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1.1 Classification of microorganism in food

1.2 Bacteria
Dr Mohammed Danish
1.3 Mould and yeast

Basic microbiology
3000, 000, 000 First Bacteria

3000, 000 First humans

20, 000 Agricultural Societies developed

2000 Dietary structures developed in many societies

B.C. Change of era
1000 Botulism outlawed

1500 Mycotoxosis reported 1800-1900

Appert invents canning
Pasteur associates spoilage with bacteria
Koch’s postulates developed
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Era of food engineering and food chemistry 2
◦ In the 10th century AD, Emperor Leo VI of Byzantium issued an edict that forbade eating
blood sausage. The blood sausage associated with Botulism bacteria. In 1793, 13 were
affected and 9 died in Germany after eating blood sausage.
◦ In 1582 and nearly 1600 AD, Ergotism caused by the growth of mold Claviceps purpurea,
in spoiled grain.
◦ In 1896, Clostridium botulinum was discovered by E. Van Ermengem. The botulism
remained a major problem in thermally processed foods until the 1920s. History of progress
◦ Between 1854 and 1864, Louis Pasteur (father of food microbiology) placed heat
preservation methods on a scientific basis. in understanding of
◦ The first use of what we now know as “pasteurization”, the heating of wine to destroy
undesirable organisms, was introduced commercially in 1867-68. the food
◦ British Food and Drugs Act was passed in 1860, US passed its first food law named as
National meat Inspection law, in 1890.
◦ Food and Drug Administration (FDA) came into existence to regulate the food quality in

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◦ Food microbiology is the study of food micro-
◦ how we can identify and culture them, how they live, how
some infect and cause disease and how we can make use of
their activities. What is food
◦ The field of food microbiology is a very broad one,
encompassing the study of microorganisms which have microbiology?
both beneficial and deleterious effects on the quality
and safety of raw and processed foods.

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Food microorganism can be classified into four major groups:
1. Bacteria: The bacteria are unicellular prokaryotic
microorganism, most approximately 0.5-1.0 x 2.0-10 µm. The
bacteria have three morphological forms: spherical (cocci), rod
shaped (bacilli), and curved (comma)
2. Protozoa: These are unicellular organisms with protoplasm Classification of
differentiated into nucleus and cytoplasm. The diameter of the
protozoa microorganism lies in the range of 2-100 µm.
Example, Amoeba
microorganism in
3. Fungi: It is in the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes food
microorganisms such as yeasts and molds.
4. Viruses: Viruses are regarded as noncellular entities or

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◦ Microbes can grow at temperatures from < 0°C (the
snow alga, Chlamydomas nivalis) to 113°C (Pyrolobus
◦ Microbes are also present in saturated salt lakes, in acid
mine drainage that is below pH 1, in environments
devoid of oxygen, in soil, and on you!
◦ All cells fall into one of the two major classifications.
◦ Prokaryotic microorganisms
◦ Eukaryotic microorganisms

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Dr Mohammed Danish 7
Prokaryotic cell
Prokaryotes are organisms made up of cells that lack a cell nucleus or
many membrane-encased organelles. Most prokaryotes are made up
of just a single cell (unicellular) but there are a few that are made of
collections of cells (multicellular).
◦ This means the genetic material DNA in prokaryotes is not bound
within a nucleus.
◦ cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells
◦ relatively simple internal structure
◦ cells divide by binary fission
◦ mitosis and meiosis do not take place; nucleus is organized
Eg . Bacteria

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Eukaryotes cell
◦ Eukaryotes are organism made up of cells that
possess a membrane-bound nucleus that hols
DNA in the form of chromosomes as well as
membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotic
organisms may be multicellular or single-celled
organisms. All animals are eukaryotes.
◦ For example, plants, fungi, and protists.

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◦ Bacteria are microscopic prokaryotic single-
celled organisms that thrive in diverse
environment. These organisms exists in millions,
in every environment, both inside and outside
other organism such as in soil, the ocean and
inside the human gut.
◦ The relationship between bacteria and human is
complex, sometimes bacteria lend us a helping
hand, such as by curdling milk into yogurt or
helping with our digestion.

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There are many types of different types of bacteria exists.
One way of classifying them is by shape. There are three
basic shapes.
◦ Spherical: bacteria shaped like a ball are called cocci, and
a single bacterium is a coccus. Examples include the
streptococcus group, responsible for “strep throat”.
◦ Rod shaped: these are known as bacilli, and a single
bacterium is called bacillus. Some rod-shaped bacteria are
curved. These are known as vibrio. Example of rod-shaped
Types of bacteria
bacteria include bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), or
◦ Spiral shaped: these are known as spirilla, and a single
bacterium is called spirillus. If their coil is very tight they
are known as spirochetes. Leptospirosis, lyme disease, and
syphilis are caused by bacteria of this shape.

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Dr Mohammed Danish
Graphical representation of types of

There are many variations

within each shape group.

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Bacteria cells are different from plant and animal cells.
Bacteria are prokaryotes, which means they have no nucleus.
A bacteria cell includes:
◦ Capsule: A layer found on the outside of the cell wall in
some bacteria.
◦ Cell wall: A layer that is made of a polymer called
peptidoglycan. The cell wall gives the bacteria its shape. It
Structure of
is located outside the plasma membrane. The cell wall is
thicker in some bacteria, called positive bacteria.
◦ Plasma membrane: found within the cell wall, this
generates energy and transports chemicals. The membrane
is permeable, which means that substance can pass through

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Dr Mohammed Danish
◦ Cytoplasm: A gelatinous substance inside the plasma membrane
that contains genetic material and ribosomes.
◦ DNA: this contains all the genetic instructions used in the
development and function of the bacterium. It is located inside the
◦ Ribosomes: this is where proteins are made, or synthesized.
Ribosomes are complex particles made up of RNA-rich granules.
◦ Flagellum: this is used for movement, to propel some types of
bacteria. There are some bacteria that can have more than one.
◦ Pilli: these hair-like appendages on the outside of the cell allow it
to stick to surfaces and transfer genetic material to other cells. This
can contribute to the spread of illness in humans.

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Dr Mohammed Danish
Bacteria feeding
◦ Heterotrophic bacteria: a heterotrophs get their energy through consuming
organic carbon. Most absorb dead organic material, such as decomposing flesh.
Some of these parasitic bacteria kill their host, while other help them.
◦ Autotrophic bacteria: A autotrophs make their own food either through
photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.
◦ Photoautotrophs: these bacteria using sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to
survive. These bacteria produces oxygen, example of this type bacteria is
cyanobacteria, these probably played a vital role in creating the oxygen in the
earth’s atmosphere. There are some bacteria in this category such as
heliobacteria that so not produce oxygen.

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Dr Mohammed Danish
◦ Chemotrophs: using carbon dioxide, water, and
chemicals such as ammonia, nitrogen, sulfur, and others
to survive. Chemotrophs are commonly found in ocean
vents and in the roots of legumes, such as alfalfa,
clover, peas, beans, lentils and peanuts.

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Dr Mohammed Danish
◦ Bacteria can be found in the soil, water, plants, animals,
radioactive waste, deep in the earth crust, arctic ice and
glaciers and hot springs. Where bacteria
◦ There are bacteria in the stratosphere, between 6 and 30
miles up in the atmosphere, and in the ocean depths,
down to 32, 800 feet or 10,000 meter deep.

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Some bacteria depends on the oxygen and some not.
◦ Aerobic bacteria (Also call Aerobes): It can only grow where
there is oxygen. These kind of bacteria causes corrosion, fouling,
problems with water clarity, and bad smells.
◦ Anaerobic bacteria (also call Anaerobes): it can only grow
where there is no oxygen. In humans, this is mostly in the
gastrointestinal tract. They can cause gas, gangrene, tetanus, dependence on
bolunism, and most dental infections.
◦ Facultative anaerobic bacteria: it can live either with or without oxygen
oxygen, but they prefer environments where there is oxygen. They
are mostly found in soil, water, vegetation and some normal flora
of humans and animals, examples include salmonella.

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Temperature dependence of
Some bacteria optimal growth at certain temperature
◦ Mesophilic bacteria (Mesophiles): these bacteria grow in moderate
temperatures, around 37 C. this is the normal temperature of the human body.
These bacteria are responsible for most human infections. Examples of such
bacteria are, Listeria monocytogenes, pseudomonas maltophilia, thiobacillus
novellus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyrogenes, streptococcus
pneumoniae, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and clostrodium kluyveri.
◦ Extremophilic bacteria (or extremophiles): these bacteria can withstand
conditions considered too extreme for most life forms.

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◦ Thermophiles: it can live in high temperatures, up to
75 to 80 °C.
◦ Hyperthermophiles: it can survive in temperatures up
to 113 °C.
◦ Halophiles: found in a salty environment.
◦ Acidophiles: some of which live in environments as
acidic as pH 0. extremophiles
◦ Alkaliphiles: living in alkaline environments up to pH
◦ Psychrophiles: found in cold temperatures, for
example in glaciers.
Extremophiles can survive where no other organism can

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Gram-strain behaviour of
On the basis gram-strain behaviour, bacterial cells are grouped as:
◦ Gram-negative: cells have an outer membrane (OM), a thin cell wall (CW)
composed of peptidoglycan, and a cytoplasmic membrane(CM). Example of
such bacteria are Acetobacter, pseudomonas, Escherichia, Enterobacter,
salmonella etc..
◦ Gram-positive: cells have a thick cell wall composed of several layer of
peptidoglycan and two types of teichoic acids. Examples of such bacteria are,
enterococcus, Lactococcus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, bacillus,
clostridium, listeria, lactobacillus etc.

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Bacteria may reproduce and change using the following methods:
◦ Binary fission: An asexual form of reproduction, in which a cell continues to
grow until a new cell wall grows through the center, forming two cells. These
separate, making two cells with the same genetic material.

Reproduction and
◦ Transfer of genetic material: cells acquire new genetic material through
processes known as conjugation, transformation, or transduction. These
processes can make bacteria stronger and more able to resist threats, such as
antibiotic medication.
◦ Spores: when some types of bacteria are low on resources, they can form
transformation of
spores. Spores hold the organism’s DNA material and contain the enzymes
need for germination. They are very resistant to environmental stresses. The
spores can remain inactive for centuries, until the right conditions occur. It
can survive through periods of environmental stress, including UV, and
gamma radiation, desiccation, starvation, chemical exposure, and extremes of
temperature. Then they can reactivate and become bacteria.

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◦ Some bacteria produce endospores, or internal spores, while others
produce exospores, which are released outside. These are known as cysts.
◦ Clostrodium is an example of an endospore-forming bacterium. There are
about 100 species of clostridium, including clostridium botulinum (C.
botulinum) or botulism, responsible for a potentially fatal kind of food
poisoning, and clostridium difficile (C. Difficile), which causes colitis and
other intestinal problems.

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◦ Bacteria are often thought of as bad, but many are helpful. We
would not exist without them. The oxygen we breathe was
probably created by the activity of bacteria.
◦ Many of the bacteria in the body play an important role in human
survival. Bacteria in the digestive system breakdown nutrients,
such as complex sugars, into forms the body can use.
◦ Non-hazardous bacteria also help prevent diseases by occupying
Beneficial use of
places that the pathogenic, or disease-causing, bacteria want to
attach to. Some bacteria protect us from disease by attacking the
◦ Bacteria help in nitrogen fixation: bacteria take in nitrogen and
release it for plant use when they die. Plant need nitrogen in soil to
live, but they cannot do this themselves.

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◦ In food technology: lactic acid bateria, such as
lactobacillus and Lactococcus together with yeast and
molds or fungi, are used to prepare foods such as
cheese, soy sauce, natto, vinegar, yogurt, and pickles.
◦ In industry and research: bacteria can breakdown
organic compounds. This is useful for activities such as
waste processing and cleaning up oil spills and toxic
◦ Bacteria are needed to make antibiotics.

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◦ Mold: it is a type of fungus that grows in multicellular
filaments called hyphae. These tubular branches have
multiple, genetically identical nuclei, yet form a single
organism, known as a colony. Mold and yeast
◦ Yeast: Yeast is a type of fungus that grows as s single

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Comparison of mold and yeast
Mold Yeast
Definition Mold is a fungi that contains multiple identical nuclei. It A type of fungi that contains only a single cell.
grows in the form of hyphae of filaments.
Appearance Mold has a fuzzy appearance and can be orange, green, black, White and thread. Usually oval in shape.
brown, pink or purple in color. Can be found in several
Habitat Typically found in damp, dark or steam-filled areas. Very common. Can be found on fruit and berries, in the
stomachs of mammals and on skin, among other places.

Uses Some molds are used in food production, e.g. penicillium is Yeasts are used for producing ethanolic beverages such as
used in the production of cheese, neurospora in the beer, nutritional supplement for vegans, baking, vitamin
production of oncorn, which is made from the by-product of supplements, study of cell cycle, DNA replication and
tofu. recombination.

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Mold Yeast

Reproduction Reproduce through small spores, which can be Most reproduce asexually through mitosis. Most
either sexual or asexual. common form called “budding.”

Energy production Secrete hydrolytic enzymes that degrade Convert carbohydrates to alcohol and carbon
biopolymers such as starch, cellulose and lignin dioxide in anaerobic through fermentation. Also
into simpler substances can be absorbed. obtained carbon from hexose sugar.

Health hazards Can cause allergic reactions and respiratory Can cause infection in individuals with
problems. compromised immune systems.

Species 1000s of known species, including penicillium. 1500 known species-1% of all fungi.

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SLIDES END Thanks for your

HERE patience.

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