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Speaker: Jing-De Huang
Advisor: Jian-Jiun Ding
Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering
National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
Ä   
 
 
   


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4
V  
 
Yÿ  [  áÿ 
ÿ 

  

   

 
Y  [  á 

 ·   · 

  

ÿ Î
(
V  
 
Cross-modulated
* X 
  ÿ ÿ     * 
Z-transform :
 ÿ

  ÿ      *  

ãor error-free reconstruction *  X *  
 ÿ  ÿ      X ÿ
 ÿ ÿ     X 
ãor finite impulse response (ãIR) filters and ignoring the delay
áÿ  X  Y 
á  X  
Yÿ 
ãIR synthesis filters are cross-modulated copies of the analysis filters
 with one (and only one) being sign reversed. ü
V  
 
iorthogonal
á ÿ   Yÿ     X ë  á ÿ   Y     X ÿ
á   Y     X ë  á   Yÿ     X ÿ
Ym    á   X ë m ë  m  X ÿ

The analysis and synthesis filter impulse responses of all two-band,


real-coefficient, perfect reconstruction filter banks are subject to the
biorthogonality constraint

m
V  
 
Orthonormal
± ám  á   X ë m ë  m X ÿ
± one solution of biorthogonal
± used in the fast wavelet transform
± the relationship of the four filter is :
á  X  á ÿ        ! ! 
 á   á ÿ 
Ym  X ám     m X ÿ
 Y  Y   "# #   á  á    $! #

w
4    

Expansion of a signal  %
  X  °    °  %  "# &$ ! ! 
   %  "# &$  ! 


      X        
° X ' 'ù ' %  !   
 

If    is an orthonormal basis for â , then   X '


 

If the expansion is unique, the   are called basis functions.


The function space of the expansion set    :  X
  


If    are not orthonormal but are an orthogonal basis for â ,


then the basis funcitons and their duals are called biorthogonal.
ÿ   
'  %  '
  X ë  X
  X 
Ú
4    

Scaling function
  X  Î
      ]     
The subspace spanned over ! for any : X


  


The scaling functions of any subspace can be built from


double-resolution copies of themselves. That is,
 X  Y     
where the coefficients are called scaling function coefficients.

š
4    

Requirements of scaling function:
1. The scaling function is orthogonal to its integer translates.

4. The subspaces spanned by the scaling function at low scales are


nested within those spanned at higher scales.
That is
â å â âÿ â â å â
(. The only function that is common to all  is    X ÿ.
That is
  X ÿ
ü. Any function can be represented with arbitrary precision.
That is,
 X 
  

ß
4    

avelet function
spans the difference between any two adjacent scaling subspaces
â and â 

  X  Î       for all  ± ] that spans the space 


where  X


  


The wavelet function can be expressed as a weighted sum of


shifted, double-resolution scaling functions. That is,
 X  Y     
where the Y  are called the wavelet function coefficients.

It can be shown that Y X  Y  


10
4    

â X â
 X âÿ
ÿ

â X âÿ
ÿ

ÿ
âÿ

 4 The relationship between scaling and wavelet function spaces.

The scaling and wavelet function subspaces in ãig. 4 are related by


â  X â

e can express the space of all measurable, square-integrable function as
å h  X âÿ
ÿ


å
or å h  X å


ÿ


å
11
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avelet series expansion

  X   ÿ   ÿ 
        
 X ÿ 
where ÿ is an arbitrary starting scale

 ÿ   X   'ÿ    X    'ÿ   


called the approximation or scaling coefficients

  X    '   X     '   
called the detail or wavelet coefficients

14
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Discrete avelet Transform
the function   is a sequence of numbers

 
  X



ÿ  ÿ 


 
X ÿ 
    

where ÿ is an arbitrary starting scale


 

 ÿ    X


 Xÿ
 'ÿ   

called the approximation or scaling coefficients


 

  X


 Xÿ
 '  

called the detail or wavelet coefficients


1(
ü| 

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ãast avelet Transform (ãT)
± computationally efficient implementation of the DT
± the relationship between the coefficients of the DT at adjacent
scales
± also called Mallat's herringbone algorithm
± resembles the twoband subband coding scheme


ü| 

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Scaling ‰ by 4j, translating it by !, and
 X  Y     
letting  = 4!  

   X  Y       X  Y      
  


Similarity,

     X  Y       
  


Consider the DT. Assume ' X  and '   X  


 

 ÿ  X   ÿ 
  X  Y     
  Xÿ


X

Y

      ÿ    

1m
ü| 

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v 
  X  Î      
  X
v

 Xÿ
    


X
v


 Î     

 
X
v

  Î

 Y     


 

 
X  Y   
    Î 
 
 
 v 
X  Y      

Similarity,
    X  Y       


1w
ü| 

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    X Y     
X     ÿ

    X Y     
X    ÿ

 (An ãT analysis filter bank.


ü| 

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 üAn ãT-1 synthesis filter bank.

y subband coding theorem, perfect reconstrucion for two-band


orthonormal filters requires á m  X Ym   for m = {0, 1}.
That is, the synthesis and analysis filters must be time-reversed
versions of one another. Since the ãT analysis filter are
Yÿ  X Y  and Y  X Y   , the required ãT-1 synthesis filters
are á ÿ  X Yÿ  X Y  and á  X Y  X Y  .



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ãourier transform
± asis function cover the entire signal range,
varying in frequency only
avelet transform
± asis functions vary in frequency (called ³scale´)
as well as spatial extend
High frequency basis covers a smaller area
ow frequency basis covers a larger area



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Time-frequency distribution for (a) sampled data, (b) ããT, and (c) ãT basis

40
m
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 mThe two-dimensional ãT  the analysis filter.

41
m
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 â     V   

two-dimensional decomposition

        

   

 â     V   

 Two-scale of two-dimensional decomposition 44


m
 |
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4(
m
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  The two-dimensional ãT  the synthesis filter bank.


 
  
Haar: simplest, orthogonal, not very good
Daubechies š š: orthogonal
Daubechies ß Ú: bi-orthogonal
most commonly used if numerical
reconstruction errors are acceptable
eGall m (: bi-orthogonal, integer operation,
can be implemented with integer operations
only, used for lossless image coding
4m


avelet Entropy
image Quantization bitstream
coding coding


  
Quantization    X    



± uniform scalar quantization
± separate quantization step-sizes for each subband
Entropy coding
± Huffman coding
± Arithmetic coding

4w

  
@  @
! !

@%(        


%)!*$  @
@%+!  

,- ,$ - . / @Î / 

 

 @

-0  - 1.     @     Î   
 X  X



  
DCT-based avelet-based
Original image image compression image compression

CR = 11.4üw0 CR = 10.(mwm
RMS = ü.1(1w RMS = ü.010ü



  
DCT-based avelet-based
Original image image compression image compression

CR = 4Ú.Úü01 CR = 4w.ü0ߚ
RMS = w.ßÚw( RMS = w.šüš0



  
DCT-based avelet-based
Original image image compression image compression

CR = m(.ü((( CR = m1.(š0w
RMS = 10.ßww4 RMS = ß.wßüÚ

(0
 
R. C. Gonzolez, R. E. oods, "Digital Image
Processing second edition", Prentice Hall, 4004.
R. C. Gonzolez, R. E. oods, S. . Eddins, "Digital
Image Processing Using Matlab", Prentice Hall, 400ü.
T. Acharya, A. K. Ray, "Image Processing: Principles
and Applications", John iley & Sons, 400m.
. E. Usevitch, 'A Tutorial on Modern ossy avelet
Image Compression: ãoundations of JPEG 4000',
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 1š, pp. 44-(m,
Sept. 4001.

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