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Discuss on Community Engagement

Discuss on Solidarity and its


Discuss on Citizenship
B 1.Define community
J engagement
E 2.Determine the areas and
benefits of community
T 3.Enumerate ways to start
I a community
V engagement effort

Children in your community is now
facing hunger and malnutrition. As a
resident in such community, what
possible ways could you make to aid this
Key Features of Community
 It is the process of working together with the members of a
group based on geographic proximity, special interest, or similar
situations to address issues affecting the whole group.

 It is considered a POWER VEHICLE because it can lead to

environmental and behavioral changes that will improve the
health of the community and its members. PARTNERSHIPS
AND COALITIONS are involved to mobilize resources and
influence systems, change relationships among partners, and
serve as catalysts for changing policies and programs.
COLLABORATIONS may be engaged in promotion, research or
policy making. The highlights of these features include the
collaboration among members, the desire for improvement, and
the importance of being involved in partnerships.
The International Association for Public Participation organized important
ideas to present a community engagement continuum, displaying concepts
Some community More community Better community Community Shared bidirectional
involvement involvement involvement involvement relationship
Communication Communication Communication Communication Final decision-
flows from one to flows to the flows both ways; flow is making is at
the other; to community and then participatory form bidirectional community level
back; answer-seeking
inform of communication
Provides Gets information Involves more Forms partnerships Strong
community with or feedback from participation from with community on partnerships
information the community community on each aspect of
project from
issues development to
Entities coexist Entities shared Entities cooperate Entities form Entities form
information with each other bidirectional strong partnership
channels structures
Outcomes: Optimally Outcomes: Outcomes: Visibility of Outcomes: Broader outcomes
establishes partnership Partnership affecting broader
communication Develop established with community. Strong
challenges and channels connections increased cooperation
building, trust bidirectional trust built
for outreach. building
Several youth today are involved in different
outreach programs; schools are also developing
them to become concerned citizens. The value of
concern among the youth can be further developed
by encouraging them to become more involved in
the communities they hope to assist, and be able to
build better relationships with the members. They
can also invite different groups to be one with
them in carrying out the mission of service in their
chosen communities.
Children in your community is now
facing hunger and malnutrition. As a
resident in such community, what
possible ways could you make to aid this
Area Benefits
AGENDA It helps to determine one’s choice and focus of projects to achieve
collaboration and funding.
DESIGN AND DELIVERY This area assists to understand the improvement of research designs, tools,
interventions, representations, participation, data collection, and analysis.
Communication and proper dissemination of information can be implemented, making
partners and participants more engaged.
IMPLEMENTATION AND Research findings are used to bring about change and expand long-term
CHANGE partnerships.
ETHICS This improves the consent process and trust of the community.
PUBLIC INVOLVED IN THE This enhances the knowledge and skills of the public, and it is also
PROJECT important to recognize their contributions.
ACADEMIC PARTNERS This allows the people involved to deepen their understanding of the issue
and increase opportunities to disseminate the project findings and their
wider use.
INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH This adheres to the improvement in the way studies are carried
COMMUNITY This enhances knowledge gained, expands linkage with other communities,
ORGANIZATION and helps to lay groundwork for subsequent collaboration.
GENERAL PUBLIC This group reaps the greater benefits from the community engagement

Considering the areas and benefits of community engagement, society

plays a significant part in achieving effective community engagement.
The social-ecological model below displays the important role of society
in an individual’s relationship with community members.

The following points should be kept in mind when doing community

engagement efforts.

Before Starting A Community Engagement Effort

Be clear about the purposes or goals of the engagement effort and the
populations and/ or communities you want to engage .
Become knowledgeable of the community’s culture, economic
conditions, social networks , political and power structures , norms and
values , demographic trends and history, and experience with efforts by
outside groups to engage it in various groups. Learn about the
community’s perceptions of those initiating the engagement activities.
The social-ecological model below displays the important role of society
in an individual’s relationship with community members.

The following points should be kept in mind when doing community

engagement efforts.

For Engagement to Occur

Go to the community, establish the relationships, build trust, work with

the formal and informal leadership, and seek commitment from
community organizations and leaders to create processes for
mobilizing community.

Remember and accept that collective self determination is the

responsibility and right of all the people in a community. No external
entity should assume it can bestow on a community the power to act
in its own self interest.
For Engagement To Succeed

Partnering with the community is necessary to create change and improve


All aspects of community engagement must recognize and respect the diversity
of the community . Awareness of the various cultures of a community and
other factors affecting diversity must be paramount in planning, designing and
implementing approaches to engaging a community.

Community Engagement can only be sustained by identifying and mobilizing

community assets and strengths and by developing the community’s capacity
and resources to make decisions and take action.

Organizations that wish to engage a community as well as individuals seeking

to effect change must be prepared to surrender control of actions or
interventions to the community and be flexible enough to meet it’s changing

Community collaboration requires long term commitment by the engaging

organization and it’s partners.
To ensure the success of community engagement
activities, appropriate procedures should be carefully
planned and ideas should also be generated to formulate
better plans for implementation.

The youth should consider the various points

presented , to effective carry out a long term community
engagement activity that will serve as a meaningful
experience for them and help them achieve a sense of
 The key features of community engagement include the collaboration of
members, focus on the objectives towards community improvement and
openness to partnership supports.

 In a community engagement continuum, there is an increasing level of

community involvement, impact, trust and communication flow. It comes in
five parts: outreach, consult, involve, collaborate, and shared leadership.

 Community engagement has nine areas to consider and each has its
corresponding benefits. These areas include agenda, design and delivery,
implementation and change, ethics, public involved in the program,
academic partners, individual research participants, community
organization and general public.

 The society serves as an important contribution toward community

engagement activities.

 In line with this, there are important points to consider when doing
community engagement efforts. There are steps to be planned out before
starting a community engagement effort and points to keep in mind for the
engagement to occur and succeed.
B 1.Provide an overview of
J the concept of solidarity
E 2.Present different views
of solidarity as a social
T 3.Relate the concepts
I discussed to current
V issues

Y ?

Can virtual communities be capable of
solidarity, though their members might
not know each other in “real life”? Why?
If not, what hinders them from expressing
true solidarity?

-generally understood as a sense of

unity among people, especially in
terms of the interests or objectives, or
as an expression of support or
Different views of solidarity as a social


- a view proposed by a French sociologist,

David Emile Durkheim.
- Durkheim wondered- what was holding
society together? With his book, “The Divisions of
Labor in Society” (1893), he proposed that
societies are held together by social solidarity:
mechanical and organic solidarity.
Mechanical Solidarity
- A solidarity which is based on kinship and a shared sense of
- Occurs in early societies tended to be small-scale, localized, and
highly homogenous, with very little specialization of labor.
- Durkheim asserted that in such societies, there exist a collective
conscience (the totality of people’s beliefs and values takes on a life
of its own)and he proposed that it is from their collective conscience
that early societies formed a mechanical solidarity.
- Collective conscience is sacred and takes precedence over the
individual members and their respective experiences.
- Any transgression against the collective conscience is viewed as an
offense against all, laws in this kind of society tend to be severe or
penal (focused on punishment) in nature.
- Changes to the collective conscience are slow and may be met with
Organic Solidarity
- Urbanization, industrialization, and capitalism led to the
development of large, diverse, and complex societies.
- The division of labor implies that the collective consciousness must
give way to the individual consciousness.
- Although the individual members perform highly specialized and
differentiated tasks, they are held together by their interdependence-
they need each other, with each of them performing their designated
tasks, for society form a whole, cohesive unit.
- Durkheim compared such societies to living organisms- the various
parts of the human anatomy have very different functions, each part
is integral to the whole.
- Unlike societies with a mechanical form of solidarity, these societies
tend to have restitutive laws or laws that require offending parties to
make reparations for their crimes, rather than merely punishing said
offenders. However, these societies may still have penal elements
in their laws.
Different views of solidarity as a social


- Transnational Solidarity
- Robust Solidarity
Transnational Solidarity
- Theorized by Carol Gould in 2007, this form of solidarity refers to
the ability not only of individuals but also of groups of people, to
identify and empathize with others who are experiencing some form
of injustice, or are generally suffering through no fault of their own.
- Such identification des not require any notion of a shared identity-
only an appreciation and understanding of the said suffering.
- Those who express such solidarity may or may not take action to
address or counteract the suffering, whether out of moral obligation
or an altruistic motivation.
Building on Gould’s work, scholar Ashley Taylor (2004) proposed
two new classifications of solidarity- robust and expressional
solidarity- based on whether or not those expressing solidarity are in a
situation or context which compels or obligates them to take certain

Robust Solidarity
- According to Taylor, robust solidarity requires four conditions
in which these conditions must be reciprocal between the
people in the solidary relationship.
1. Joint interest
2. Identification with the group
3. Disposition to empathy
4. Mutual trust

- It is highly normative, meaning that the individual members

are obligated by their circumstances to act in solidarity with
the rest of the group.

1. Joint interest- shared goals or factors which define or bind a

solidary group and which the group’s individual members
cannot accomplish on their own.

EXAMPLE: the employees of a company all have an

interest in the company’s success, however, they will all
need to work together to accomplish this task.

2. Identification with the group- condition of an individual

being committed to a solidary group such that the group’s
flourishing is linked to the individual’s general well-being.

EXAMPLE: the company’s employees are invested in the

company’s success because it will generally mean that they
will continue to be gainfully employed.

3. A disposition to empathy involves being affected by

other’s situations- or at least being disposed to being
affected by them.

EXAMPLE: if the owners of the company were to

decide to lower their costs by implementing a
contractualization scheme, the employees have a very
valid reason to stand in solidarity with each other and
protest the new policy. However, of one of the
employees were to experience conflict with a social
circle outside of work, his co-workers would have little
incentive to empathize with his situation.
4. Mutual trust is the final condition of robust solidarity, and, like
the disposition to empathy, it is specific to the goals of the
solidary group. The first three conditions are intensifiers of the
fourth- the stronger the other conditions the stronger the mutual
trust between members of the group.

EXAMPLE: if the employees decide that it is in their best

interest to hold a worker’s strike, there is a mutual trust among
them that everyone will go on strike. Holding a strike leaves
them vulnerable, because they risk their employment. For the
strike to achieve the maximum impact possible, all of them
must participate. If some employees decide not to participate
and instead go to work, the efficacy of the strike is
compromised. Only in unity can they pressure their employer
into changing the company’s unfair policies.
Expressional Solidarity
- On the other hand, occurs when one
or more of the previously listed
conditions is unidirectional or not
mutual among the members of the
solidary group. Because the
conditions are not mutual, this form
of solidarity is only weakly
Can virtual communities be capable of
solidarity, though their members might
not know each other in “real life”? Why?
If not, what hinders them from expressing
true solidarity?
B 1.Define the key points to
J understand about
E citizenship
2.Discuss procedures in
acquiring one’s
T citizenship
I 3.Explain citizen
V participation and its
E significant aspects

P ?

If a Filipina married a foreigner and they
both agreed to stay in a foreign country,
does she lose already her Philippine
citizenship? Why or why not?
Bases of Filipino Citizenship
Citizenship- the status of a person recognized under the
law as a legal member _____

Article IV, Section 1, of the Philippine Constitution states

the following key points which define that an individual is
a citizen of the Philippines:

 Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time

of the adoption of this Constitution
 Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the
 Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino
mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon
reaching the age of majority
 Those who are naturalized in accordance of law
Two Forms of Acquiring Philippine Citizenship
1. Citizenship by Birth
2. Citizenship by Naturalization

- based on two principles: Jus soli and Jus sanguinis

- Jus soli or the rights of soil, is the legal principle that

states that a person’s nationality at birth is determined by
his/her place of birth.

- Jus sanguinis or the right of blood, is the legal

principle that, at birth, an individual acquires the
nationality of his/her natural parents. The Philippines
adopts the principle of Jus sanguinis in determining
As 2010 , the Philippine nationality law provides that a
person becomes a Philippine citizen by birth considering the
following factors.

 That the person was born on or after October 13, 1986 and
at least one parent was a Philippine citizen on the
 That the person was born on after January 17, 1973 and
both parents were Philippine citizens on the birthdate or
the person elected Philippine citizenship pursuant to the
provisions of the 1935 Constitution.
 That the person was born on or August 29, 1916 and prior
to May 14,1935 and at least one parent was an inhabitant
and resident of the Philippine Islands and a Spanish
subject on April 11, 1899 or that person was an inhabitant
and resident of the Philippine Islands and a Spanish
subject on April 11, 1899, except in certain specific cases.
- Naturalization is the second form of
acquiring Filipino citizenship.
- This is the judicial act of adopting a
foreigner and granting him the privileges
of a native-born citizen. It requires the
Foreigner's renunciation of his/her former
Section 2 of the Revised Naturalization Law defines the following qualifications of a person to
become a naturalized Filipino citizen :

He / she must not be less than twenty- one (21) years of age on the day of hearing of the

He / she must have resided in the Philippines for a continuous period of not less than ten (10)

He / she must be of good moral character and believes in the principles underlying the
Philippine Constitution , and must have conducted himself in a proper and irreproachable
manner during the entire period of his residence in the Philippines in his relation with the
constituted government as well as with the community which he is leaving.

He / she must own a real estate in the Philippines worth not less than five thousand (5000)
pesos, Philippine currency , or must have some known lucrative trade , profession, or lawful

He / she must be able to speak or write English or Spanish or any one of the principal
Philippine languages

He / she must have enrolled his minor children of school age in any of the public or private
schools recognized by the Bureau of Public Schools of the Philippines where Philippines
history , government and civics are taught or prescribed as part of the school curriculum ,
during the entire period of the residence in the Philippines required of him prior to the hearing
of the petition for naturalization as Philippine Citizen.
Citizenship in the Philippines may be lost and reacquired. There are several reasons
for the loss of citizenship and procedure for reacquiring it.
Loss of Philippine Citizenship

Commonwealth Act. No. 63, dated 20 October 1936 , provides that Philippine Citizens
may lose citizenship in any of the following ways or events :

1. by naturalization
2. by renunciation of citizenship or the public declaration that one voluntarily relinquishes
his/her citizenships.
3. by subscribing to an oath of allegiance to support the the constitution or laws of foreign
country upon attaining twenty - one years of age or more. Provided , however, that a
Filipino may not divest himself of Philippine citizenship in any manner while the Republic
of the Philippines is at war with any country.
4. by rendering services to , or accepting commission in , the armed forces of a foreign
country, and the taking an oath of allegiance incident thereto, except in certain specified
5. by cancellation of the certificates of naturalization
6. by having been declared, by competent authority, a deserter of the Philippine armed
forces in time of war , unless subsequently, a plenary pardon or amnesty has been granted.
7. in the case of a woman , upon her marriage to a foreigner if, by virtue of the laws in
force in her husband’s country, she acquires his nationality.
Reacquisition of Philippine Citizenship
- As stated in Republic Act No. 8171 approved last October
23, 1995 that allows Filipino women married to foreigners and
natural-born Filipinos, including their minor children, who lost
their Philippine citizenship to reacquire it.

- Republic Act 9225 provides that natural-born citizens of

the Philippines who had lost their Philippine citizenship due to
their naturalization as citizens of a foreign country may
reacquire their Philippine citizenship upon taking the oath of
allegiance to the Republic. These will include their children
whether legitimate, illegitimate or adopted, below eighteen
(18) years old. They are deemed to have reacquired Filipino
citizenship upon taking the oath of allegiance to the
Philippine Republic.
- the dynamic and voluntary involvement of community
members to address issues and concerns affecting their community
and improve social policies, laws, and programs.

The following are the important concepts emphasized about citizen

1. Participants are voluntary. They are committed to exert their
2. Members focus on the community and do not rely on
outside help.
3. Community members work and make their own changes
and improvements to the community.
4. Members are aware of the issues and problems confronting
the community.
5. Participants target laws, rules and regulations affecting the
community so these can serve the community and its
members better.
- enables members of the community to engage
in a collaborative effort in decision-making,
making it a democratic process.

- it enables people to engage in action- either as

individuals or as part of a group- in influencing
decisions that can affect the community.

- participation may be done within an

institution or it can be undertaken by civil society
through various means such as class action,
demonstrations, citizen committees, or through
referendum and commissions.
Important Factors to consider for an
effective Citizen Participation Program:

1. The program should focus on specific needs

and the process should be outlined and
2. The program should be designed to function
using available resources of the community.
3. The program should be responsive to the
4. The program should be approved by the
community or leaders and meet legal
Two Models that define Citizen Participation
1. Cognitive engagement
2. Social capital model
COGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT- views participation as a result
of individual dispositions such as one’s personal interest or
awareness on politics based on social media.
Example: A young person who is interested in sports may
allocate one’s time training out-of-school youth to promote
fitness and a healthy lifestyle among the underprivileged youth.

SOCIAL CAPITAL MODEL- considers participation as based

on social interaction among individuals within groups and
- social capital (which consists of networks of associations,
trust and norms of reciprocity) enables members of the group to
work together and achieve their goals.
One important example of citizen participation in the
Philippines is the involvement of citizens and the local
government in local public finance. Local officials in the
barangay, city, municipality, and provinces are empowered
to undertake local fiscal administration. In particular, they
are encouraged to take the initiative in generating
resources and revenue, the allocation and utilization of
resources, and the management and control over the use of
resources and funds . Local officials, local councils and
members of the community work together in managing the
fiscal affairs in their respective areas, ensuring efficiency,
transparency, and sustainability in their efforts.
1. This refers to the process of working together with the members of a
group. ______
2. The outcome of this concept is to establish communication. ______
3. This is the area that reaps greater benefits from the community
engagement activities. ______
4. This is the model that displays the important role if society in an
individual’s relationship with community members.______
5. This requires long-term commitment by the engaging organization and its
partner. ______
6. Mechanical solidarity is the result of industrialization and division of
7. Robust solidarity compels members of a group to act in solidarity with
that group.
8. The collective conscience values individual views and experiences over
those of the group.
9. In organic solidarity, the differences between members are expected and
10. Transnational solidarity implies a shared sense of identity.

6. Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law as an illegal
member of a nation.
7. Citizenship by birth and naturalization are the two recognized forms of
acquiring Philippine citizenship.
8. Jus soli means the “right of soil.”
9. One loses Philippine citizenship by becoming a naturalized citizen of a
foreign country.
10. Natural-born Filipinos who are citizens of foreign countries regains
Filipino citizenship upon taking an oath of allegiance to the Philippine
Thank You