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PROGRAMMATIC FNCTIONLISM

BAUHAUS
ARCHITECTURE
INTTROUCTION
• Introduced by the architect Walter Gropius.
• Bauhaus combines the root of the German verb BUNEN (to build) with
HAUS (house).
• It is the name given to the art school founded by Gropius under the original
title of the Staatliches Bauhaus Weimar.
• The Bauhaus, which lasted from 1919-1933, has come to represent the
distillation of the Modern movement and the fundamentalist design ethic.
• Its intellectual origins lay with the Arts and Crafts movement and its early
years (before Gropius moved the school to his designed building in Dessau
where it became known simply as the Bauhaus).
• Under Gropius the Bauhaus became an art school of immense creativity and
influence.
ARCHITECT
Born Walter Adolph Georg Gropius

18 May 1883
Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia, 
German Empire
Died 5 July 1969 (aged 86)
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.

Occupation Architect
Spouse(s) Alma Mahler
(m. 1915; div. 1920)
Ise Gropius
(m. 1923)
Children 2, including Manon Gropius
Awards •AIA Gold Medal (1959)
•Albert Medal (1961)
•Goethe Prize (1961)

Practice •Peter Behrens (1908–10)


•The Architects' Collaborative (1945–69)
Buildings •Fagus Factory
•Werkbund Exhibition (1914)
•Bauhaus
•Gropius House
•Max von Laue
•University of Baghdad
•J.F. Kennedy Federal Building
•Pan Am Building
WORK STYLE

• The minimalist style of Bauhaus art, architecture and design reflected these
ideas of functionality and true materials. Influenced by movements such as
Modernism and De Stijl, Bauhaus artists favoured linear and geometrical
forms, while floral or curvilinear shapes were avoided. Only line, shape and
colours mattered.
CHARACTERISTICS OF
BAUHAUS
UNITING ART WITH CRAFT AND MASS-PRODUCTION

• Walter Gropius defined the school’s goal as to “create a new guild of


craftsmen, without the class distinctions which raise an arrogant barrier
between craftsman and artist”. Essentially, this meant that craft tradition
was merged with modern technology, in order to cater to the needs of the
system of mass-production – an ideal that was both practical and necessary
in order to rebuild the country.
FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION

• The American architect Louis Sullivan was one of the first to use the famous
expression ‘form follows function’. This simple phrase became one of the
fundamental ideas of Bauhaus. It means that in design, a form should
always be used for its function instead of its aesthetic appeal. The utility
should come first and excessive ornamentations were avoided.
HONEST MATERIALS

• According to the teachers at Bauhaus, materials should reflect the true


nature of objects and buildings. This meant the school of Bauhaus taught
not to modify or hide materials for the sake of aesthetics. The construction
of an object or building was not hidden but was made an integral part of the
design.
MINIMALISM

• The minimalist style of Bauhaus art, architecture and design reflected these
ideas of functionality and honest materials. Influenced by movements such
as Modernism and De Stijl, and as a counter-movement to the Art Deco and
Art Nouveau styles; Bauhaus artists favoured linear and geometrical forms,
while floral or curvilinear shapes were avoided. Only line, shape and colour
mattered. Anything else was unnecessary and needed to be reduced.
GESAMTKUNSTWERK

• At the core of Bauhaus lies the idea of the ‘Gesamtkunstwerk’, a synthesis


in which multiple art forms are unified through architecture. A building was
not just an empty vessel for the Bauhaus school, it was one element of the
total design, and everything inside added to the overall concept.
BUILDINGS
• 1949–50 Harvard Graduate Center,
Cambridge.
• 1957–60 University of Baghdad, Iraq.
• 1910–11 the Fagus Factory, Alfeld.
• 1948 Peter Thacher Junior High School.
• 1921 Sommerfeld House, Berlin. • 1957–59 Dr. and Mrs. Carl Murchison House,
• 1925–32 Meisterhäuser, Germany. Massachusetts.
• 1958–63 Pan Am Building, New York.
• 1926-28 Törten housing estate in
• 1957 Interbau Apartment blocks, Berlin.
Dessau.
• 1960 Temple Oheb Shalom .
• 1936 Village College, Cambridge. • 1960 the Gropiusstadt building complex,
• 1936 66 Old Church Street, London. Berlin, Germany.
• 1961 Wayland High School, Wayland, USA.
• 1937 The Gropius House,
• 1968 Glass Cathedral, Thomas Glassworks,
Massachusetts, USA.
Amberg.
• 1939 Waldenmark, Pennsylvania. • 1967–69 Tower East, Ohio.
• 1939-40 The Alan I W Frank House, • 1968-70 Huntington Museum of Art,
Pittsburgh. Huntington.
• 1973–80 Porto Carras, at Chalkidiki, Greece.
• 1942–44 Aluminum City Terrace
housing project, New Kensington.
• 1945–59 Michael Reese Hospital,
FAMOUS WORKS
FAGUS FACTORY
• Designed in 1910, by walter Gropius.
• Location- Alfeld.
• Constitutes an architectural complex
which foreshadows the modernist
movement in architecture.
• The Fagus factory in Alfeld establishes
several major fundamental aspects of
modern functionalist architecture of the
20th century,
• They represent one of the first
consummate manifestations of
industrial design.
CHARACTERISTICS
• FLAT ROOF
• COLOURS USED- white, black, grey or
beige.
• FUNCTIONAL.
• SMOOTH FACADES.
• CUBIC SHAPES.
• OPEN FLOOR PLANS.
• This was a structure made • Black bricks were used at
up of brick columns, steel the bottom and yellow
beams, concrete floor slabs bricks were used at top.
stairways.
• This was done to create
• Glass curtain wall are used. optical etherealization.
• Plane surface. • Greater horizontal elements
• The glass and wall were joint are provided in the building.
cleanly. • The floor-to-ceiling glass
• It was a steel framed windows were the main
structure. features of this buildings.
• Slender pillars were used
behind the facades so as to
realize the curtain character
of glass.
IMAGES
DESSAU BAUHAUS
• Designed by walter Gropius, In
1926, Dessau, Germany.
• The bauhasu movement which means art of building, reconciled art and
craft and created a new industrial asthetic ‘deign’.
• Metal working, joinery, painting and theather arts was also mobilized. Many
electrical appliance an furniture was also designed here.
• The building consists of
– Higher academy of arts , with workshops.
– Administrative block.
– Collective area with theather.
– Studio, accommodation for students.
– Housing for the teachers and technical school.
• Gropius selected interlocking stystem by linking different elements in
unsymmetrical way.
A C C OM MOD AT IO N RO O MS T H E AT RE

INTERRIORS
THANK YOU.

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