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Wireless LANs

Implementing WLANs
Cisco WLAN Implementation

Autonomous WLAN solution

• Autonomous access points

Lightweight WLAN solution

• Lightweight access points
• WLAN controller
Autonomous WLAN Solution

• Autonomous access point

– Cisco IOS software
• Network infratructure
– PoE switch and router
• Wireless Domain Services
– Management support
• Wireless LAN Solution Engine
– Centralized management
• Acess Control Server (ACS)
– RADIUS/TACACS+ security
Lightweight WLAN Solution

• Lightweight access point

• Network infratructure
– PoE switch and router
• Cisco Wireless LAN controller
– Access point configuration
• Cisco Wireless Control System
– Management
• Location appliance
– Location tracking
• Cisco Secure Acess Control
Server (ACS)
– RADIUS/TACACS+ security
Lightweight WLAN Solution
Lightweight Access Point Protocol

• Real-time frame exchange and certain real-time portions of

MAC management are accomplished within the access point.
• Authentication, security management, and mobility are
handled by WLAN controllers.
• Data and control messages are exchanged between the
access point and the WLAN controller using LWAPP.
• Control messages are encrypted.
• All client data traffic is sent via the WLAN controller.

Layer 2 mode
• Layer 2 LWAPP is in an Ethernet frame.
• The WLAN controller and the access point must be in the
same broadcast domain and IP subnet.
Layer 3 mode
• Layer 3 LWAPP is in a UDP/IP frame.
• The WLAN controller and access point can be in the same or
different broadcast domains and IP subnets.
• The access point must obtain an IP address via DHCP.
Association of Access Point to WLAN

• Access points use LWAPP in Layer 2 and Layer 3 mode to

associate to the WLAN controller.
• In Layer 3 mode, the access point sends an LWAPP
discovery request to the controller management IP address
via a directed broadcast.
• The controller responds with a discovery response from the
manager IP address that includes the number of access
points currently associated to the access point manager
• The access point chooses the access point manager IP
address with the least number of access points and sends
the join request.
• All subsequent communication is to the WLAN controller
access point manager IP address.
Cisco Aironet WLCs

• Scalability
• Integrated Radio Resource
Management (RRM)
• Zero-configuration
WLC 2000
• Multilayered security
• Intrusion detection,
location, and containment
• Mobility management
• Reliability
• Intuitive management WLC 4400
Comparison of the WLAN Configuration

Autonomous WLAN Lightweight WLAN

solution solution
• Autonomous access points • Lightweight access points
• Configuration of each • Configuration via WLC
access point • Dependent on WLC
• Independent operation • Centralized management
• Centralized management via WCS
via WLSE • WLC redundancy
• Access point redundancy
WLAN Components

Autonomous Lightweight
Wireless clients
Solution Solution

Autonomous Lightweight
Access points
access points access points

Wireless Domain
Control WLAN controller
Services (WDS)
Cisco Wireless
WLAN Solution
WLAN management Control System
Engine (WLSE)
PoE switches, PoE switches,
Network infrastructure
routers routers

DHCP, DNS, AAA Network services DHCP, DNS, AAA

Cisco Unified Wireless Network
Unified Advanced Services
Unified cellular and Wi-Fi VoIP. Advanced threat
detection, identity networking, location-based
security, asset tracking, and guest access.

World-Class Network Management

Same level of security, scalability, reliability, ease
of deployment, and management for wireless
LANs as wired LANs.

Network Unification
Integration into all major switching and routing
platforms. Secure, innovative WLAN
Mobility Platform
Ubiquitous network access in all environments.
Plug and play.

Client Devices
90% of Wi-Fi silicon is Cisco Compatible
certified. Advance services support.
Cisco Unified Wireless Network (Cont.)
Unified Advanced Services
Cisco Unified, built-in support of leading-edge
Self-Defending applications, not an afterthought. Cisco Wireless
Network Location Appliance, Cisco WCS, SDN, NAC, Wi-Fi
phones, and RF firewalls.
World-Class Network Management
World Class NMS that visualizes and helps secure
your air space. Cisco Wireless Control System
Network Unification
Seamless network infrastructure across a range
of platforms. Cisco 4400 and 2000 Wireless LAN
Controllers. Future Cisco Catalyst 6500, Series
WiSM, ISR, and 3750 integration.
Mobility Platform
Access points dynamically configured and
managed through LWAPP. Cisco Aironet Access
Points: 1500, 1300, 1240AG, 1230AG, 1130AG, and
1000. Bridges: 1400 and 1300.
Client Devices
Secure clients that work out of the box. Cisco
Compatible client devices & Cisco Aironet clients.
Cisco Aironet Access Points and Bridges
Indoor Access Points Mobility Platform
• Industry’s best range and throughput
• Enterprise-class security
1130AG 1000
• Many configuration options
• Simultaneous air monitoring and traffic
Indoor Rugged Access Points
• Wide area networking for outdoor
1240AG 1230AG
• Zero-touch management

Outdoor Access Points/Bridges • No dedicated air monitors

• Support for all deployment scenarios
(indoor and outdoor)
• Secure coverage to advanced
1500 1400 1300
Power over Ethernet

© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Power over Ethernet (PoE)

• Sending operating power over Ethernet Category 5 cable

• Power-sourcing equipment (PSE)
– Switches, power injector
• Powered devices
– Access points, IP phones
• Up to 15.4W power per port
• Distances up to 100 meters
• Alternative: AC power adapter
PoE Delivery
Detection of power requirements
• IEEE 802.3af
• Cisco proprietary inline power

Two approved methods for “inserting” power into Ethernet cable:

Pair 1,2 and 3,6 Pair 4,5 and 7,8

Midspan Power Injection

• Uses pairs 4,5 and 7,8

• Requires eight-wire cabling
• Does not extend 100-m total
length limit
• Not possible for 1000TX
Power-Sourcing Equipment

• Power injector
• Powering switch
– Cisco Catalyst 3560-PS/3750-PS
– Cisco Express CE500-LC/CE500-PC
– Cisco Catalyst 4500/6500 switch with inline power line cards
– Router module NM-16ESW-PWR
– Router card HWIC-4ESW-POE
– Router with PoE support
Investment Protection

• Cisco has shipped over 18 million ports with PoE installed.

• New Cisco devices (PSEs and powered devices) support
both PoE methods.
– IEEE 802.3af
– Cisco proprietary PoE
• Examples:
– Access points 1131AG, 1242AG
– Switches: 3560, 3750
– Router: 1812, HWIC-4ESW-POE
• Automatic detection; no configuration is required.
PoE Switch

switch(config-if)# power inline {auto | never}

• PoE configuration
switch# show power inline [interface]
• Display PoE statistics
switch# show power inline
Available:370.0(w) Used:61.6(w) Remaining:308.4(w)
Interface Admin Oper Power Device Class Max
--------- ------ ------ ------- ---------- ----- ----
Gi0/1 auto off 0.0 n/a n/a 15.4
Gi0/2 auto on 15.4 Ieee PD 3 15.4
Gi0/3 auto off 0.0 n/a n/a 15.4
Gi0/4 auto on 15.4 Ieee PD 3 15.4
Gi0/5 auto off 0.0 n/a n/a 15.4
Gi0/6 auto on 15.4 Ieee PD 3 15.4
Gi0/7 auto off 0.0 n/a n/a 15.4
Gi0/8 auto on 15.4 Ieee PD 3 15.4
PoE Switch Port Status

© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Antenna Concepts

• Omnidirectional antennas (360 degree coverage)
• Directional antennas (limited range of coverage)
• Measured in dBi (gain over theoretical isotropic)
• More gain means focusing in certain directions, limited range
of coverage
• Vertical polarization for WLAN
Antenna Theory

• A theoretical isotropic
antenna has a perfect
360-degree vertical and
horizontal beamwidth.
• Reference for all antennas.
Omnidirectional Antenna: Dipole

Energy lobes “pushed in” from

the top and bottom Side View
Higher gain (Vertical Pattern)
• Smaller vertical Vertical Beamwidth
beamwidth New Pattern (with Gain)
• Larger horizontal lobe
Typical dipole pattern Top View
(Horizontal Pattern)

2-dBi Dipole
"Standard Rubber
Directional Antenna

Lobes are pushed in a certain

direction, causing the energy to be
condensed in a particular area. Side View
(Vertical Pattern)
Very little energy is in the back side
of a directional antenna.

Top View
(Horizontal Pattern)

6.5-dBi Diversity
Patch Wall Mount
– 55 degrees
Connectorized 5-GHz Antennas

Cisco 5-GHz Cisco 2.4-GHz 5-GHz (802.11a) antennas

Rubber Antenna Rubber Antenna have blue ID markers.
(Flat with Blue Dot) (Round, No Dot)
Dual-band (2.4-GHz and 5-GHz)
antennas have yellow dots.
Cisco Access Point/Bridge Antennas

Horizontal Vertical
Frequency Antenna
Beamwidth Beamwidth
2.4 GHz 2.2-dBi dipole 360o 65o
o o
2.4 GHz 5.2-dBi omni 360 38

2.4 GHz 6-dBi diversity patch 80o 55o

o o
2.4 GHz 9-dBi patch 60 60
o o
2.4 GHz 10-dBi Yagi 47 55
o o
2.4 GHz 13.5-dBi Yagi 30 25

2.4 GHz 21-dBi dish 12.5o 12.5o

o o
5 GHz 3.5-dBi dipole 360 40
o o
5 GHz 6-dBi omni 360 17

5 GHz 7-dBi patch 70o 50o

Multipath Distortion
• Multipath distortion (a form of • Multiple signals at receiver
radio degradation) occurs when cause distortion of the signal.
radio signals bounce off metal • As radio waves bounce, they
objects in a room, such as metal arrive at the receiver slightly
cabinets or ceiling lights. delayed, combining with the
original signal, causing
• OFDM overcomes multipath distortion.
distortion through parallel
• Diversity systems use two
frequency use.
antennas in different positions
to reduce the degradation.
Definition of Decibel

Decibel (dB) [dB] = 10 log10 (Ratio)

• Ratio of one value to another 0 dB 1:1
• dBm = Power based on 1
milliwatt 10 dB 10:1

• 0 dBm = 1 mW +3 dB Multiply by 2
• dBi = Antenna gain based on –3 dB Divide by 2
isotropic antenna
+10 dB Multiply by 10

–10 dB Divide by 10

13 dB = 10 + 3 20 = 10 * 2

20 dB = 10 + 10 100 = 10 * 10

17 dB = 20 – 3 50 = 100 / 2
Effective Isotropic Radiated Power

• Transmit power is rated in dBm or mW.

• Power coming off an antenna is Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
• FCC and ETSI use EIRP for power limits in regulations for 2.4-GHz
and 5-GHz WLANs.
• EIRP [dBm] = Power [dBm] – cable_loss [db] + antenna_gain [dBi]
Antenna Cable Loss

Use cable that is supplied LMR400

with the antenna,
avoiding long cable runs
when possible.
Cisco offers these cables: LMR600
• LMR400-style cables
– 20 and 50 feet
– Total loss of 1.3 and
3.4 dB, respectively 2.4-GHz 5.8-GHz
• LMR600-style cables Cable Type Loss (db/100 Loss (db/100
feet) feet)
– 100 and 150 feet
– Total loss of 4.4 and LMR400 6.6 10.8
6.6 dB, respectively
LMR600 4.4 7.25
2.4-GHz EIRP Rules for FCC-Governed Areas

Transmitter Transmitter Maximum
Power dBm Gain
FCC Maximum 1W 30 dBm 6 dBi 36 dBm

Cisco Maximum 100 mW 20 dBm 16 dBi 36 dBm

Reduced Tx
20 mW 13 dBm 23 dBi 36 dBm
The above values reflect the 1:1 rule.

• FCC allows increasing the gain of an antenna/cable system if
the transmitter power is reduced below 30 dBm in a 1:1 ratio.
• Reduce transmit power below maximum of 30 dBm by 1 dBm
and increase antenna/cable system gain by 1-dBi.
2.4-GHz EIRP Rules for ETSI-Governed Areas

Transmitter Transmitter Maximum EIRP

Power dBm Gain
ETSI Maximum 50 mW 17 dBm 3 dBi 20 dBm
Cisco Maximum 50 mW 17 dBm 2.2 dBi 19.2 dBm
Reduced Tx Power 20 mW 13 dBm 7 dBi 20 dBm
Reduced Tx Power 10 mW 10 dBm 10 dBi 20 dBm
Reduced Tx Power 1 mW 0 dBm 20 dBi 20 dBm

• Currently ETSI allows a maximum of 20 dBm EIRP on

point-to-multipoint and point-to-point installations—17 dBm
maximum transmitter power with 3 dBi in gain attributed to
antenna and cable combination.
• Reduce transmit power below maximum of 17 dBm by 1 dBm
and increase antenna/cable system gain by 1 dBi.
EIRP Rules: Summary

No. of
Frequency Channel
Channels Usage
[GHz] Identifier TX Ant.
(26 total) EIRP EIRP
Power Gain

2.400 – 2.483 3 1, 6, 11 30 dBm 6 dBi 36 dBm 20 dBm
5.150 – 5.250 4 36 – 48 16 dBm 6 dBi 22 dBm 23 dBm
5.250 – 5.350 4 52 – 64 24 dBm 6 dBi 30 dBm 23 dBm
5.470 – 5.725 11 100 – 140 24 dBm 6 dBi 30 dBm 30 dBm
5.725 – 5.825 4 149 – 161 30 dBm 6 dBi 36 dBm n/a

• 5.725 MHz and above currently not allowed in most of Europe

• Autonomous and lightweight WLAN solutions are the Cisco implementations of WLAN.
• LWAPP is the protocol used between lightweight access points and WLAN controllers.
• WLAN components include clients, access points, controllers, management systems,
infrastructure devices, and security server.
• The Cisco Unified Wireless Network provides a unified enterprise-class wireless
• Cisco Aironet access points are available for indoor or outdoor use.
• Access points and IP phones can be powered over Ethernet cable.
• Characteristics of antennas are directionality, gain, and polarisation.
• Multipath distortion can cause low quality data transmission.
• Antenna and RF power is measured in decibels.
• EIRP limits are defined by FCC and ETSI regulations.