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‡ LINGUISTICS is a scientific study of language. It is the
scientific inquiry into human language- its structures and uses
and the relationship between them as well as the development
and acquisition of language.
‡ It shares with other sciences a concern to be objective,
systematic, consistent, and explicit in its account of language.
Like other sciences, it aims to collect data, test hypotheses,
devise methods or models, and
construct theories.

What is language?
‡ It is a system represented by sound symbols that
have conventional meanings shared by members of a
linguistic group.
‡ It is symbolic; a type of code. The meaning of symbols
in a language comes through the agreement of a group
of speakers.
‡ Language is a purely human and a method of
communicating ideas, emotions, desires by means
of voluntary produced sounds (Sapir:1921)
‡ It is an institution whereby humans communicate
and interact with each other by means of
habitually used oral-auditory arbitrary symbols
(Hall:1968)
‡ A set of sentences, each finite in length and
constructed out of a finite set of elements
(Chomsky: 1957)

V
‡ It is rule-governed. The grammatical system of a
language indicates all of the formal features which
express meaning or the relationships of elements in
sentences. The grammar of one language is never
exactly the same as any other, although some closely
related languages have many types or structures in
common.
‡ It has a system of sounds. Every language uses a
limited number of classes of sounds to signal the
differences between words.
‡ Traditionally, it has been viewed as a vehicle of
thought, a system of expression that mediates the
transfer of thought from one person to another.

VIEWS OF THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE


‡ It can be traced to a Garden of Eden where the first
woman and the first man spoke the language
originally bestowed upon them by their creator.
‡ Hence many are persuaded that language originated in a
paradise was perfectly logical and grammatical.
‡ As to why languages differ from one another and why they
change- the Old Testament relates that before the Tower of
Babel all men and women spoke the same language and could
understand one another without difficulty.
‡ Moslems believe that God spoke to Mohammed in a form of
Arabic that was by definition of pure and perfect.
‡ Danish linguist, Otto Jespersen (1860-194V) grouped
commonly held theories about the origins of language.
1. The ´bow-wowµ theory. Speech arose through people imitating
the sounds of the environment, especially animal calls. The
main evidence is the use of onomatopoeic words. But a few of
these exist in a language and languages vary so much in the
way they represent natural sounds.
‡ Chatter, clang, chug, coo, murmur, purr, zipper, zoom, boom,
bang, twang, sip
2. The ´pooh-poohµ theory. Speech arose through people making
instinctive sounds caused by pain, anger or other emotions. The
main evidence would be the universal use of sounds as
interjections.
V. The ´ding-dongµ theory. Speech arose because people reacted to
the stimuli in the world around them and spontaneously produced
sounds (oral gestures) which in some way reflected or were in
harmony with the environment. The main evidence would be the
universal use of sounds for words of a certain meaning. E.g.
mama is supposed to reflect the movement of the lips as the
mouth approaches the breast.
4. The ´ye-he-hoµ theory. Speech arose because as people worked
together, their physical efforts produced communal, rhythmical
grunts, which is due course developed into chants, and thus
language. The main evidence is the universal use of prosodic
features especially of rhythm. This theory is much more social
and emphasizes noises that would accompany mating, feeding,
fighting, etc.
5. The ´la-laµ theory. It arose from the romantic side of life-
sounds associated with love, play, poetic feeling, perhaps even
song.
‡ Diachrony
Diachronic linguistics views the historical development of a
language. Thus, on the diachronic axis we can go back and
forth in time, watching the language with all its features
change.
‡ Synchrony
Synchronic linguistics views a particular state of a language
at some given point in time. This could mean Modern English
of the present day, or the systematic analysis of the
system of Shakespeare's English. However, no comparisons
are made to other states of language or other times.
Modern linguistics, following Ferdinand de Saussure, is
primarily interested in the synchronic point of view.
Saussure postulated the priority of synchrony: no
knowledge of the historical development of a language is
necessary to examine its present system. He arrived at this
radical viewpoint due to his conviction that linguistic
research must concentrate on the structure of language.
Later, the whole paradigm was hence called structuralism.

7
‡ There are two types of grammars:
descriptive and prescriptive.   


 represent the unconscious
knowledge of a language. English speakers,
for example, know that "me likes apples" is
incorrect and "I like apples" is correct,
although the speaker may not be able to
explain why. Descriptive grammars do not
teach the rules of a language, but rather
describe rules that are already known. In
contrast,    

dictate
what a speaker's grammar should be and
they include teaching grammars, which are
written to help teach a foreign language.

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Grammar is a system of elements and rules needed to form and
interpret sentences.
Tools of linguistic elements or the components of a grammar:

Component Function

Phonetics The study of speech sounds


Phonology The study of sound patterns
Morphology The study of the ways in which words are constructed
out of smaller units which have a meaning or
grammatical function( word formation)
Syntax The study of the way in which sentences are
constructed; how sentences are related to each other
(sentence formation)
Semantics The study of meaning; how words and sentences are
related to the real or imaginary objects they refer to
and the situation they describe.
Pragmatics The study of how the meaning conveyed by a word or
sentence depends on aspects of context in which it is
used,
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PHONETICS
‡ The study of speech sounds known technically as phones.
‡ V aspects to the study of speech sounds:
1. Articulatory phonetics- the study of the production of speech
sounds or focuses on the human vocal apparatus and describes
sounds in terms of their articulation in the vocal tract
2. Acoustic phonetics- the study of the transmission and the
physical properties of speech sounds; uses tools of physics to
study the nature of sound waves produced in human language
V. Auditory phonetics- the study of the perception of speech
sounds by the brain through the human ear
ARTICULATORY PHONETICS
‡ Involves the study of how phones are produced by speakers
and the description and classification of those sounds
according to their properties. In a phonetic transcription one
sound is represented by one symbol, and each symbol
represents a single sound.
21
22
2V
‡ The production of any speech sound involves the
movement of air. Air is pushed through the lungs,
larynx (vocal folds) and vocal tract (the oral and
nasal cavities.) Sounds produced by using air from
the lungs are called   sounds. If the air is
pushed out, it is called   . If the air is
sucked in, it is called    . Sounds produced
by ingressive airstreams are ejectives, implosives,
and clicks. These sounds are common among
African and American Indian languages. The
majority of languages in the world use pulmonic
egressive airstream mechanisms, and I will
present only these types of sounds in this lesson.

24
‡ ›

Consonants are produced as air from the lungs is pushed
through the glottis (the opening between the vocal cords)
and out the mouth. They are classified according to voicing,
aspiration, nasal/oral sounds, places of articulation and
manners of articulation.  is whether the vocal folds
vibrate or not. The sound /s/ is called voiceless because
there is no vibration, and the sound /z/ is called voiced
because the vocal folds do vibrate (you can feel on your
neck if there is vibration.) Only three sounds in English have
aspiration, the sounds /b/, /p/ and /t/. An extra puff of air
is pushed out when these sounds begin a word or stressed
syllable. Hold a piece of paper close to your mouth when
saying the words pin and spin. You should notice extra air
when you say pin. Aspiration is indicated in writing with a
superscript h, as in /p /. Nasal sounds are produced when
the velum (the soft palate located in the back of the roof
of the mouth) is lowered and air is passed through the nose
and mouth. Oral sounds are produced when the velum is
raised and air passes only through the mouth.

25
‡ _
 

Bilabial: lips together
Labiodental: lower lip against front
teeth
Interdental: tongue between teeth
Alveolar: tongue near alveolar ridge
on roof of mouth (in between teeth
and hard palate)
Palatal: tongue on hard palate
Velar: tongue near velum
Glottal: space between vocal folds

26
‡ 
 

Stop: obstruct airstream completely
Fricative: partial obstruction with
friction
Affricate: stop airstream, then
release
Liquids: partial obstruction, no
friction
Glides: little or no obstruction, must
occur with a vowel

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VOWELS and CONSONANTS
‡ These two labels are probably the most familiar of all the terms
used in the description of speech.
VOWELS are sounds that have no such structure: air escapes in a
relatively unimpeded way through the mouth or nose. They occur
at the center of syllables.
CONSONANTS are defined as sounds made by a closure in the
vocal tract or by a narrowing which is so marked that air cannot
escape without producing audible friction. They occur at the
margins of syllables.
‡ Vowels function as syllable nuclei; the consonants around them
often depend on the vowel for their audibility. All vowels are
almost always VOICED.
DIPHTHONG- a speech sound which is usually considered as one
distinctive vowel but really involves two vowels, with one vowel
gliding to the other.
CONSONANTS are normally described with reference to:
‡ The state of vibration of the vocal folds- voiced (vibrating) or
voiceless ( not vibrating)
‡ The place of articulation in the vocal tract
‡ The manner of articulation
VOICING or PHONATION
‡ Sounds made with the vocal folds vibrating are called voiced, and
sounds made without sound vibration are called voiceless. The
vibration that you feel from the larynx is the result of air being
forced through a narrow aperture (called glottis) between two
folds of muscle in the larynx.
PLACE OF ARTICULATION- the part of the vocal tract that
moves ( the active articulators) and the tract with which it
makes contact (passive articulators)
‡ Bilabial sounds are made by bringing both lips closer together.
There are 5 such sounds in English: [p] pat, [b] bat , [m] mat, [w]
with and [w] where.
‡ Labiodental sounds are made with the lower lip against the upper
front teeth: [f] fat and [v] vat.
‡ Interdentals are made with the tip of the tongue between the
front teeth: [] thigh and [ ] the.
‡ Alveolars are made with the tip of the tongue is at or near the
alveolar ridge: [t] tap, [d] dab, [s] sip, [z] zip, [n] nose, [l] loose
and [r] red
‡ Palatal sounds are made with the tongue near the hard part of
the roof of the mouth: [š] leash, [ž] measure, [č] church, [j]
judge and [y] yes.
‡ Velar sounds are made with the tongue near the velum: [k] kill,
[g] goat and [ǃ] sing
‡ Glottal sounds are made at the glottis: [h] high and glottal
stop[?] uh-oh which occurs before each of the vowel sounds

MANNER OF ARTICULATION
‡ This refers to how the airstream is modified by the vocal tract
to produce the sound. It depends on the degree of closure of
the articulators
1. Stops are made by obstructing the airstream completely in
the oral cavity. Notice that when you say [p] and [b] the lips
are closed together for a moment stopping the airflow.
2. Fricatives are made by forming a nearly complete stoppage of
the airstream. The opening through which the air escapes is so
small that friction is produced. The air is forced through a
narrow opening between the tip of the tongue and the alveolar
ridge.
V. Affricates are made by briefly stopping the airstream
completely and then releasing the articulators slightly so that
friction is produced. They can be thought of as a combination
of stop and a fricative. English has only 2 affricates: [č] and
[j]. Air is built up by a complete closure of the oral tract at
some place of articulation, then released (something like a
stop) and continued (like a fricative)
4. Nasals are made when the oral cavity is completely
obstructed: [m], [n], [ǃ]
5. Liquids are made when there is an obstruction formed by the
articulators, but it is not narrow enough to stop the airflow or to
cause friction. The [l] in leaf is produced by resting the tongue
on the alveolar ridge with the airstream escaping around the
sides of the tongue. Thus it is called a lateral liquid.
6. Glides are made with only a slight closure of the articulators.

SLANG- the language of the young generation born out of the


needs and whims of the people who use it. This can be likened to
a fashion fad which catches fire when conceived of and easily
fades away.
E.g. o.a (overacting), yeah, nuts to you, shucks, corny, jerk, tell it to
the marines, or canto boy language or gay language.
M
Place of articulation
A
N Red-voiceless bilabial Labio Inter Alveo Palatal Velar Glot
N Black-voiced dental Dental Lar tal
E
R Stops p b t d k g ?
O
Fricatives f v
F  ð s z š ž h
A
Affricates č j
R
T
I
Nasals m n ǃ
C
U
L Lateral liquid
A l
T
I Retroflex r
O liquid
N
glides w w y
     

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Suprasegmentals or prosodic features
‡ Vowels and consonants which are segmentals phonemes
are not the only component parts of a language. All phones
have certain inherent suprasegmental or prosodic
properties that form part of their make up no matter
what their place or manner of articulation.
1. length. Not all speech sounds have the same duration.
Some speech sounds are inherently longer than others. In
some languages, differences in the duration of a segment
are very important because substituting a long segment
for an otherwise identical short segment (or vice versa) in
a word can result in a different meaning.
E.g. Finish (both vowels and consonants may be long or short,
and the difference in length can make a difference in the
meaning of a word. In the data below the long vowels and
consonants are marked with [:]
a. [muta] mud c. [mut:a] but
b. [mu:ta] some other
2. Pitch is the musical note or frequency at which a syllable is
pronounced, relative to the rest of the sentence. English
had four distinctive pitches, V of which are found in almost
every sentence. They are indicated by the numbers
1(lowest), 2, V and 4 (highest).
V. tone. A language is said to have tone when differences in
word meaning are signalled by differences in pitch. Pitch on
forms in tone language functions vary differently from the
movement of pitch in a non-tone language. When a speaker
of a tone language such as Mandarin pronounces the form
ma[ma] with a falling pitch it means scold, but when the
same form [ma] is pronounced with a rising pitch, the
meaning is hemp. There is no parallel to anything like this in
non-tone languages such as English and French.
4. intonation. Pitch movement in spoken utterances that is not
related to differences in the word meaning is called
intonation. Intonation is the pattern of rises and falls in
pitch across a stretch of speech such as a sentence.
5. Stress is the relative loudness of a syllable in the sentence; it is
traditionally called accent. In some languages the placement of the
stress on a word is predictable. For example, stress almost always
falls on the first syllable of a word in Czech and on the last
syllable of a phrase in French. In other languages such as Russian
and English, stress placement is not predictable and must be
learned for each word. In other words, the placement of stress
can cause a difference in meaning.
E.g. sŁeven-seventŁeen, Łobject(n)-objŁect(v)
WhŁite House- white hŁouse, elemŁentary, elŁectric-electrŁicity
6. Juncture is the connection between one segment of speech and the
next or a type of boundary between two phonemes.
e.g. hindi puti (it·s not white). Hindi, puti (no, it·s white)
Don Pepe ang boss ko. Don, Pepe ang boss ko.
Slow! men are working ahead. Slow men + are working ahead.
Will you call the maid Maria? Will you call the maid+ Maria?
The man is on the right track. The man is on the right + track.
Feed him+ not starve him. Feed him not+ starve him.
Help+ Tony Martin. Help Tony Martin
It·s a chicken + feed. It·s a+ chicken feed.
A woman without her man+ cannot live. A woman without her+ man
cannot live.
‡ PHONOLOGY
‡ Phonology is not the study of telephone etiquette nor it is the study of
telephones. It is the study of sound patterns found in human language.
Both phonetics and phonology can be generally described as the study of
speech sounds. Phonetics is more specifically the study of how speech
sounds are produced. Phonology, on the other hand, investigates the
organization of speech sounds in a particular language. It is the component
of a grammar made up of the categories and the principles that determine
how sound patterns in a language. Phonologists attempt to make clear and
explicit statements about the sound patterns of individual languages in
order to discover something about the linguistic knowledge that people
must have in order to use these patterns.
‡ Phonological knowledge permits the speaker to:
‡ a. recognize a foreign ´accentµ
‡ b. make up new words
‡ Phoneme and Allophone:
‡ These terms are the crux of phonological analysis and it is important to
distinguish them.
‡ Phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a language. Ex. pan and ban differ
in initial sound, /p/ and /b/ are two different phonemes. The number of
phonemes varies from one language to another.
‡ Allophone is a phonetic variant. Ex. When /p/ occurs at the beginning of
words like put and pan, it is said with a little puff of air (aspirated). But
when /p/ occurs in words like span and spare, it is said without a puff of air
(unaspirated). The aspirated [p] in put and unaspirated [p] in span are
allophones of the phoneme /p/. Symbols for aspiration: [h ] or [,].
‡ DISTRIBUTION OF SOUNDS: A phone·/s distribution is the collection of phonetic
environments in which the phone may appear.
‡ 1.minimal pair is defined as a pair of words within different meanings which are
pronounced exactly the same way except for one sound that differs. Ex: pear-bear;
tin;-pin;-tab- tap
‡ 2. overlapping distribution is when the sets of phonetic environment in which they
occur are partially or completely Identical; the occurrence of sounds in the same
phonetic environments.
‡ Example: bait [bet] date [det]
‡ lobe [lob] load [lod]
‡ knobs [nabz] nods [nadz]
‡ bleat [blit] --- [dlit]
‡ The set of environment of [b] is partially similar to that of [d]: both sounds occur
word-initially before a vowel, and they both occur between [a] and [z]. However the
distribution of these sounds is not identical because [b] can occur word-initially
before [I], but [d] cannot.
‡ V. contrastive distribution refers to the difference in one sound results to contrast
in meaning; the occurrence of sound in language such that their use distinguishes
between the meanings of the words in which they appear.
‡ 4.Complementary distribution is just the opposite of overlapping distribution. It
means that where the sound occurs, the other does not; the occurrence of sound in
language such that they are never found in the same phonetic environment.
‡ 5.Free variation refers to one meaning is represented by two different phonetic
forms; refers to two sounds that occur in overlapping environments but cause no
distinction in the meaning of their respective words.
‡ ***a) If phones are in overlapping distribution, they are either in contrastive
distribution or free variation. (b) Phones in contrastive distribution may appear in
minimal pairs and are allophones of different phonemes. (c) Phones in free variation
may appear in the same phonetic environments but never cause a contrast in meaning;
they are allophones of the same phoneme.
‡ PHONOLOGICAL RULES/ PROCESSES: These are classified according to process
that they involve.
‡ 1. Assimilation causes a sound to become more like a neighboring sound with respect to
some feature. Ex: vowel nasalization [~] , liquid and glide devoicing. LIQUIDS [l,r] and
glides [w,w,y] become voiceless when they occur following a voiceless OBSTRRUENTS
[ p, t, k, ?, f, s, h, c, s,]. pang + dikdik+pandikdik; pang + basa=pambansa; pang + luto
+panluto
‡ 2. Dissimilation causes two neighboring sounds to become less alike with respect to
some feature. Ex. fricative dissimilation: [0] changes to [t] following another
fricative. Fifth [fif 0] is often pronounced as [fift]; [siks 0] as [sikst]. In these
examples the fricative [0] becomes less like an adjacent fricative consonant; it does
so through a change in its manner of articulation, thereby becoming a stop (from
fricative to stop).
‡ V. Insertion causes a segment not present at the phonemic level to be added to the
phonetic form of a word. Ex: voiceless stop insertion: between a nasal and voiceless
fricative; a voiceless stop with the same place of articulation as the nasal is inserted.
Dance /d ns/ causing [d nts]; strength /stre no] [streg ko]; hamster /h2e mstr/ to h
mpstr]. In dance nasal, voiceless stops, fricative
‡ 4. Deletion eliminates a sound. This applies more frequently to unstressed syllables
and in casual speech. Ex : /h/ may be deleted in unstressed syllables: He handed her
his hat (the h in her and his is deleted). Another example: unstressed syllable may be
deleted: police [plis], believe [bliv] dakip + in= dakipin-dakpin; bukas + an = buksan-
buksan
‡ 5. Aspiration the little puff of air that sometimes follows the release of a consonant
when there is a delay in the onset of voicing. [h] or [¶]
‡ 6. Flapping (also tap) is a sound produced when the tongue tip hits the alveolar ridge
at a high speed; a speech sound ( a consonant_ which is produced by making a single
tap, usually by the tongue against a firm surface in the mouth.
‡ 7. Vowel lengthening vowels in certain phonetic environment are longer than the same
vowels in other environments. In particular, vowels which are followed by a voiced
consonant are longer in duration than those followed by a voiceless consonant.
Examples: bat-bad; hat-had; rote-road
‡ 7. Vowel lengthening vowels in certain phonetic environment are
longer than the same vowels in other environments. In particular,
vowels which are followed by a voiced consonant are longer in
duration than those followed by a voiceless consonant. Examples:
bat-bad; hat-had; rote-road
‡ 8. Metathesis switching the order of two sounds, each taking the
place of the other; change in the order of two sounds in a word,
e.g. /film/ for ./film/. It sometimes occurs in the speech of
language learners but it may also occur with native speakers. When
a metathesized form becomes commonly and regularly used by
most native speaker·s of a language, it may lead to a change in the
word.
‡ 9. Epenthesis- the addition of a vowel or consonant at the
beginning of a word or between sounds. This often happens in
language learning when the language which is being learned has
different combinations of vowels or consonant from the learner·s
first language. For example, Spanish learners of English often say
/espi:k/ for speak as Spanish does not have words starting with
the consonant cluster /sp/. Many speakers of other languages do
not use combination like the /Im/ or /Ip/ of English and add an
epenthetic vowel, for example [ film] for film, and [help] for
[help]
‡ SOUND SUBSTITUTION AND PHONOTACTIC CONSTRAINTS
‡ Not all sound systems are the same. Some language have fewer or more
allophones than
‡ English does. For instance, French speakers often pronounce English this
[is] as [zs] and
‡ thin [ 0in] as [sin]. The reason for this mispronunciation is that the
phonemic inventory of
‡ French does not certain /0/ or /a/ , so French speakers substitute the
nearest equivalent
‡ sounds, the fricatives /z/ and /s/ available in their phonemic inventory.
‡ This is known as SOUND SUBSTITUTION, a process whereby sounds
that already
‡ exist in a language are used to replace sounds that do not exist in a
language when
‡ borrowing or trying to pronounce a foreign word.
‡ Another example: German has a voiceless velar fricative phoneme /x/.
English lacks this
‡ sound though it has a voiceless velar stop /k/. Most English speakers
substitute /k/ for /x/
‡ just like Bach /bax/ producing /bak/
‡ In every language there are RESTRICTIONS on the kinds of sounds and
sound
‡ sequences possible in different positions in words (particularly at the
beginning and end).
‡ These restrictions can be formulated in terms of rules stating which sound
sequences are
‡ possible in a language and which are not.
‡ PHONOTACTIC CONSTRAINTS are restrictions on possible combinations of sounds.
‡ Languages generally prefer a consonant ( C) first, vowel (V) second syllable structure,
‡ but some languages allow a syllable to begin with more than one consonant. For instance
‡ English allow up to V consonants to start word, provided the first is /s/, the second /p/, /t/
‡ or /k/ and the third /I/, / r/, /y/ or /w/.
‡ V oh CV no CCV flew CCCV spree
‡ VC at CVC not CCVCC flute CCCVC spleen
‡ VCC ask CVCC ramp CCVCC flutes CCCVCC strength
‡ VCCC asked CVCCC ramps CCVCCC crafts CCCVCCCC strengths
‡ Hebrew Japanse Hawaiian Indonesian
‡ CV V V V
‡ CVC CV CV VC
‡ CVCC CVN (nasal stop) CV
‡ CVC
‡ Filipino
‡ 1. V-a 5. CCV-tso-ko 9.CCVCC-tsart
‡ 2.CV-ka-so 6. VCC-eks-tra
‡ V. VC-ok-ra 7. CCVC-plan-tsa
‡ 4.CVC-bun-dok 8.CVCC-re-port, nars
‡ Hebrew does not have any initial consonant clusters. CVCC syllables
are allowed only at the end of a word.
‡ Indonesia has clusters only in the middle of words, there are no
clusters initially or finally.
‡ Hawaiian does not permit clusters in any position.
‡ 1. If language has a severe restrictions on its phonotactics, the
restrictions well apply to every word in the language, native or not.
Therefore, just as languages substitutes familiar sounds for an
familiar ones, languages also seek to every come problems of
borrowing a foreign word that violates their phonotactics.
‡ 2. In English- 2 stops cannot come at the beginning of words nor
can stop plus nasal combination. Ex. foreign words like Ptolemy and
Gnostic.English speakers simply drop the first consonant and
pronounced the words [tal mi] and [n stik].
‡ V. Japanese and Finish only allow CV-type syllables, with a few
exception. When borrowing a foreign word that violates the CV
structure, the 2 languages must force it somehow to fit. CCV, CVC
and other non-CV syllables must be forced into a CV framework.
There are 2 ways to do this> (1) DROP OR DELETE THE EXTRA
CONSONANTS (2) insert vowels to separate the consonants.
‡ 4. Finish opts for deletion. Japanese inserts vowel into the cluster so that
a CCC sequence will end up us CVCVCV. The insertions are rule- governed,
meaning that the insertion always works the same way. Thus we can predict
the shape of a new word in Japanese. The vowel /u/ is inserted, except
after /t/ and /d/. Notice the substitutions made by Japanese for English
sounds:
‡ Eng Jap Eng Jap
Eng Jap
‡ /l/-----
‡ /b/ /1/ /i/ /vr/
/v:/
‡ /v/ /s/ /2/ /o/
‡ /0/ /s/ // /u/
‡ // /a/ /2e/ /(y) a/
‡ Furthermore the nasals [m] and [n] are allowed syllable-finally. So when the
English
‡ word birth control was borrowed into Japanese, it became [ba: su
kontoro:ru]
‡ /bar/-----/ba:su/ /k ntrol/----- /kontro: ru/
‡ The /u/ in [ba:su] and last u in [kontoro:ru] is inserted to prevent [t] and
[r] from forming a cluster.
‡ 5. A Spanish speaker does not pronounce student because he doesn·t know
any better but because the consonant clusters /st/, /sk/ and /sp/ never
occur at the beginning of a word in Spanish without being preceded by a
vowel- for example in the words estudiante, escuela and espalda (shoulder)
The Spanish speaker who says [student] is simply applying the phonological
rules of Spanish when Speaking English words.
Language:
1. Colloquialism or colloquials- appropriate
for conversation and informal writing
‡ E.g. phone for telephone; mad for angry
2. slang- colloquial language that is usually
short-lived; transitory language; never
used in formal writing; language of the
young generation; born out of needs and
whims of the people who use it. This can
be likened to a fashion fad which catches
fire when conceived of and easily fades
away
‡ E.g. rubberneck- a tourist;
flatfoot-a policeman