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What is LTE?
 Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a wireless communication
standard developed by 3rd Generation Partnership
Project(3GPP) that’s designed to provide upto 10x speed of
3G Network for mobile devices such as smartphones, Tablets,
netbooks and wireless hotstop.
How it is different?
 High Data Rates.
 Completely packet switched and all IP architecture

and more flat as a result we have reduced latency for

user applications.
 Improved end-user throughputs for application such

as Voice and Video.

 Flexibility of radio frequency deployment since LTE

can be deployed in various bandwidth

configurations(1.4, 3.5, 10, 50, 20Mhz).
LTE Protocol Stack Overview:
We can Divide air interface protocols to 2 parts:

1.User Plane deals with actual data flow.

Consists of:
a)PDCP(Packet data control protocol)
b)RLC(Radio Link Control)
c)MAC(Medium Access Control)
d)Physical layer

2.Control plane deals with configuration of user

plane layers before actual data flow.
Consists of:
a)RRC(Radio Resource control)
b) NAS(Non Access Stratum)
Below is a logical digram of E-UTRAN Protocol layers with a depiction of
data flow through various layers:
PDCP(packet data control protocol)
 Tasks performed by PDCP:

1.Header compression and header

decompression of IP data packets.
2.Maintanence of PDCP sequence number.
3.Security of data.
RLC(Radio link control)
 Tasks performed by RLC:
1.Concatenation,segmentation and reassembly of RLC
2.Retransmission of RLC PDU’s
3.Reordering of RLC data PDU’s
MAC (Medium access control)
 Tasks performed by MAC :

1.Prioritization among various data channels

for a given UE.
2.Error Correction through HARQ(Hybrid
Automatic Repeat request ) which is taken
from UMTS.
Physical Layer
 Tasks performed by physical layer:

1. Encode raw data before modulation.

2. Measure the interface to know channel
RRC(Radio Resource control)
 Tasks performed by RRC:

1. Broadcast of system information.

2. RRC Connection control.
3. State transition
4. Paging
5. Initial Security activation
6. Measurement configuration and reporting
Non Access Stratum (NAS) Protocols
 The non-access stratum (NAS) protocols form the
highest stratum of the control plane between the user
equipment (UE) and MME.
 NAS has 2 parts:

1.EMM (EPS mobility management).

2.ESM (EPS Session management).
LTE Channels: Logical, Transport and
Physical Channels Details and Mapping
 These all three types of channel are present in Downlink as well as Uplink
direction. Mapping of these channels is shown in below pictures.
Logical channels
 In Downlink 5 logical channel for control plane:
1.Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
2.Paging Control Channel (PCCH)
3.Common Control Channel (CCCH)
4.Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
5.Multicast Control Channel (MCCH)
 Two logical channels for user plane
1. Dedicated Traffic channel (DTCH)
2. Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH)
 In Uplink we have 2 control channels and one traffic
1. Common Control Channel (CCCH)
2. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
3. Dedicated Traffic channel (DTCH)-
Transport channels
 LTE has 4 Downlink Logical Channels:
1. Broadcast Channel (BCH)
2. Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)
3. Paging Channel (PCH)
4. Multicast Channel (MCH)
 LTE has 2 Uplink Logical Channels:
1. Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH)
2. Random Access Channel (RACH)
Physical channels:
 Downlink:
1.Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH): 
2.Physical Control Format Indicator Channel
3.Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) :
4.Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) : 
 Uplink:

1.Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)

2.Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
3.Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) : 
MIB and SIB in LTE
Master information Block ( MIB)
 MIB or Master Information Block is a very
important message or information that is
broadcasted by the LTE eNodeB irrespective
of any users presence.
 The MIB is first among the other system

information blocks or SIB, which are also

broadcasted by the eNodeB.
Contents of MIB
 The MIB is transmitted using a physical layer
channel called PBCH or Physical Broadcast
Channel on downlink. The MIB is a 24 bit
information with following information

 3 bits for system bandwidth

 3 bits for PHICH information,

◦ 1 bit to indicate normal or extended PHICH

◦ 2 bit to indicate the PHICH Ng value
 8 bits for system frame number
 10 bits are reserved for future use.
 It has time interval of 40ms i.e, TTL=40ms.
LTE System Information Block (SIB) Contents

  System information block, is one important

message that the UE will be looking to
decode from the eNodeb’s broadcast.
 SIB is require for any all reselection and

 Time interval is 80ms.
 SIB responsible of initial attachment and

mobility related information of network.

Contains information regarding
whether or not UE is allowed to
access the LTE cell. It also defines
the scheduling of the other SIBs.
carries cell ID, MCC, MNC, TAC, SIB

Carries common channel as well as

shared channel information.

carries cell re-selection

information as well as Intra
frequency cell re-selection

carries Intra Frequency

Neighbors(on same frequency);
SIB4 carries serving cell and neighbor
cell frequencies required for cell
reselection as well handover
Carries Inter Frequency
Neighbors(on different frequency);
carries E-UTRA LTE frequencies,
other neighbor cell frequencies
from other RATs. The purpose is
cell reselection and handover.

carries WCDMA neighbors

information i.e. carries serving
SIB6 UTRA and neighbor cell
frequencies useful for cell re-

carries GSM neighbours

information i.e. Carries GERAN
frequencies as well as GERAN
neighbor cell frequencies. It is
used for cell re-selection as well as
handover purpose.
carries CDMA-2000 EVDO
SIB8 frequencies, CDMA-2000 neighbor
cell frequencies.

carries HNBID (Home eNodeB


SIB10 carries ETWS prim. notification

SIB11 carries ETWS sec. notification

MIB in 5G
 systemFrameNumber                        
 subCarrierSpacingCommon              
 ssb-SubcarrierOffset                           
 dmrs-TypeA-Position                         
 pdcch-ConfigSIB1                                 
 cellBarred                                               
 intraFreqReselection                           
LTE and NR MIB Comparision

Parameters Long Term Evolution New Radio (NR)


Broadcast Channel •Transport – BCH •Transport – BCH

•Physical- PBCH •Physical- PBCH

Periodicity 40 ms generation  80 ms generation

periodicity with 10 ms periodicity with
re-transmission repetitions made
periodicity within 80 ms

Channel Coding Tail Bit Convolution Polar Coding


Modulation QPSK QPSK

Resource Allocation •6 RBs (72 subcarriers) •It is transmitted on
in Frequency domain OFDM symbol 1,2,3 .
•4 symbols of first •It uses 0 to 239 sub
subframe second slot carrier number on
symbol 0, 1, 2 and 3. symbol 1 & 3, where
as on symbol 2 it uses
subcarried number 0
to 47 and 192 to 239
MIB / SIB acquisition process
1.Case 1 : No On-Demand System Information, No
previously stored SIB and UE just powered ON
 UE Powered ON
 Cell Search (PSS and SSS) and PBCH decode to get MIB
 Decode and store the MIB
 check if cellBarred= barred,  stop here   cellBarred !=
barred, move to next to process further information
 Decode SIB1 using parameters provided by MIB and
store the results
 As SIB1 indicate no demand SI, decode other System
Information (SIBs)
 Case 2 : On-Demand System Information
Indication, No previously stored SIB and UE just
powered ON
 Same as no on-Demand procedure
 As SIB1  indicate on demand SI, check RRC status
 If UE RRC status is in RRC-IDLE or RRC-INACTIVE
 Trigger UE lower layers to initate RACH procedure
 Acquire the on-Demand SI messages when
Acknowledgement for SI request is recieved
 System Information Block 1 (SIB1): Cell selection Information, PLMN,
TAC, Cell Identity, RAN Notification Information,  SI scheduling info for
OSI, Serving Cell Information
 System Information Block 2 (SIB2): Cell re-selection information
common for intra-frequency, inter-frequency and/ or inter-RAT
 System Information Block 3 (SIB3):  Intra frequency cell re-selection
information e.g. PCI, q-Offset, q-RxLev, q-Qual, Black cell list
 System Information Block 4 (SIB4): Inter frequency cell re-selection
information e.g. NR-ARFCN
 System Information Block 5 (SIB5): Inter system cell re-selection toward
 System Information Block 6 (SIB6): Earth quake and Tsunami Warning
System primary notifications
 System Information Block 7 (SIB7): Earth quake and Tsunami Warning
System secondary notifications
 System Information Block 8 (SIB8): Commercial Mobile Alert services
(CMAS) notification
 System Information Block 9 (SIB9): Timing information for UTC, GPS
and local time
Synchronization signal:
 LTE define two type of synchronization
1.Primary synchronization signal (PSS)
2.Secondary synchronization signal (SSS)
 UE uses the Synchronization Signals to:
 Achieve radio frame, subframe, slot and

symbol synchronization in the time domain

 Identify the center of the channel bandwidth

in the frequency domain

 Deduce the Physical layer Cell Identity (PCI)
Primary Synchronization Signals:
 The Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS) is
broadcast twice during every radio frame and
both transmissions are identical.
 In the case of FDD: the PSS is broadcast using

the central 62 subcarriers belonging to the

last symbol of time slots 0 and 10 «
 In the case of TDD: the PSS is broadcast using

the central 62 subcarriers belonging to the

third symbol of time slot 2 (subframe 1) and
the third symbol of time slot 12 (subframe 6)
Secondary Synchronization Signals
 In the case of FDD:  the SSS is broadcast using
the central 62 subcarriers belonging to the
second to last symbol of time slots 0 and 10 «
 In the case of TDD:  the SSS is broadcast using

the central 62 subcarriers belonging to the last

symbol of time slot 1 (subframe 0) and the last
symbol of time slot 11 (subframe 5)
 SSS helps to achieve radio frame

synchronization and deduce a pointer towards 1

of 168 Physical layer Cell Identity (PCI) groups.
Below diagram shows how PSS and SSS helps finding
the Physical Layer Cell ID
IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) is an architecture for real-time(Voice,Data,Video and Messaging) serv

It is developed by 3GPP standards group. It uses SIP Protocol.

SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) is a standard protocol for establishing voice calls over IP Network.On
Other protocols come into the process to transfer the data of the media.

SIP is needed for signalling and controlling multimedia communication sessions. To support telephone
telephone Network which mainly involves in initiation and closing of a media transfer.

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What is CSCF ?

CSCF( Call Session Control Function) provides the central control function in the ims core network to

This is divided into three parts they are P-CSCF, I-CSCF and S-CSCF.

P-CSCF (Proxy- Call Session Control Function) :

• This is the first point of entry to IMS by accepting request and forwarding the SIP messages.
• Handling emergency call sessions.
• Maintains a secure association with UE
• Compression of SIP signalling to minimize latency for over the air interface.
• Authenticates the user and establishes an IPsec security association with the IMS terminal.

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First Register message sent to P-CSCF :

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I-CSCF(Interogater Call Session Control Function) :
• Responsible for determining the which S-CSCF be assigned for controlling the session request b
• I-CSCF queries the HSS using the DIAMETER Cx interface to retrieve the user location and then
assigned S-CSCF.

S-CSCF(Serving Call Session Control Function) :

• It is responsible for conducting both Registration and Session control for the Registered UE’s Ses
• It decides to which application server(s) the SIP message will be forwarded, in order to provide th
• Responsibility for co-ordinating with the media resource function for any media announcement.

HSS (Home Subscription Server) :

It is a master user database that supports the IMS N/W entities that handle the call.It contain User pr
Authentication Authorization of user and can provide the physical location of the User.

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Authentication' parameter carries detailed information needed for the authentication alg
This step is triggered by '401 UnAuthorized' in previous registration step.

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The same registration process takes place.This time it is authenticated and sends

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• Easy and user friendly approach to manage various standards.

• Availability anywhere anytime through wireless and fixed networks and can be accessed from di
technologies(GSM,CDMA200,WLAN etc).

Transport ,Control , and Applications are separated into independent layers

Deploy real-time appliocations to be deployed along with ensuring QOS using SIP as the main s

• It is Quicker and cheaper to enable new applications.

• Same application runs over many different infrastructures.

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CSFB (Circuit Switched Fallback) :

What is CSFB : LTE technology supports packet based services only. It is well designed for da
intermediate for early LTE deployment without VoLTE.The 3gpp defines the CSFB using Circuit Sw
deliver voice or SMS before the coming of VoLTE(Voice over LTE).

With CSFB when a user starts a voice call in the LTE network, the UE moves to legacy systems like
voice call. It remains there during the entire duration of the call. After the call is released UE moves

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When CSFB is Required:
 When phone is camped on LTE but it is not capable of VoLTE and user makes a MT or MO ca
back to 3g or 2g network and makes a call.

 When UE is capable of VoLTE but IMS PDN is not established and makes a MT or MO call.

 When UE is capable of VoLTE, IMS PDN is established but failed to register in CSCF and mak

 When UE is capable of VoLTE, IMS PDN is established, registered in CSCF but network failed

 When UE is capable of VoLTE, ims PDN is established and UE is registered in CSCF but SIP I

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Simplified Procedure of Inbound call with CSFB

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4G to 3G Switch in CSFB

 UE registers with LTE network with attach type(combined EPS/IMSI Attach) which indicates it i

registration for CS network and PS network.

 The Location area is updated in 3G Network and is triggered for default bearer and dedicated b

responds to Initial context setup and bearers are setup. Now the UE is connected to 4G Netwo

 Now, if the UE makes a MT or MO call where UE is registered to LTE network but does not sup

then MME Signals to UE for CS Fall back and notifies about 3G location area.

 The 4G LTE session is released as UE is going to transition from 4G to 3G UMTS Network

 UE initiates the call in 3G network and after the call is finished it connects back to 4G network

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Circuit Switched call in 3G UMTS

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CSFB 4G to 3G/2G Architecture

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CSFB Process is triggered by paging message

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EXTENEDED SERVICE REQUEST message is sent by the UE to the network to initia

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RRC Connection is Released from LTE

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CSFB Response

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Advantages of CSFB :
 It reuses 2G/3G CS domain and hence saves investment cost for providing voice support in LT

 End users do not find any difference in voice services as existing 2G/3G CS domain is reused

 Emergency calls are supported from beginning of LTE network deployment.

 Charges remains same as levied in 2G/3G networks.

 Legal interception is supported from beginning.

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Disadvantages of CSFB :

 It affects signalling flow. Additional signalling messages are generated to establish voice call to s

network (2G or 3G) from LTE.

 Delay to setup voice call will increase in LTE compare to direct 2G/3G voice call establishment.

 It affects the performance criteria. This is due to the success rate of MTC call due to inaccurate

between TAI and LAI. Proper mapping will increase the chances of success rate.

 It affects use of existing equipments. For example, SGW should be enhanced. Here PS session

should be maintained when UE falls back to 2G/3G CS domain. Proper care need to be taken so

sessions do not get suspended or interrupted.

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