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THE TWO FACES OF

1872 CAVITE MUTIN


Y
by: Chris Antonette Piedad- Pugay
Reporter:
Gongora, Mark Niel
Mistica, John Lester
INTRODUCTION

History repeats itself,


"the first as tragedy, then
as farce"
- Karl Marx
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
• The 12th of June of every year since 1898, the entire
Filipino communities all over the world gathers to cel
ebrate the Philippines’ Independence Day. 

• Two major events happened in 1872, first was the 187


2 Cavite Mutiny and the other was the martyrdom of t
he three martyr priests in the persons of Fathers Mari
ano Gomes, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora (GOMB
URZA). 
SPANISH VERSION:
PLANNED CONSPIR
ACY
SPANISH VERSION: PLANNED CO
NSPIRACY
1.JOSE MONTERO Y VIDAL 2.GOV. GEN. RAFAEL IZQUIERDO

was a Spanish Military Officer,


He held the position of Gobernador
politician, and statesman. He
Civil in various provinces in the
served as Governor-General of
Philippines, at a time when the
the Philippines from April 4,
Spanish era was about to end.
1871 to January 8, 1873.
SPANISH VERSION: PLANNED
CONSPIRACY
• Jose Montero y Vidal documented the event and told that In
dios to overthrow the Spanish government in the Philipp
ines.

• On the other side, Gov. Gen. Rafael Izquierdo’s official rep


ort is about the native clergy, which was then active in the c
all for secularization.

• The two accounts complimented and corroborated with one


other, only that the general’s report was more spiteful.
SPANISH VERSION: PLANNED
CONSPIRACY

• Initially, both Montero and Izquierdo said that


the abolition of privileges enjoyed by the work
ers of Cavite arsenal such as non-payment of tr
ibutes and exemption from force labor were th
e main reasons of the “revolution” as how the
y called it.
SPANISH VERSION: PLANNED
CONSPIRACY
• Also, other causes were listed by them including the Spanish Re
volution which overthrew the secular throne, dirty propagandas
proliferated by unrestrained press, democratic, liberal and republ
ican books and pamphlets reaching the Philippines, and most im
portantly, the presence of the native clergy who out of animosity
against the Spanish friars, “conspired and supported” the rebels a
nd enemies of Spain. 
SPANISH VERSION: PLANNED
CONSPIRACY
• Izquierdo blamed the unruly Spanish Press for spreading
malicious propagandas grasped by the Filipinos.  He repo
rted to the King of Spain that the “rebels” wanted to overth
row the Spanish government to install a new “hari” in the
likes of Fathers Burgos and Zamora. 
SPANISH VERSION: PLANNED
CONSPIRACY
•  These two Spaniards deemed that the event of 1872 was pl
anned earlier and was thought of it as a big conspiracy am
ong educated leaders, mestizos, abogadillos or native lawy
ers, residents of Manila and Cavite and the native clergy. 

• The alleged pre-concerted signal among the conspirators of


Manila and Cavite was the firing of rockets from the wall
s of Intramuros.
SPANISH VERSION: PLANNED
CONSPIRACY

• On 20 January 1872, the district of Sampaloc celebrated the fe


ast of the Virgin of Loreto, participants to the feast celebrate
d with the usual fireworks displays.  Allegedly, those in Cavite
mistook the fireworks as the sign for the attack, and just lik
e what was agreed upon, the 200-men contingent headed by S
ergeant Lamadrid launched an attack targeting Spanish offic
ers at sight and seized the arsenal.
SPANISH VERSION: PLANNED
CONSPIRACY

•  When the news reached Gov. Izquierdo, he ordered the reinforcement of t


he Spanish forces in Cavite to quell the revolt.  The “revolution” was easil
y crushed when the expected reinforcement from Manila did not come ash
ore. 

• Sergeant Lamadrid were killed in the skirmish, while the GOMBURZA


were tried by a court-martial and were sentenced to die by strangulation.  P
atriots were suspended, arrested and sentence with life imprisonment
at the Marianas Island by the Audencia (High Court)
SPANISH VERSION: PLANNED
CONSPIRACY
• On 17 February 1872 in an attempt of the Spanish gov
ernment and Frailocracia to instill fear among the Filip
inos so that they may never commit such daring act aga
in, the GOMBURZA were executed.  This event was t
ragic but served as one of the moving forces that shape
d Filipino nationalism.
FILIPINO VERSION:
A RESPONSE TO JUS
TICE
Filipino Version: A Response
to Justice
• Dr. Trinidad Herminigildo Pardo de Tavera
 Wrote the Filipino version of the bloody incident in Cavite.

 In his point of view, the incident was a mere mutiny by the


native Filipino soldiers and laborers of the Cavite arsenal.

 Indirectly, blamed Gov. Izquierdo’s cold-blooded policies s


uch as the abolition of privileges of the workers and native
army members and the prohibition of the founding of schoo
l of arts and trades of the Filipino.
Filipino Version: A Response
to Justice
• January 20, 1872, about 200 men compromised of soldiers, lab
orers of the arsenal, and residents of Cavite headed by Sergeant
Lamadrid rose in arms and assassinated the commanding office
r and Spanish officers in sight.

• The news about the mutiny reached authorities in Manila and G


en. Izquierdo immediately ordered the reinforcement of Spanish
troops in Cavite.
Filipino Version: A Response
to Justice
• Tavera believed that the Spanish friars and Izquierdo used the Ca
vite mutiny as a powerful lever by magnifying it as a full-blown
conspiracy involving not only the native army but also included r
esidents of Cavite and Manila.

• During that time, the Central Government in Madrid announced i


ts intention to deprive the friars of all the powers of intervention
in matters of civil government and the direction and management
of educational institutions
Filipino Version: A Response
to Justice
• Central Government of Spain welcomed an educational de
cree authored by Segismundo Moret promoted the fusion o
f sectarian schools run by the friars into a school called Phili
ppine Institute.

• The decree proposed to improve the standard of educatio


n in the Philippines by requiring teaching positions in such s
chool to be filled by competitive examinations.
Filipino Version: A Response
to Justice
• The friars, fearing that their influence in the Philippines w
ould be a thing of the past, took advantage of the incident
and presented it to the Spanish Government as a vast cons
piracy organized throughout the archipelago with the obje
ct of destroying Spanish sovereignty.
Filipino Version: A Response
to Justice
• Convicted educated men who participated in the mutiny
were sentenced life imprisonment while members of the n
ative clergy headed by the GOMBURZA were tried and e
xecuted by garotte.

• This episode leads to the awakening of nationalism and


eventually to the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution o
f 1896.
Filipino Version: A Response
to Justice
• French writer Edmund Plauchut’s account complimen
ted Tavera’s account by confirming that the event hap
pened due to discontentment of the arsenal workers a
nd soldiers in Cavite fort.
UNVARYING TRUTH/
analysis
Unvarying Truth

There were some basic facts that remained to be unvarying:

1. There was dissatisfaction among the workers of the arsen


al as well as the members of the native army after their
privileges were drawn back by Gen. Izquierdo.

2. Gen Izquierdo introduced rigid and strict policies that ma


de the Filipinos move and run away from Spanish govern
ment out of disgust.
Unvarying Truth

3. The Central Government failed to conduct n investigatio


n on what truly transpired but relied on reports of Izquie
rdo and the friars and the opinion of the public.

4. The happy days of the friars were already numbered in 1


872 when the Central Government in Spain decided to d
eprive them of the power to intervene in government aff
airs
Unvarying Truth

5.The Filipino clergy members actively participated in the secular


ization movement in order to allow Filipino priests to take hold o
f the parishes in the country making them prey to the rage of the f
riars.

6. Filipinos during the time were active participants, and respond


ed to what they deemed as injustices.

7. Lastly, the execution of GOMBURZA was a blunder on the par


t of the Spanish.
SUMMARY
• The Cavite Mutiny, brief uprising of 200 Filipino troops and work
ers at the Cavite arsenal, which became the excuse for Spanish repr
ession of the embryonic Philippine nationalist movement. Ironically
, the harsh reaction of the Spanish authorities served ultimately to pr
omote the nationalist cause.
• The mutiny was quickly crushed, but the Spanish regime under the
reactionary Gov. Rafael de Izquierdo magnified the incident and use
d it as an excuse to clamp down on those Filipinos who had been ca
lling for governmental reform. A number of Filipino intellectuals w
ere seized and accused of complicity with the mutineers. After a bri
ef trial, three priests were publicly executed. The three subsequently
became martyrs to the cause of Philippine independence.
REFLECTION/ REACTION

• Because of continuous innovation in our count


ry, the histories are slowly been erased from th
e book of past.