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WELCOME TO AWARNESS TRAINING

PROGRAM
ON
TYRE UNIFORMITY
1
Tire Uniformity is :

 Actually “Non-Uniformity”
 A quantitative measure of variation within a tire
 Usual variations are in force and Geometric

2
Why TIRE UNIFORMITY

 Tire Uniformity is measured in order to provide


tires to the market that will provide satisfactory
ride, handling and noise characteristics on
vehicles.

3
AXIS SYSTEM
 To measure tires, the tire industry uses an axis
system which bisects the tire center

 Forces are measured along the axes:


 Fz = Radial Force
 Fy = Lateral Force
 Fx = Tangential Force

4
PARAMETERS MEASURED IN
TIRE UNIFORMITY

 Radial Composite - Up/Down Force -

“Bounce”

 Lateral Composite - Side To Side Force -

“Wobble”

 Conicity - Constant Side Force - “Pull”


5
FORCE VARIATIONS

Force Variation is the change in the forces as


the tire rotates. The change in force is due to
inconsistencies in tire manufacturing.
RADIAL FORCE

 The vertical force between the tire and the road

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RADIAL FORCE VARIATION
 RFV is the variation in load between a tire and another surface when the
tire is rotated at a constant axle height with some deflection upon the
surface
 RFVs are inversely proportional to deflection. The higher the deflection
the less the force variation
RADIAL FORCE

VARIATIONS
can be due to either
 geometric variation (runout)

 stiffness variation

 mass variation

 combination of any of these


RADIAL FORCE COMPOSITE
LATERAL FORCE
 The side-to-side force along the rotation
axis between the tire and the road

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LATERAL FORCE VARIATION
 LFV is the variation in lateral thrust when a tire rotates in a given
direction. It is composed of two forces:
1) Conicity variation and
2) Ply steer variation
 LFV is deflection dependent. The higher the deflection the higher
the force
Lateral force variation
due to
Side-to-side
misalignment conditions
such as :

• Belt Snaking
• Belt width variation
• Tread Snaking
• Snaked cushion gums
• Beads not seating on flanges
• Mold halves misaligned
LATERAL FORCE VARIATIONS
PLYSTEER
 Plysteer is the force developed by the steel belts in a tire

 Its magnitude is determined by the belt angle and width

 Plysteer is the sum of forces from Belt # 1 and Belt # 2


(dominant)

 Plysteer force changes direction with change in direction of


rotation
CONICITY
 It is the force developed by a tire because of an apparent
conical shape.
 Imagine the tire as if it is a slice from a cone. No matter
which direction it rotates, it will tend to go to one side.
 Used as an indicator of steering pull.
Conicity due to
Asymmetrical conditions such as :

 Belt/Tread off-centered to one side


 Tread heavier (Thicker) on one side
 Tread Snaking
 Offset sidewalls
 Tread stitcher misalignment
 Mold halves different size
TANGENTIAL FORCE

 The driving force between the tire and the


road

 The Tangential Axis is parallel to the road,


in the direction of travel

 This is the axis where the driving force (Fx)


is applied to the tire
UNIFORMITY TESTING
 The Uniformity machine is an inspection gauge that
assures tire quality

 High quality reduces costs – by reducing scrap and


improving the process

 Uniformity statistics helps us understand manufacturing


processes and tire designs
TESTING PROCEDURE IN TIRE
UNIFORMITY MACHINE
Tire Uniformity machine comprises of :
1) A set of precision rims
2) Inflation system
3) A Load wheel
4) Two load cells which measure radial
and lateral force variations
5) Sidewall appearance monitor (SAM)
6) Data capturing system
TESTING PROCEDURE IN
TIRE UNIFORMITY MACHINE
 A tire is mounted between two precision rims and inflated to a specific test
pressure by a regulated air system.
 The tire is rotated at a constant speed of 60 rpm.
 The load wheel is moved against the tire until the load reaches a specified
value.
 A specified stabilization period is given with this setup. Then the force
variation with respect to the fixed load is measured. The machine captures
128 data points for 360 degrees.
TESTING PROCEDURE IN
TIRE UNIFORMITY MACHINE
 A tire is mounted between two precision rims and inflated to a specific test
pressure by a regulated air system.
 The tire is rotated at a constant speed of 60 rpm.
 The load wheel is moved against the tire until the load reaches a specified
value.
 A specified stabilization period is given with this setup. Then the force
variation with respect to the fixed load is measured. The machine captures
128 data points for 360 degrees.
GEOMETRY VARIATIONS
RUNOUT

 Runout refers to the variation in roundness, or


change in distance from the center of the tire
outward to the tread, as the tire is rotated.

 Runout - Radial and Lateral


GEOMETRY VARIATIONS
RADIAL RUNOUT
Variation in the radius between the tire center and outside
diameter when unloaded.
GEOMETRY VARIATIONS
LATERAL RUNOUT
Variation in sidewall geometry while
inflated, loaded and rotating.
GEOMETRY
VARIATIONS
SAM measures for the following:

Bulges –

 Raised portions of the sidewall, running from bead to tread

 Essentially symmetric

 Relatively narrow [< 50 mm (2 inch) circumferential distance]


GEOMETRY VARIATIONS
SAM measures for the following:

Depressions –
 Sunken portions of the sidewall, running from bead to tread

 Essentially symmetric

 Relatively narrow [< 50 mm (2 inch) circumferential distance]


MASTER TYRES
 Master are the tyres which are used for the calibration of
machine
 These master tyres should be checked before the start up
of the shift OR during size change ,for machine calibration
 Master tyres should be prepared for all sizes such
as(20”.22.5”,24.5”)
MASTER TYRES
These master tyres should be prepared for the
following parameters
 Higher value of radial force 1 tyre
 Higher value of lateral force 1 tyre
 Higher value of conicity 1 tyre
 Higher value of Bulge 1 tyre
So total 4 master tyres should be prepared for each
size (20”,22.5”.24.5”)
STORAGE & IDENTIFICATION
OF MASTER TYRES
• Master tyres should be
stored in a separate box as
shown in the picture
• Master should be identified
with different colors inside
carcass for different variables
REPETABILITY &
REPRODUCIABILITY (R&
R)
 R& R of the machine will be ensured by using master
tyres 4 x 15 times
 This procedure is done for ensuring the machine
consistency
PROCEDURE FOR R & R
 Apply lubrication on the bead for all 4 master tyres ,
 These tyres will be send one after the other for 5 consecutive times without
stopping for warm up of the tyres .data of these tyres will not be captured
(4 X 5=20 runs)
 After warm up continue the same procedure for another 10 consecutive
times ( 5 times by keeping serial number side on top and 5 times serial
number side in bottom) 4 x10 = 40 runs
 Average Data's for (radial ,lateral & conicity) of these 40 runs will be taken
for calculating Cp,Cpk
 If values are not having acceptable limit of Cp,Cpk machine will be handed
over for calibration
Thank you for listening

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