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Physical Development

• Adolescence refers to the age period between childhood and
• Age ranges between 12-19 years
Begins : hormonal change
Puberty begins with a sharp increase in production of
sex-related hormones and takes place in two stage : andrenarche
and gonadarche

• Estrogens
– More in girls
– Adrenal estrogens
• Androgens
– More in boys
– Testosterone
Timing and Sign of puberty
• When does puberty begins ?
The puberty begins at
Girls : 9-13 years old
Boys : 10-11 years old

• What is the sign of the puberty?

The sign for puberty are :
Girls : Menstruation or menarche
Boys : Ejaculation or spermache
The sequence of Puberty and
Sexual Maturity
•For Female
Characteristics Age of First Appearance
Growth the breasts 6-13
Body growth 6-14
Menarche 9.5-14.5
Growth the pubic hair 10-16.5
Appearance of underarm hair About 2 years after appearance of
pubic hair
Increased output of oil and sweat About the same time as appearance
producing Glands of underarm hair
• Male

Characteristics Age of First Appearance

Growth of testes, scrotal sac 9-13.5
Growth of pubic hair 12-16
Body growth 10.5-16
Growth of penis 11-14.5
Change in voice About the same time as growth
of penis
First ejaculation of semen About 1 year after beginning of
growth of penis
Appearance of facial and About 2 years after appearance
underarm hair of pubic hair
Increased output of oil and About the same time as
sweat producing Glands appearance underarm hair
• Secondary

Girls Boys

Breasts Pubic Hair

Pubic Hair Axillary (underarm )hair

Axillary (underarm ) hair Muscular development

Change in voice Facial Hair

Change in skin Change in voice

Increased width and depth of Change in skin


Muscular development Broadening of shoulders

• Brain is changing during adolescence. the stream of brain
electrical activity may signal changes in cogitative
• During puberty dopamine increases and serotonin decreases
that may increase the risk of mental disorder such as
• When adolescent process emotional information brain
activity was more pronounced in amygala than in frontal lobe
• Amygdala and hippocampus increase in volume during
adolescence both structure involve in emotion
• However slow development of prefrontal cortex ,which is still
maturing during adolescence ,they may lack cogitative skills
Brain of an Adolescents
Brain undergoes physical changes which may be linked to adolescents’ behavior

* Brain development influences behavior, emotion, judgment, self-

control, and experiences influence brain development.
Physical and Mental Health
Physical Activities
Exercise affect both physical and mental health. It
improves strength and endurance, help build healthy bones and
muscles, help control weight, reduces anxiety and stress and
increase self confidence and well being.
The physical activities for boys is more than girls

Sleep Needs
Many Adolescents do not get enough sleep. Average
nighttime sleep declines from more than ten hours at age 9 to
slightly less than eight hours at age 16.
A pattern of late bedtimes and oversleeping in the
morning can contributes to insomnia, a problem that often
begins in late childhood or adolescence.
Nutrition and Eating Disorders

• Calorie needs increase

• Poor food choices common:
• Less fruits, vegetables, milk, breakfast
• More soda, sweets, fast food
• Iron, vitamin deficiencies
• Eating with family can help
• Obesity
• ~15.5% of American adolescents are seriously overweight
• Many adolescents are concerned about their weight
• Most attempt to control it in ineffective ways
• Obesity in adolescence is related to a variety of serious health risks in later

• Physical attractiveness – body image

• Girls: most want to be smaller, thinner
• Boys: most want to be bigger

• Anorexia nervosa
• Eat very little out of fear of getting fat
• Poses serious health hazards

• Bulimia nervosa
• May retain normal weight
• Binge eat (large quantity of food in short period of time)
• Purge by vomiting, using laxatives, or exercising excessively