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Cyclical Model
Presented by: Durgamageswary a/p Devadass
Emily Gan Hui Fang
Emily Teng Jie Ling
Grace Kho Hui Xuan
Kelly Wong Ing Swan
What is Wheeler’s Model?
 an improvement upon Tyler’s model
 Instead of a linear model, Wheeler developed a cyclical
 Curriculum should be a continuous cycle which is
responsive to changes in the education sector and
makes appropriate adjustments to account for these
What is Wheeler’s Model?
 In Wheeler’s model, evaluation is not terminal.
 Finding from the evaluation are fed back into the
objectives and the goals which influence other stages.
 It illustrates the dynamic nature of the process of
curriculum development.
1. Aims, 2. Selection
Goals and of learning
Objectives experiences

Wheeler (1978)
believes that
curriculum decision
making can start from
any point and can 3.
5. come back to any of Selection
the points. of content

4. Organisation
and integration
of learning
Wheeler contends that:
 Aims should be discussed as behaviours referring to the
end product of learning which yields the ultimate goals.
 Aims are formulated from the general to the specific
(deductive) in curriculum planning.
 Content is distinguished from the learning experiences
which determine that content.
1. Selecting aims, goals and objectives
 Selection must be relevant to the specific content area.
 WHY???
 Tellsthe planner about the direction of educational

2. Selecting learning experiences

 Concern about the learner with their learning
3. Selecting content
 Refer to the subject matter of teaching and learning
 Referto several aspects such as significance, interest
and learnability

4. Organising and integrating experiences

 Organising learning activities based on pupils’
5. Evaluating

 Evaluation on different phases and an examination of

whether the goals have been attained.
 Through formative and summative assessment
Strengths of Wheeler’s Model
 Provide logical sequence
 continuing activity
 Able to cope with changing circumstances
 Provide flexibility
 Emphasis on the situational analysis
 Views curriculum elements as interrelated and
 Has feedback mechanism
Weaknesses of Wheeler’s
 It is difficult to locate.
 It takes times to undertake an effective situational