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PRE-COLONIAL

PHILIPPINES
“…a look into our past settings, customs, practices and culture”
 
900-1520
GROUP 1
HOW DID THESE ISLANDS COME TO BE
CALLED ‘THE PHILIPPINES’?
It happened gradually and it began with the arrival of Ferdinand
Magellan, a Portuguese explorer, in 1521. He was killed while
attempting to convert a local ruler to Christianity. Magellan’s
crew, mostly Spaniards, spread interest in the islands back in
Spain. In 1543, before a permanent Spanish colony had been
settled on the islands, explorer Ruy López de Villalobos
presumptuously named the two islands of Leyte and Samar
as Las Islas Filipinas (The Philippine Islands). Over the next 300
years, the Spanish would colonize the additional islands we now
know as the Philippines. The entire archipelago would come to
be known under this name ADD A FOOTER
2
AND, WHO
WAS THIS
PHILIP?
“Philip” was Philip II (1527 – 1598)
• eventually to become the King of Spain. He
was king for a while: 1554-1598. 
•  So, if you’re carefully following the dates, at
the time that the Philippines was named, he
wasn’t yet king. He was just the Prince of
Asturias. 
• When he was King, Spain reached the height
of it’s power, but also mismanaged the
Spanish Armada, an attempt to invade
England and the beginning of English
momentum over Spanish dominance.
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3
THEN, WHY IS IT CALLED
‘THE PHILIPPINES’ AND NOT
‘LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS’?

During the time of US rule, the • Today, this beautiful island


islands became known as The country is known
Philippine Islands, an English as Republika ng Pilipinas in
version of the Spanish Las Islas the native Tagalag language
Filipinas. and the Philippines in
international meetings.
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“Philippines”
• It consist of 7, 107 islands
• has its 3 major islands in the Philippine.
• In Luzon, which is the largest island that consists of 40, 814 sq. miles
• While in Mindanao, which considered as the second largest island wth
approximately consist of 36, 906 sq. miles

• These 2 islands comprise exactly two-thirds of the


total land area of the country.
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5
Is this relevant?
VALUABLE PERSPECTIVE

TRACED BACK TO HISTORICAL


QUESTIONS

IT LEND NEW AND ALTERNATIVE


PERSPECTIVE TO CURRENT
SITUATIONS

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6
THE SETTING
of the Philippines during Pre-colonial period ADD A FOOTER
7
MOUNTAIN SYSTEM
• Philippine consists of 3 large mountain ranges in Luzon: Caraballo del
Sur, Sierra Madre and the Caraballo de Baller.

CARABALLO DEL SUR SIERRA MADRE CARABALLO DE BALER

• Wherein its highest peak • aka ‘Pacific Coast • Considered as the capital
is at the intersection of of Aurora
the boundaries of Abra,
Range’
Ilocos Norte and • It considered as
Cagayan. the longest • Where Mayon Volcano
• It extends from N to S continuous can be founded in Albay
& Bulusan Volcano in
which consist of 2 parts: mountain range in Sorsogon.
• Central & Northern the Philippines.
Cordillera ADD A FOOTER
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SMALLER MOUNTAIN RANGES
Located in Zambales and Tagaytay.

ZAMBALES RANGE TAGAYTAY RANGE


• It begins at Cape Bolinao • it is where Mount Makiling
in Pangasinan. can be founded in Laguna.
• It extends South along the
coast of China sea and • including also the famous
ends in Bataan Province Taal Volcano in Batangas.
of Cavite and Bataan.

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Visayan Area
• Panay Island
includes a range stretching from N to S and
separating the province of Antique from Aklan,
Iloilo and Capiz province.

MINDANAO Area
• Diwata Mountains • Central Range
which own along the eastern It extends through the length
coast of the island. of Mindanao.

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Mt. Apo
• Highest peak in the
Philippines.
• Located in Davao del
Sur.
• Consist of 2, 954m
above the sea level.

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Mt. pulog
• Second highest peak
in the Philippines.
• Located in Bicol
Peninsula
• Consist of 2,585m
above the sea level.

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12
River System
Rio Grande de
Mindanao
• It is considered as the
largest river system
in the Philippines.

• Fed by the waters of 2


large lakes and drains
the Central Mindanao
basin.
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PEOPLE
• Generally, people of the Philippines are called “Filipinos”.
• Most Filipinos are of Malay descent. Some mixed descent (through
various combination of Malay, Chinese and Spanish intermarriage).
• Nearly 83 million people live in the Philippines.
• The official language are namely English and Filipino which formerly
spelled Pilipino which is based on indigenous languages and dialects are
also spoken.
• Muslims often called “moros”, live predominantly in the Southern
Islands.

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15
PACIFIC RING OF FIRE
• The Philippine Islands are part of the so-called Ring of Fire.
• An area encircling the Pacific Ocean where earthquakes and volcanic
activity result from the movements of tectonic plates, or segments of Earth’s
crust.
• To the east of the islands lies the 10,539-m (34,578-ft) deep Philippine
Trench, where one tectonic plate is being forced beneath another in a
process known as subduction.
• Large submarine earthquakes are known to cause tidal waves, or tsunamis,
that can strike the coasts.
• The Philippine Islands include about 20 active volcanoes and many
inactive, or dormant, volcanoes.
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Mayon Volcano
• The most active volcano in the Philippines.
• With recent eruptions in 1993, 2000, and 2001.

Mount pinatubo
 It caused widespread damage when it
erupted in 1991 after lying dormant for
about 600 years.

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Lake Taal
 It is consist of 56 km (35 mi) south of Manila.
 Wherein it occupies a huge volcanic crater and
contains an island that is itself a volcano, with its
own crater lake.

Lake lanao
 It is the largest lake of Mindanao and the
source of the Agusan River, which exits
the lake in the spectacular Maria
Christina Falls.

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Philippine Coastline
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20
Philippines has a total coastline
of about 36,289 km
The coastline is irregular, with
numerous bays, gulfs, and inlets.

Like Manila Bay, with its superb naturally


sheltered harbor, is the most commercially
important. Also significant is the wide,
unsheltered Davao Gulf of southeastern
Mindanao.

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21
PRODUCTS & Click icon to add picture
NATURAL
RESOURCES
• The Philippines has extensive
mineral deposits of copper,
gold, silver, nickel, lead, and
chromium.
• Copper has been mined
extensively and is the leading
mineral product, but many of
the country’s mineral
resources remain unexploited.

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22
Natural Resources
• The Philippines has limited offshore petroleum and natural gas reserves.

• About 19 percent of the Philippines is forested. Logging has seriously


depleted forest cover since the early 20th century.

• The Philippine waters are abundant with many varieties of fish, which
are an important natural resource as a staple of the Philippine diet and
an export commodity.

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23
Religion
Bathala & Anito
Islam
Christianity
• Christianity arrived in the Philippines with the
landing of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521.
• Christianity in the Philippines was introduced by
Spanish missionaries and colonists, who arrived
in waves beginning in the early 16th century in
Cebu.
• The Philippines is the 5th largest Christian
country on earth, with about 75% of the
population being adherents.
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25
Roman Catholicism
Protestanism

Iglesia ni Cristo
• During the Spanish conquest, Islam reached a rapid decline as the predominant monotheistic
faith in the Philippines as a result of the introducing of Roman Catholicism by Spanish
missionaries.

• The INC uses the same bible as the Catholics and Christians. They believe the bible is the source
of divine revelation

• The country has a significant Spanish Catholic tradition, and Spanish style Catholicism is
embedded in the culture, which was acquired from priests or friars.

• One typical event is the role of the Catholic hierarchy during the bloodless People Power
Revolution of 1986.
• The group does not believe in the Holy Trinity because there is only one God.
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26
Anito
• The anitos were believed to
possess the ability to communicate
to the people they left behind by
possessing a babaylan or priestess.

• • The Catholic Church has great influence


on Philippine society and politics.
• • Protestantism arrived in the Philippines
with the coming of the Americans at the
turn of the 20th century.

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27
Their god was called bathala,
was symbolized by the sun, the
creator and ruler of all things.
• During pre-colonial times, a form of animism was widely practiced in the
Philippines.
• Monica Kua

• Kristofer Galang

• Franchezka Dela Cruz

• Stephen Bautista

• The first established Muslim communities in the country were in the island
of Mindanao, Manila, and Pampanga.

• They believe that Jose Rizal is the reincarnation of Jesus Christ


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29
• When someone died, it was believed that his • Islam reached the Philippines in the 14th
kaluluwa or spirit would go back to nature and century with the arrival of Muslim traders from
become an anito or idol. the Persian Gulf, Southern India, and their
followers from several sultanate governments
• The Muslims worshiped Allah and followed in Maritime Southeast Asia.
the teachings of the Qur’an.
• In 1898, Spain lost the Philippines to the
• The first Catholic mass in the Philippines was United States. After a bitter fight for
independence against its new occupiers,
on Easter Sunday of March 31, 1521 officiated by
Filipinos surrendered and were again
Father Pedro de Valderrama in the shore of a colonized.
town islet named as Limasawa in the tip of
Southern Leyte. Limasawa is dubbed as the • Rizalistas believe that Jose Rizal is a divine
birthplace of Roman Catholicism in the being and deity.
Philippines.
• Islam's predominance reached all the way to
• The Iglesia ni Cristo is known for its large the shores of Manila Bay, home to several
evangelical missions Muslim kingdoms.

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30
• FelixY. Manalo officially registered the church with the Philippine
Government on July 27, 1914 and because of this, most publications refer to
him as the founder of the church. Felix Manalo claimed that he was restoring
the church of Christ that was lost for 2,000 years.

• During that time, Filipinos were finally free to choose their own religions

Members:

• Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion and the largest Christian


denomination, with estimates of approximately 80% of the population
belonging to this faith in the Philippines.

• Iglesia ni Cristo is an international Christian group that originated in the


Philippines. ADD A FOOTER
31
Common Traits

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32
Common
Traits
One of the most notable characteristics of Filipino society is its strong family and community
relationships.

• These are strengthened by the traditional Filipino concept of utang na loob, in


which an act of voluntary assistance creates an obligation that the receiver must
attempt to repay through reciprocal assistance.
• The social values of loyalty, support, and trust are deeply embedded in the
Philippine identity.
• Respect for others, especially elder members of society and people in positions of
authority, is taught from an early age.
• The Philippine diet usually consists of boiled rice or ground corn, vegetables,
fresh or salted fish, and fruits. A locally made beverage is tuba, a fermented
coconut wine.
• Traditional sports include arnis, a kind of fencing with wooden sticks, and sipa, a
game much like volleyball except that the players use only their feet to move the
ball.
• Christian holidays such as the annual patron-saint fiestas and the crucifixion
reenactments at Easter are important and well-attended community events. ADD A FOOTER
34
Thank
You!
Peopling in Philippines
Biblical Story
states that,
humankind
descended from
Adam and Eve-
the first man and
woman created by
God
Bisayans believed that men descended form Sikalak and
Sikabay- the first man and woman who came out when a
bamboo split apart.
While the Muslims believed that the first
inhabitants descended from Putri, the beautiful
princess who fell on the Sulu Islands.
MIGRATION THEORY
The Migration theory of Dr. H. Otley Beyer arranged the
peopling of the Philippines from the coming of the Dawn Man,
Negritos, Indonesians and the Malays.
Dr. Beyer arranged the peopling of the Philippines into
waves of migration as follows:
Dawn Man
a cave-man type who was similar to Java man, Peking Man, and other Asian
Homo erectus of 250,000 years ago
The aboriginal pygmy group, the Negritos, who arrived
between 25,000 and 30,000 years ago via land bridges.
The seafaring tool-using Indonesian group who arrived about
5,000 to 6,000 years ago and were the first immigrants to reach
the Philippines by sea
Click
Click icon
icon to
to add
add picture
picture

The seafaring, more civilized Malays who brought the


Iron age culture and were the real colonizers and
dominant cultural group in the pre-Hispanic Philippines
• · Theory of Evolution states that the peopling of the Philippines
is the result of the continuous process of human evolution
which occurred through the changes in climatic conditions
28, 550 B.C. Tabon Cave, Palawan:
stone flake tools.
22, 000 B.C. Tabon Cave: earliest known human fossils
in the Philippines.
22, 000 B.C. Tabon Cave: earliest known human fossils in the Philippines.

• 8, 030 B.C. Musang Cave


Penablanca, Cagayan stone flake
tools including jade.
• 890 B.C. Manunggul Cave,
Palawan: burial jar with statuary
modeled on top.
• 100 B.C. Bato Cave, Sorsogon:
polished stone tools and jar burial.
• 560 A.D. Tucucan, Mountain
Province: stone tools and iron.
• The first evidence of human settlement in what is now the
Philippines was found in Tabon Cave in Palawan back in 1970.
A skullcap was excavated, apart from animal remains, and was
dated to 16,500 years ago.
• However, a recent excavation in Callao Cave in Cagayan
yielded a metatarsal (foot bone), which was dated to 26,000
years ago, making the possibility of human presence in Luzon
earlier than previously thought.
• Beyer proposed that the Philippines was originally populated
by Negritosdark-skinned, wide-nosed, foragerssimilar to the
Aetas of today.
• New evidence then emerged in the field of linguistics, where it
was noticed that Philippine languages such as Tagalog,
Cebuano, and Ibanag had much in common with Bahasa
(Malaysia/Indonesia), Malagsy (Madagascar), Maori (New
Zealand), and languages from Taiwan.
• · The Core Population theory states that, early Filipinos came
from settlers within the islands, not from the outside and that
according to it, the early inhabitants consist of a core population
to which accretions of people came who moved in through the
regions.
INTRODUCTION OF
ISLAM
Islam began with the Prophet
Muhammad.
“There is no god but God and Muhammad is
his messenger".
The Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, provides very little detail
about Muhammads life;
• Islam came to the southern Philippines in the 15th century from
Malaysia and Sumatra via Brunei and Borneo.
• The Spanish viewed the Muslims as natural enemies, identified
with their Muslim rivals at home, the Moors of Morocco
• Moro Wars
Peopling in
Philippines
Biblical Story
states that,
humankind
descended from
Adam and Eve-
the first man
and woman
created by God
Bisayans believed that men descended
form Sikalak and Sikabay- the first man
and woman who came out when a
bamboo split apart.
While the Muslims believed that the
first inhabitants descended from
Putri, the beautiful princess who fell
on the Sulu Islands.
MIGRATION THEORY

The Migration theory of Dr. H. Otley Beyer


arranged the peopling of the Philippines from
the coming of the Dawn Man, Negritos,
Indonesians and the Malays.
Dr. Beyer arranged the peopling of the
Philippines into waves of migration as
follows:
Dawn Man
a cave-man type who was similar to Java man, Peking Man, and
other Asian Homo erectus of 250,000 years ago
The aboriginal pygmy group, the Negritos, who arrived
between 25,000 and 30,000 years ago via land bridges.
The seafaring tool-using Indonesian group who arrived
about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago and were the first
immigrants to reach the Philippines by sea
Click
Click icon
icon to
to add
add picture
picture

The seafaring, more civilized Malays who brought the


Iron age culture and were the real colonizers and
dominant cultural group in the pre-Hispanic Philippines
 · Theory of Evolution states that the peopling of the Philippines is
the result of the continuous process of human evolution which
occurred through the changes in climatic conditions
28, 550 B.C. Tabon Cave,
Palawan: stone flake tools.
22, 000 B.C. Tabon Cave: earliest
known human fossils in the
Philippines.
22, 000 B.C. Tabon Cave: earliest known human fossils in the Philippines.

 8, 030 B.C. Musang Cave


Penablanca, Cagayan stone
flake tools including jade.
 890 B.C. Manunggul Cave,
Palawan: burial jar with
statuary modeled on top.
 100 B.C. Bato Cave,
Sorsogon: polished stone
tools and jar burial.
 560 A.D. Tucucan, Mountain
Province: stone tools and iron.
 The first evidence of human settlement in what is now the
Philippines was found in Tabon Cave in Palawan back in 1970. A
skullcap was excavated, apart from animal remains, and was
dated to 16,500 years ago.
 However, a recent excavation in Callao Cave in Cagayan yielded
a metatarsal (foot bone), which was dated to 26,000 years ago,
making the possibility of human presence in Luzon earlier than
previously thought.
 Beyer proposed that the Philippines was originally populated by
Negritosdark-skinned, wide-nosed, foragerssimilar to the Aetas of
today.
 New evidence then emerged in the field of linguistics, where it
was noticed that Philippine languages such as Tagalog, Cebuano,
and Ibanag had much in common with Bahasa
(Malaysia/Indonesia), Malagsy (Madagascar), Maori (New
Zealand), and languages from Taiwan.
 · The Core Population theory states that, early Filipinos came
from settlers within the islands, not from the outside and that
according to it, the early inhabitants consist of a core population
to which accretions of people came who moved in through the
regions.
INTRODUCTION
OF ISLAM
Islam began with the
Prophet Muhammad.
“There is no god but God and
Muhammad is his messenger".
The Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, provides very little detail about
Muhammads life;
 Islam came to the southern Philippines in the 15th century from
Malaysia and Sumatra via Brunei and Borneo.
 The Spanish viewed the Muslims as natural enemies, identified
with their Muslim rivals at home, the Moors of Morocco
 Moro Wars