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HEAT LECTURE NOTES

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HEAT LECTURE NOTES

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system because of a difference in

temperature between the thermodynamic

system and its surrounding

Units For Heat Energy are

Joules, given by the unit (J), and kilojoules

(kJ) or in calories, written shorthand as

(cal), and kilocalories (kcal).

Heat definition cont…

OR

Heat "q” is the energy that causes

vibration of molecules of a body.

When heat is evolved by a system,

energy is lost and "q” is negative (-).

When heat is absorbed by the system, the

energy is added and "q" is positive (+).

THERMOMETRY

• Is the study of measurements of temperature using

thermometers.

• Thermometer is a device used to measure

temperature

• Types of thermometers

1.liquid –in-glass thermometers e.g. mercury

2.Thermocouple thermometers

3.Platinum resistance thermometers

4.Constant volume gas thermometers

Thermometry cont..

• Thermometric materials

Are materials whose properties vary with

temperature change e.g. mercury, platinum

wire, gas, alcohol or water

Thermometric properties

Are properties of thermometric materials which

vary with temperature e.g. length of mercury,

resistance and pressure

Fixed points of temperature

• A fixed point is a single temperature where a particular

physical event is expected to take place. Such event is like

melting point of water at 0oc and boiling point of water at 100oc

1. Steam point(upper fixed point)

Is the temperature of pure boiling water. Its value is 100oc.

2.Ice point (lower fixed point)

Is the temperature of pure melting ice . Its value is 0oc

and the lower fixed points of a thermometer

Establishment of temperature scale

• Steps or procedures are

1. Choosing thermometric property

2. calibrating thermometer to two fixed points

3. Assigning thermometric properties for upper

and lower fixed points

4. Dividing fundamental interval into equal

small intervals

Derivation of Celsius scale

• Let XO X1OO and Xθ be the thermometric

properties of at ice point , steam point and

temperature θ respectively.

• Consider the diagram below

Physical X0 X1 X2 X100

property

temperat Θ0 θ1 θ2 Θ100

ure =O =100

A graph of X against θ

Physical property

• Fig. X100

C

Xθ B

X0 A

D E

0 θ 100 temperature

A graph of X against θ

• From the figure, slope of AC is equal to slope

of AB by using similarity of triangles

PROBLEM 1

The length of the mercury thread is found to be 20 mm

and 100 mm at 00C and 1000C respectively on an

ungraduated thermometer. What is the temperature

corresponding to the length of mercury thread of 40 mm ?

Solution:

Let x is the required temperature.

1000C 100 mm

Ɵ = (lƟ – l0) / (l100 – l0) x 100°C

= (40 – 20) / (100 – 20) x 100°C

= 25 °C x 40 mm

for other units like resistance,

pressure and volume

Temperature Scales

Temperature scales

are Fahrenheit, Celsius,

and Kelvin

have reference points

for the boiling and

freezing points of

water

11

Fahrenheit Formula

On the Fahrenheit scale, there are 180 °F between the

freezing and boiling points, and on the Celsius scale, there

are 100 °C.

180 °F = 9 °F = 1.8 °F

100 °C 5 °C 1 °C

In the formula for the Fahrenheit temperature, adding 32

adjusts the zero point of water from 0 °C to 32 °F.

TF = 9 (TC) + 32 °

5

or TF = 1.8(TC) + 32 °

12

Celsius Formula

TC is obtained by rearranging the equation for TF.

TF = 1.8(TC) + 32 °

Subtract 32 from both sides.

TF – 32 ° = 1.8(TC) + (32 ° – 32 °)

TF – 32 ° = 1.8(TC)

Divide by 1.8. TF – 32 ° = 1.8 TC

1.8 1.8

TF – 32 ° = TC

1.8

13

PROBLEM 2

The normal temperature of a chickadee is 105.8 °F.

What is that temperature on the Celsius scale?

3) 41.0 °C

TC = TF – 32 °

1.8

= (105.8 – 32 °)

1.8

= 73.8 °F = 41.0 °C

1.8 ° tenth’s place

14

Kelvin Temperature Scale

The Kelvin temperature

is obtained by adding 273 to the Celsius temperature

TK = TC + 273

There are 100 units between the freezing and boiling points

of water.

100 K = 100 °C or 1 K = 1 °C

0 K (absolute zero) is the lowest possible temperature.

0 K = –273 °C

15

PROBLEM 3

What is normal body temperature of 37 °C in kelvins?

2) 310 K

TK = TC + 273

= 37 °C + 273

= 310. K

one’s place

16

HEAT CAPACITY & SPECIFIC

HEAT

HEAT CAPACITY: The quantity of heat needed to

raise the temperature of a substance by one

degree Celsius (or one Kelvin).

q = Cp DT

SPECIFIC HEAT: The quantity of heat required to

raise the temperature of one gram of a

substance by one degree Celsius (or one

Kelvin).

q = s x m x DT

PROBLEM 4

Determine the energy (in kJ) required to

raise the temperature of 100.0 g of water

from 20.0 oC to 85.0 oC?

solution

m = 100.0 g DT = Tf -Ti = 85.0 - 20.0 oC =

65.0 oC

q = m x s x DT s (H2O) = 4.184 J/ g - oC

q = 27196 J (1 kJ / 1000J) = 27.2 kJ

PROBLEM 5

unknown metal that required

2.56 kcal of heat to raise the

temperature of 150.00 g from

15.0 C to 200.0 C?

o o

Answer =

LATENT HEAT

The heat required to convert a solid into a liquid or

vapour, or a liquid into a vapour, without change of

temperature.

OR Latent heat is the energy released or absorbed by

a body or a thermodynamic system during a

constant-temperature process. A typical example is a

change of state of matter, meaning a phase

transition such as the melting of ice or the boiling of

water.Enthalpy of vaporization - Enthalpy of fusion -

Sensible heat

PROBLEM 6

Calculate the energy, in kilojoules necessary to

melt 1.00 gram of ice.

This quantity will be provided for you in the

problem or in a table or chart

18.0 grams 1 mole

18.00

PROBLEM 7

grams of liquid water from 25C to 100C and

change it to steam at 100 C.

The specific heat of water is 4.184 J/gC, and the molar

heat of vaporization of water is 40.6 kJ/mol. In

calculating the energy required to change a

substance from one state to another in this problem

two different energies must be considered;

– the energy required to change the substance to a

different state AND

– the energy required to raise the temperature to

the point of change

Step #1:

gC

18.0 grams 1 mol H2O

Step #3:

7.8 kJ + 57 kJ = 65 kJ

MECHANISMS OF HEAT TRANSFER

Mechanisms of Heat (Thermal Energy) Transfer:

across matter, due to direct physical contact,

e.g. in solids, liquids and gases.

electromagnetic radiation across a space, even

in a vacuum.

a gas or liquid, due to temperature differences or

forced flow, an important mechanism of energy

transfer between a solid surface and a liquid or a

gas.

CONVECTION

Is the transfer of heat by the motion of liquids

and gases.

It takes place in material where particles can

move around inside the material, i.e. liquid or

gas. The heat is carried by the particles

themselves moving. Occurs because an area

with warm particles expands and becomes less

dense than the cooler areas nearby. The warm

area rises. Cooler particles fall into the space

left by the warm particles and convection

current is set up.

CONVECTION CONT..

Examples of Convection:

Hot air moves from the basement to the second

story of a two story house because it is lighter

and less dense than cold air.

Cold water from the north and south poles moves

to the equator because it sinks and gets pushed

by colder water. As the cold water gets close to

the equator, it heats and moves other masses

of water.

Convection Currents

Hot liquids and gases expand and rise while

the cooler liquid or gas falls

2. Goes across

3. Then down

1. Hot air rises

4. And across

Convection cont…

• The sun can cause large convection currents -

WINDS

• During daytime the land warms up more than

the sea. The warm air rises over the land and

cool air falls over the sea. So we feel a sea

breeze.

• Rising convection currents can be uses by

glider pilots to keep their planes in the air and

by birds to stay aloft.

FREEZER WORKING BY CONVECTION

freezer compartment

compartment put in

a fridge?

It is warmer at

the bottom, so

this warmer air

It is put at the top,

rises and a

because cool air

convection

sinks, so it cools the

current is set up.

food on the way

down.

OCEANIC CONVECTION CURRENTS

ILUSTRATION OF HEAT TRANSFER

CONDUCTION

Is heat flow through a solid material from the

hot end to the cold end. What is flowing?

No matter is flowing!

We can think of energy as flowing in this

case! We measure the flow of energy as

power: 1 Watt = 1 Joule/sec .

CONDUCTION CONT....

• Heat is transferred through a material by

being passed from one particle to the next

• Particles at the warm end move faster and this

then causes the next particles to move faster

and so on.

• In this way heat in an object travels from:

METALS ARE DIFFERENT

electrons of metal atoms drift, and are

free to move.

‘sea of electrons’ gain kinetic

____

energy and transfer it

throughout the metal.

electrons’ which is why they do not conduct heat as well as

metals.

CONDUCTORS

• Materials that conduct heat quickly are

called conductors

• All metals are good conductors of heat

• Copper is a very good conductor of heat

• Pans for cooking are usually made with a

copper or aluminium bottom and plastic

handles

INSULATORS/POOR CONDUCTORS

• Materials that conduct heat slowly or poorly are

called insulators

• Glass, wood, plastic and rubber are poor conductors

(good insulators)

• Nearly all liquids including water are poor

conductors (good insulators)

• Gases, including air are poor conductors,e.g., wool

feels warm because it traps a lot of air

• A fridge has insulation material round it to keep it

cold – reduces amount of heat conducted to inside

from the warmer room

Why does metal feel colder than wood, if they

are both at the same temperature?

away from your hands. Wood does not conduct the heat away from

your hands as well as the metal, so the wood feels warmer than the

metal.

CONDUCTION EQUATION

Power = Q/t = k*A*T/L

where k is a constant that depends on the

material, called the thermal conductivity;

where A is the cross sectional area; L

where L is the distance from the hot end to

the cold end; A

and T is the temperature difference hot k cold

between the hot and cold ends. Thi Tlow

CONDUCTION EQUATION CONT..

L

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, k, is to re-

arrange the equation as :

T1

Q, heat flow per unit time (Js-1) T2

Temperature profile

A, area (m2)

(T1-T2) temperature difference (K)

=k (Eq. 6b)

d, distance (m)

The temperature difference

Heat flow per unit time per unit area is proportional per unit distance is called

to the temperature gradient; this proportionality is temperature gradient

called thermal conductivity, k.

The higher the thermal conductivity, the faster the heat flows

RADIATION

• Transfer of heat directly from the source to the

object by a wave, travelling as rays.

• Heat radiation is also known as

INFRA-RED RADIATION

• All objects that are hotter than their surroundings

give out heat as infra-red radiation

• Heat transfer by radiation does not need particles

to occur and is the only way energy can be

transferred across empty space

EMISSION EXPERIMENT

Four containers were filled with warm water. Which container would have the

warmest water after ten minutes?

The shiny metal container would be the warmest after ten minutes because its

shiny surface reflects heat radiation back into the container so less is lost.

The dull black container would be the coolest because it is the best at emitting

heat radiation.

Conclusion on Emitters

• Hotter objects emit (give out) heat

• Different surfaces emit heat at different speeds

• A dull black surfaces loses energy more quickly –

it is a good radiator

• A bright shiny or white surface is a poor radiator

• Marathon runners need to keep warm at the end

of races, covering in shiny blankets reduces

radiation and therefore heat loss.

Absorption experiment

Four containers were placed equidistant from a heater. Which container would

have the warmest water after ten minutes?

The dull black container would be the warmest after ten minutes because its

surface absorbs heat radiation the best. The shiny metal container would be the

coolest because it is the poorest at absorbing heat radiation.

RADIATION EQUATION

Equation

Q AT 4

energy transmitted from a perfect radiator

(blackbody)

ε is the emissivity and this is a correction factor

between the real (0 < ε < 1) and ideal value.

– the emissivity is a function of the materials of

construction of the surface and temperature

– it ranges from very low for highly polished

conductors to very high for most naturally

occurring materials

RADIATION CONT..

Net radiant heat transfer between two surfaces is based on

the relative temperatures, the emissivity, and the view

factor (portion of the surface that is on a line of sight

between the surfaces)

when the surface is completely surrounded by another

surface then the view factor is 1 and the net transfer

equation is

Q A(T T ) 1

4

2

4

A BLACKBODY

• A body that absorbs all wavelengths of

electromagnetic radiation and can emit all

wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.

The blackbody radiation of stars produces a

continuous spectrum .rA graph of intensity

against wavelength for black body radiation is

known as a black body curve. The blackbody

curve is dependent on the temperature.

radiation.

.

HUMAN BODY

Is the for us close to 0 or 1?

(i.e., are we white or black?)

We emit light in the IR, not the visible.

So what is our for the IR?

NB ;For humans in the IR, we are all fairly

good absorbers (black). An estimated value

for for us then is about .97 .

BLACK BODY CURVE SHAPE

Note the following for black bodies:

a hot object emits radiation across a wide range of

wavelength;

As the temperature of the object increases:-

peak of the graph moves towards the shorter

wavelengths.

the peak is higher

per unit time per unit surface area.

WIEN’S DISPLACEMENT LAW

• The peak wavelength, λmax, is the wavelength at which

maximum energy is radiated.

• This is inversely proportional to the temperature, T, in

Kelvin.

• This is called Wien's Displacement Law (as the peak is

displaced towards shorter wavelengths):-

•

max T 0.0029 mK

• Note the units of mK means a metrekelvin.

PROBLEM 8

• What is the peak wavelength of a black body

emitting radiation at 2000 K? In what part of

the electromagnetic spectrum does this lie?

• λ max = 1.45 x 10-6 m = 1450 nm

PROBLEM 8

• Betelgeuse appears to be red. If red light has a

wavelength of about 600 nm, what would the

surface temperature be? Why no green stars?

• ANSWER

You don't get green stars because the light from

stars is emitted at a range of wavelengths, so

there is mixing of colours. So those stars with a

λmax in the green region will actually appear to be

white.

LUMINOSITY OF STARS

• The luminosity of a star is the total energy given

out per second, so it's the power.

with temperature, which gives rise to Stefan's

Law.

• Statement of Stefan's Law.

The total energy per unit time radiated by a black

body is proportional to the fourth power of its

absolute temperature.

STEFAN’S LAW

• In other words double the temperature and the power goes

up sixteen times. In symbols:

P AT 4

• σ – Stefan's constant = 5.67 x 10-8 W m-2 K-4

• A – surface area (m2)

• T – surface temperature (K)

APPLIED TO STARS

• We can treat a star as a perfect sphere (A = 4πr2) and

a perfect black body. So for any star, radius r, we can

write:

L 4r T 2 4

INVERSE SQUARE LAW

• From Earth we can measure the intensity of

the star:-

P

I

4d 2

d is the distance from the star

PROBLEM 9

• If the Sun has a radius of 6.96 x 108 m and a

surface temperature of about 6000 K, what is

its total power output?

• What is the power per unit area?

• What is the peak wavelength?

ANSWER

L 4r T 2 4

• L = 4.47 × 1026 W

•

• The power per unit area = 4.47 × 1026 W ÷ 6.09 × 1018 m2 =

7.34 × 107 W/m2

• Peak wavelength λmax = 0.0029 mK ÷ 6000 K = 4.82 × 10-7 m =

482 nm

TEMPERATURE CHANGE

• An object’s temperature over time will approach the

temperature of its surroundings (the medium)

and the medium’s temperature, the greater the rate of change

of the object’s temperature

T0

Tm

Newton’s Law of Cooling

The rate at which an object cools is proportional to the

difference in temperature between the object and the

surrounding medium:

dθ

---- = - k(θ – θs)

dt

k is a proportionality constant,

θs is the temperature of the surrounding medium

and t is time so θ(t) = θs + (θ0 – θs)e-kt

Example cont

Example: A potato is taken out of a 300o F

oven and left to cool in a room at 75o F. Write

a differential equation expressing the change

in rate of the temperature of the potato, T,

with respect to time, t.

dθ = k(θ – θS)

----

dt

θ(t) = θs + (θo – θS)e –kt

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