Spectral Transformation
 Special Case - The transformation can
be simplified if  c  ˆ c 2  ˆ c1
 Then the transformation reduces to
1
1 1 ˆ  
z
z   zˆ 1
1   zˆ
where   cosˆ o with ̂ o denoting
the desired center frequency of the
bandpass filter
Professor A G Constantinides
26
AGC
DSP Lowpass-to-Bandstop
Spectral Transformation
 Desired transformation

2 2 1 1  
zˆ  zˆ 
1 1  1 
z 
1   2 2 1
zˆ  zˆ  1
1  1 

Professor A G Constantinides
27
AGC
DSP Lowpass-to-Bandstop
Spectral Transformation
 The parameters  and  are given by
cos (ˆ c 2  ˆ c1 ) / 2 

cos (ˆ c 2  ˆ c1 ) / 2 
  tan  (ˆisc 2 the
where 1 ) / 2  tan(
 ˆ ccutoff  c / 2) of the
frequency
lowpass filter,
c and and are the
desired upper and lower ˆ c1 cutoff ˆ c 2
frequencies of the bandstop filter
Professor A G Constantinides
28