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Inorganic Fibers

• The man made fibres, derived

from Inorganic Substance is called
Inorganic Fibres. Glass, Carbon,
Ceramics, and Metal are the
examples of Inorganic Fibres.

• Material that has a length-to-

diameter ratio of at least 10:1,
with a cross-sectional area of less • A 6 μm diameter carbon filament
than 0.005 mm2 and a thickness (running from bottom left to top
of less than 0.25 mm right) compared to a human hair.
Classification of
• Inorganic fibers are the fibers
made from inorganic materials
and are classified into the
following categories: glass fiber,
amorphous fiber like rock wool,
carbon fiber, ceramic fiber,
metallic fiber, polycrystal fiber
like alumina fiber, and
monocrystal fiber like
wollastonite and potassium
titanate fiber. 
Glass Fiber
• The glass fibre has an isotropic The main constituent of glass is
three-dimensional network silica (SiO2).
structure and is not crystalline. Silica melts at very high
• Glass fibre dress was first made temperature i.e. 1713 °C. Secondly,
in 1893 by Edward Drummond it rapidly crystallizes on solidification
Libbey and forms a regular structure.
• The first commercial production
of glass fibre started in 1936.
• GF- is a material consisting of
numerous extremely fine fibers
of glass and the fiber is
randomly arranged.
• In this stage mixing and fusion of raw
materials is carried out in a batch
furnace at a temperature of about
1700 °C to form a homogeneous

• The glass manufacturing can end

either with the liquid glass flowing
directly to fibre forming furnaces
Figure: Schematic showing called “bushings” or the glass is
(a) crystalline network of ceramic and formed into marbles or rods,
(b) amorphous network of glass annealed and cooled at room
temperature for further use.
Produc the alkoxy (RO) groups
hydrolyse and polymerise

o Glass is an inorganic fiber,
which is neither oriented
nor crystalline.
o Glass fibre are
manufactured by
extruding molten glass at
high velocity through a
large number (100-1000)
of holes in a platinum
plate. (Bushing).
o The resulting filaments
are then wound up at an
even faster rate as they
Properties and Application
of Glass Fiber
 Tensile strength: 3.5Gpa Motor cars, reinforcement of rubber
 Elongation:2.5% tyres, underground petrol storage
tanks made from plastics’ thermo-
 It was enough protection ability to alkali plastics composite and plastics.
 Bleaching agent doesn’t cause harm.
optical fibre communications
 It doesn’t change on organic solvents.
 Protection ability against mildew and For high strength applications like
insects. rocket motor cases
 Its not possible to dye after production Insulation applications.
Fire resistant textiles and high
temprature filtration
Currently, the USA uses nearly • Carbon fibers were developed
60% and Japanese account for in the 1950s by heating strands
almost 50% of the world capacity of rayon until they carbonized.
for production of carbon fibers. • In the early 1960s, a process
The largest producer of this fiber was developed using
is Toray Industries of Japan. polyacrylonitrile as a raw
• During the 1970s, experimental
work to find alternative raw
materials led to the
introduction of carbon fibers
made from a petroleum pitch
derived from oil processing.

Cross sectional view

• The atomic structure of carbon fiber
is similar to that of graphite,
consisting of sheets of carbon
atoms arranged in a regular
hexagonal pattern (graphene
sheets), the difference being in the
way these sheets interlock.

Longitudinal view
Types of Glass
1. Pan type carbon fiber: Based on precursors fiber materials
• A type of the fiber produced
by carbonization of PAN
PAN-based carbon fibers
precursor Pitch-based carbon fibers
(PAN:Polyacrylonitrile) Mesophase pitch-based carbon
2. Pitch Type Carbon Fiber: fibers
• Another type of the fiber, Isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers
produced by carbonization Rayon-based carbon fibers
of oil/coal pitch precursor, Gas-phase-grown carbon fibers
• Each carbon filament is
produced from a polymer
such as polyacrylonitrile
(PAN), rayon, or
petroleum pitch, known
as a precursor.

• the precursor is first spun

into filament yarns, using
chemical and
mechanical processes to
initially align the polymer
atoms in a way to
enhance the final physical
Properties of
carbon fibers
High tensile strength.
Low thermal expansion.
Electrically and thermally
Light weight and low density.
Tensity : 1.8-2.4(kn/mm2)
Density : 1.95 gm/cc
Elongation at break: 0.5%
Elasticity: Not good
Properties of carbon fibers Applications
Moisture Regain (MR%): 0% Civil Engineering
Ability to protest friction: Good Sports equipments
Color: Black Aerospace and
Lusture : Like silky Aircraft industry
Ability to protest heat : Good Acoustics
Effect of sunlight : no change Portable power
in color Building and
Effect of bleaching : Sodiun construction
hypochlorite slightly effect materials
carbon fiber. Fiber reinforced
Protection against flame : plastics
Excellent Sports and
• First ceramics were the pottery
objects made up of clay and
were developed for refractory
• Ceramic materials are hard, have
low densities (compared to
metals), high compressive
strength and very good thermal
resistance and strength at higher
• the structures are required to
operate at high temperature and
under oxidizing/corrosive
Ceramic Raw Materials
• Ceramic raw materials (ceramic powders) can be divided into two groups
• The ceramic fibres can be produced by
either a direct or indirect process.

Direct Process
• The direct production of fine ceramic
fibres requires the spinning of
precursors (salt solution, sols or
precursor melts) into fibres.

• The pre-treated fibers are spun

through melt spinning
• The spun fiber is then treated to form
actual ceramic fibers.
The spinning dopes used in the direct
process can be based on:
Molecularly dispersed precursors
Colloidally dispersed precursors
Inorganic polymers
Coarse ceramic particles

Indirect method
In the indirect process, ceramic fibres are not
obtained by spinning process, but by using some
other approach. The process involves two steps:
Step 1: Organic substrate/template fibres are
soaked with the precursor material or precursor
material is deposited on the surface.

Step 2: The inorganic fibre is then formed by

pyrolysis of the organic template fibre.
 Chemically these fibres have different compositions and thus
these fibres can be broadly divided into following two categories:

 Oxide fibres: Silica fibres, alumina fibres, alumina-silica

fibres, alumina zirconia fibres

 Non oxide fibres: Silicon carbide(SiC),silicon carbon

nitride, silicon nitride(SiN)

• During fabrication of ceramic products significant structural changes are observed

Properties of Ceramic Fibers:

• Ceramic fibers are

• hard,
• have low densities (compared
to metals)
• high compressive strength
• very good thermal resistance
• strength at higher
Uses of Ceramic
Due to their notable high Ceramic fibers are used in
temperature performance, these various applications which
are useful as reinforcement in metal include high temperature
and ceramic matrix composites, insulating material in the form of
mats, blankets and boards, fire
where the structures are required protection.
to operate at high temperature
Protective blankets, curtains,
(Working Temperature: 1,800 °F. for covers, pads and wrapping
Continuous Use, 2300 °F
Maximum). Expansion joint fabric, safety
High temperature insulation seals
and gaskets
Metallic Fiber

• Metallic fibers are fine drawn Manufacturing Methods:-

filaments of metals which spun and There are two
woven. manufacturing processes commonly
Laminating method
• These yarns express the properties Metalizing method
of metals from which they formed.
Laminating method:-
• Source of Material:- • It is most commonly used method for
o Aluminum the production of metallic yarn. In this
o Gold o Silver method Aluminum is sealed between
o Copper two layers of acetate or polyester.
Metalizing method:-
• The metal is heated to vaporize.
When the metal is vaporize it
deposited on the Polyester film
at high pressure.
• By using this process yarn is:
• Note: Metallic yarn may Shaved
from wires.
Uses of Metallic
Antistatic & antimagnetic o Metallic filaments are used for
waves fabrics, high decorative purposes e.g. in Lamps etc.
temperature resistant metal o These are also used in upholstery
fabric, high temperature fabric and in textiles.
resistant non-woven, o The most common end use for
sintered filter media, metallic fibers is upholstery fabric and
antistatic plastic are also textiles such as Lame and brocade.
products of metallic fiber
o These are also used in highly
Beaker heat resistant computerized area where such shocks
separation material is a are expected.
range of metal fabric to o They are also used in missile nose
withstand extreme
The End!!