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GEOL 751: Carbonate Petrography

University of South Carolina


Spring 2005

Professor Chris Kendall


EWS 304
kendall@sc.edu
777.2410

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Precipitated Cements &
Diagenesis of Carbonates

Limestones & Dolomites


Tango!
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Carbonate Cement Fabrics
 Crust or rims coat grains
 Syntaxial overgrowth – optical continuity with
skeletal fabric
Echinoid single crystals
Brachiopod multiple crystals
 Blocky equant - final void fill

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Carbonate Cement Fabrics

Isopachus Marine Cement

C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall after RL Folk
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
After James

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
After James
After James

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Belize Reef - Cementation

Botryoidal Aragonite
Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Belize Reef - Cementation

Botryoidal Aragonite
Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Eniwetok
Atoll

Pleistocene
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


C. G. St. C. Kendall
Diagnesis
Eniwetok Atoll – Pleistocene

Isopachus Marine
Aragonite Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Marine Cement
Fabrics
-
Aragonite
Needles
&
Magnesium
Calcite Blades
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & After James


Diagnesis
After James

Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Eniwetok – Marshal Islands

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Dry Canyon – Almagordo, NMx

vi ty
is Ca
c t
o ta
t r om
S
e nt
d im
a l Se
er n
I n t

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
c r us t in g R en alcis
En
Canning
Basin

Winjana
Gorge i me nt
ipora
Se d ph
a l A m
er n
In t

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge

l cis

a
na

or
R e

ip
i n g

ph
ust
r

Am
En c

e nt
e d im
a l S
t ern
In

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


C. G. St. C. Kendall
Diagnesis
Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge

Renalcis Drape

Internal Sediment

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge -
Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge Pilara
Amphipora Core
Cement Fill

Renalcis Drape

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge
Cement Fill

Renalcis Drape

Amphipora Core
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
Eniwetok – Pleistocene

us t
a c h e n
p m
Iso e Ce
l c it
Ca
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge

Final Cement Fill

Brchiopod Core

Isopachus
Marine Cement
Renalcis Drape

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge

Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge

Isopachus Renalcis Drape


Marine Cement

Isopachus g ueMarine Cement


po n
S

Inte
rna
l Se
d im
e nt

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Fin
al C
em
en
t Fi Renalcis Drape
ll
Isopachus Marine Cement

C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge - Pilara

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
After Phil Playford

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & C. G. St. C. Kendall


Diagnesis
Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge - Pilara

Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge - Pilara
Fi n a Am
l Ce ph
me ipo
nt Fill ra
Co
r e

Isopachus
Marine Cement

Sed
ime
nt F
ill

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis After Phil Playford
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Isopachus Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & C. G. St. C. Kendall


Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Meniscus Cement

C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Arab D – Jurassic

ent
C em
en t
en d
P

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Eniwetok Atoll – Pleistocene

Halimeda

Isopa
chus
FW af Ceme
te r M n
arine t
?

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


C. G. St. C. Kendall
Diagnesis
Seven Rivers
-
Permian Pe
nd
en
- tC
em
en
Marine t

Cavity
Cements
& Se di m e nt
Internal
Sediment
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
C. G. St. C. Kendall
Diagnesis
Seven Rivers
-
Permian
Pe
- nd
en
tC
Marine em
en
Cavity t

Cements
& Inter
nal S
Sediment edim
ent

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
After James

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
Settings
of
Carbonate
Diagenesis
-
Flow Chart After James

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & C. G. St. C. Kendall
Diagnesis
Ooids - Calcite Fresh Water Cement

Meniscus Cement

C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Ooids – Aragonite Dissolution

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & C. G. St. C. Kendall


Diagnesis
Radial Ooids – Marine Cement

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Gastropod – Test Preserved

C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Gastropod – Aragonite Marine Cement

C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Gastropod – Dissolution of Test Starts

C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Gastropod – Solution Ghost of Test

C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Gastropod – Cement Fill of Test

C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & C. G. St. C. Kendall
Diagnesis
Pleistocene – Eniwetok

c h us C e ment
Isopa

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Tertiary – Fusilinids

us t
a ch en
p m
Iso e Ce
ri n
Ma

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


C. G. St. C. Kendall
Diagnesis
Guadalupian – West Texas

id
li n
su
Fu

us
a ch n t
p e
Iso e Cem
a rin
M
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
C. G. St. C. Kendall
Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
After James

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Evaporation
of mixed
Waters
Influx of
Magnesium
Rich
Influx of Continental
sea water 1. Aragonite Ground
2. Gypsum Waters
3. Anhydrite
4. Dolomite
5. Halite
accumulate
in this order
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
C. G. St. C. Kendall
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Smackover
Jurassic
i d s
d Oo
i t i ze
l om
Do
id e d
Oo ol v
s
ss
Di

C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Smackover – Alabama

bs
om
Rh
ite
lim
Do

st s
Gho s
o te a i n
N Gr
Of

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
Carbonate
Porosity
-
After
Choquette
&
Pray
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
C. G. St. C. Kendall
Smackover – Alabama

ps
e oxy
Ep
e
l la

Blu
co
ex
rt
Co
id
Oo

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Ooid Dissolution with Burial

n
io
ut
ol
ss
Di
id
Oo

t i on
s olu
Dis
o id
O

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Ooid Cortex Collapse with Burial

e
ps
lla
Co
id
Oo

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall
After James

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
Stylolites

Two-dimensional cross-sectonal views of


 Dissolution seam(A),
 Stylolite (B),
 Highly serrate stylolite (C)
 Deformed stylolite (D).
A few grains are shown schematically to
emphasize the change in scale from the
previous figure
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis (after Bruce
Stylolites
Intergranular contacts as seen in
thin section

 Tangential (A)
 flattened (B)
 concavo-convex (C)
 sutured (D) (after Bruce Railsback)
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
Stylolites

After Bruce Railsback

GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &


Diagnesis
Stylolites

After Bruce
Railsback
Lecture Conclusions
 Photosynthesis, warm temperatures & low pressures in shallow water
enhance carbonate distribution
 Carbonate cementation takes place in the depositional setting
 Carbonate cementation takes place from water pumped by tides, waves and
evaporation of sea water
 CCD controls dissolution of carbonate and its recirculation as a cement
 Most diagenesis, dolomitization, & cementation of carbonates takes place at
the near surface & trace elements can be used in this determination
 Carbonate cementation and diagenesis can take place through the burial
cycle
 Mineralogy & fabric of cements varies with setting and mineralogy of the
substrate
 Stylolites develop through burial & solution/compaction
GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation &
Diagnesis
End of the Lecture

Lets go for lunch!!!