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The energy that flows into or out of a

system because of a difference in
temperature between the thermodynamic
system and its surrounding
Units For Heat Energy are
Joules, given by the unit (J), and kilojoules
(kJ) or in calories, written shorthand as
(cal), and kilocalories (kcal).
Heat definition cont…
Heat "q” is the energy that causes
vibration of molecules of a body.
When heat is evolved by a system,
energy is lost and "q” is negative (-).
When heat is absorbed by the system, the
energy is added and "q" is positive (+).
• Is the study of measurements of temperature using
• Thermometer is a device used to measure
• Types of thermometers
1.liquid –in-glass thermometers e.g. mercury
2.Thermocouple thermometers
3.Platinum resistance thermometers
4.Constant volume gas thermometers
Thermometry cont..
• Thermometric materials
Are materials whose properties vary with
temperature change e.g. mercury, platinum
wire, gas, alcohol or water
Thermometric properties
Are properties of thermometric materials which
vary with temperature e.g. length of mercury,
resistance and pressure
Fixed points of temperature
• A fixed point is a single temperature where a particular
physical event is expected to take place. Such event is like
melting point of water at 0oc and boiling point of water at 100oc
1. Steam point(upper fixed point)
Is the temperature of pure boiling water. Its value is 100oc.
2.Ice point (lower fixed point)
Is the temperature of pure melting ice . Its value is 0oc

Fundamental interval . Is the difference between upper fixed point

and the lower fixed points of a thermometer
Establishment of temperature scale
• Steps or procedures are
1. Choosing thermometric property
2. calibrating thermometer to two fixed points
3. Assigning thermometric properties for upper
and lower fixed points
4. Dividing fundamental interval into equal
small intervals
Derivation of Celsius scale
• Let XO X1OO and Xθ be the thermometric
properties of at ice point , steam point and
temperature θ respectively.
• Consider the diagram below
Physical X0 X1 X2 X100

temperat Θ0 θ1 θ2 Θ100
ure =O =100
A graph of X against θ
Physical property

• Fig. X100

Xθ B

X0 A
0 θ 100 temperature
A graph of X against θ
• From the figure, slope of AC is equal to slope
of AB by using similarity of triangles

(X100 –X0 ) / (100oc - 0oc) = (Xθ - X0 )/(θ- 0oc)

θ =( Xθ - X0 )/ (X100 –X0 ) . 100oc

The length of the mercury thread is found to be 20 mm
and 100 mm at 00C and 1000C respectively on an
ungraduated thermometer. What is the temperature
corresponding to the length of mercury thread of 40 mm ?
Let x is the required temperature.
1000C 100 mm
Ɵ = (lƟ – l0) / (l100 – l0) x 100°C
= (40 – 20) / (100 – 20) x 100°C
= 25 °C x 40 mm

The above formula can also be used 00C 20 mm

for other units like resistance,
pressure and volume
Temperature Scales
Temperature scales
 are Fahrenheit, Celsius,
and Kelvin
 have reference points
for the boiling and
freezing points of

Fahrenheit Formula
 On the Fahrenheit scale, there are 180 °F between the
freezing and boiling points, and on the Celsius scale, there
are 100 °C.
180 °F = 9 °F = 1.8 °F
100 °C 5 °C 1 °C
 In the formula for the Fahrenheit temperature, adding 32
adjusts the zero point of water from 0 °C to 32 °F.
TF = 9 (TC) + 32 °
or TF = 1.8(TC) + 32 °

Celsius Formula
 TC is obtained by rearranging the equation for TF.
TF = 1.8(TC) + 32 °
 Subtract 32 from both sides.
TF – 32 ° = 1.8(TC) + (32 ° – 32 °)
TF – 32 ° = 1.8(TC)
 Divide by 1.8. TF – 32 ° = 1.8 TC
1.8 1.8

TF – 32 ° = TC

The normal temperature of a chickadee is 105.8 °F.
What is that temperature on the Celsius scale?
3) 41.0 °C
TC = TF – 32 °
= (105.8 – 32 °)
= 73.8 °F = 41.0 °C
1.8 ° tenth’s place

Kelvin Temperature Scale
The Kelvin temperature
 is obtained by adding 273 to the Celsius temperature
TK = TC + 273

In the Kelvin temperature scale:

 There are 100 units between the freezing and boiling points
of water.
100 K = 100 °C or 1 K = 1 °C
 0 K (absolute zero) is the lowest possible temperature.
0 K = –273 °C

What is normal body temperature of 37 °C in kelvins?
2) 310 K

TK = TC + 273
= 37 °C + 273
= 310. K
one’s place

HEAT CAPACITY: The quantity of heat needed to
raise the temperature of a substance by one
degree Celsius (or one Kelvin).
q = Cp DT
SPECIFIC HEAT: The quantity of heat required to
raise the temperature of one gram of a
substance by one degree Celsius (or one
q = s x m x DT
Determine the energy (in kJ) required to
raise the temperature of 100.0 g of water
from 20.0 oC to 85.0 oC?
m = 100.0 g DT = Tf -Ti = 85.0 - 20.0 oC =
65.0 oC
q = m x s x DT s (H2O) = 4.184 J/ g - oC

q = (100.0 g) x (4.184 J/g-oC) x (65.0oC)

q = 27196 J (1 kJ / 1000J) = 27.2 kJ

Determine the specific heat of an

unknown metal that required
2.56 kcal of heat to raise the
temperature of 150.00 g from
15.0 C to 200.0 C?
o o

Answer =
The heat required to convert a solid into a liquid or
vapour, or a liquid into a vapour, without change of
OR Latent heat is the energy released or absorbed by
a body or a thermodynamic system during a
constant-temperature process. A typical example is a
change of state of matter, meaning a phase
transition such as the melting of ice or the boiling of
water.Enthalpy of vaporization - Enthalpy of fusion - 
Sensible heat
Calculate the energy, in kilojoules necessary to
melt 1.00 gram of ice.
This quantity will be provided for you in the
problem or in a table or chart

The latent heat of fusion of water = 5.98 kJ/mol.

1.00 gram H2O 1 mole 5.98 kJ = 0.332 kJ

18.0 grams 1 mole

1.00 x 5.98 = 0.332


Calculate the energy required to heat 25.0

grams of liquid water from 25C to 100C and
change it to steam at 100 C.
The specific heat of water is 4.184 J/gC, and the molar
heat of vaporization of water is 40.6 kJ/mol. In
calculating the energy required to change a
substance from one state to another in this problem
two different energies must be considered;
– the energy required to change the substance to a
different state AND
– the energy required to raise the temperature to
the point of change
Step #1:

Q=mCT m = 25.0 grams C=4.184 J/gC T=25C to 100C = 75C

25.0 grams 4.184 J 75 C = 7.8 x 103 J = 7.8 kJ


Step #2: Vaporization Q = n Hvap

25.0 g H2O 1 mol H2O 40.6 kJ = 57 kJ

18.0 grams 1 mol H2O

Step #3:

Add the two energies together (make sure units match):

7.8 kJ + 57 kJ = 65 kJ
Mechanisms of Heat (Thermal Energy) Transfer:

Conduction: transmission of heat

across matter, due to direct physical contact,
e.g. in solids, liquids and gases.

Radiation: heat transfer due to

electromagnetic radiation across a space, even
in a vacuum.

Convection: heat transfer by “currents” in

a gas or liquid, due to temperature differences or
forced flow, an important mechanism of energy
transfer between a solid surface and a liquid or a
Is the transfer of heat by the motion of liquids
and gases.
It takes place in material where particles can
move around inside the material, i.e. liquid or
gas. The heat is carried by the particles
themselves moving. Occurs because an area
with warm particles expands and becomes less
dense than the cooler areas nearby. The warm
area rises. Cooler particles fall into the space
left by the warm particles and convection
current is set up.
Examples of Convection:
Hot air moves from the basement to the second
story of a two story house because it is lighter
and less dense than cold air.
Cold water from the north and south poles moves
to the equator because it sinks and gets pushed
by colder water. As the cold water gets close to
the equator, it heats and moves other masses
of water.
Convection Currents
Hot liquids and gases expand and rise while
the cooler liquid or gas falls
2. Goes across

3. Then down
1. Hot air rises

4. And across
Convection cont…
• The sun can cause large convection currents -
• During daytime the land warms up more than
the sea. The warm air rises over the land and
cool air falls over the sea. So we feel a sea
• Rising convection currents can be uses by
glider pilots to keep their planes in the air and
by birds to stay aloft.

Where is the Freezer

freezer compartment
compartment put in
a fridge?

It is warmer at
the bottom, so
this warmer air
It is put at the top,
rises and a
because cool air
sinks, so it cools the
current is set up.
food on the way
Is heat flow through a solid material from the
hot end to the cold end. What is flowing?
No matter is flowing!
We can think of energy as flowing in this
case! We measure the flow of energy as
power: 1 Watt = 1 Joule/sec .
• Heat is transferred through a material by
being passed from one particle to the next
• Particles at the warm end move faster and this
then causes the next particles to move faster
and so on.
• In this way heat in an object travels from:

the HOT end to the cold end


The outer e______

electrons of metal atoms drift, and are
free to move.

When the metal is heated, this

‘sea of electrons’ gain kinetic
energy and transfer it
throughout the metal.

Insulators, such as wood and plastic do not have this ‘sea of

electrons’ which is why they do not conduct heat as well as
• Materials that conduct heat quickly are
called conductors
• All metals are good conductors of heat
• Copper is a very good conductor of heat
• Pans for cooking are usually made with a
copper or aluminium bottom and plastic
• Materials that conduct heat slowly or poorly are
called insulators
• Glass, wood, plastic and rubber are poor conductors
(good insulators)
• Nearly all liquids including water are poor
conductors (good insulators)
• Gases, including air are poor conductors,e.g., wool
feels warm because it traps a lot of air
• A fridge has insulation material round it to keep it
cold – reduces amount of heat conducted to inside
from the warmer room
Why does metal feel colder than wood, if they
are both at the same temperature?

Metal is a conductor, wood is an insulator. Metal conducts the heat

away from your hands. Wood does not conduct the heat away from
your hands as well as the metal, so the wood feels warmer than the
Power = Q/t = k*A*T/L
where k is a constant that depends on the
material, called the thermal conductivity;
where A is the cross sectional area; L
where L is the distance from the hot end to
the cold end; A
and T is the temperature difference hot k cold
between the hot and cold ends. Thi Tlow

Another way of understanding the Q A

arrange the equation as :
Q, heat flow per unit time (Js-1) T2
Temperature profile
A, area (m2)
(T1-T2) temperature difference (K)
=k (Eq. 6b)
d, distance (m)
The temperature difference
Heat flow per unit time per unit area is proportional per unit distance is called
to the temperature gradient; this proportionality is temperature gradient
called thermal conductivity, k.

The higher the thermal conductivity, the faster the heat flows
• Transfer of heat directly from the source to the
object by a wave, travelling as rays.
• Heat radiation is also known as
• All objects that are hotter than their surroundings
give out heat as infra-red radiation
• Heat transfer by radiation does not need particles
to occur and is the only way energy can be
transferred across empty space
Four containers were filled with warm water. Which container would have the
warmest water after ten minutes?

Dull metal Shiny black

Shiny metal Dull black

The shiny metal container would be the warmest after ten minutes because its
shiny surface reflects heat radiation back into the container so less is lost.
The dull black container would be the coolest because it is the best at emitting
heat radiation.
Conclusion on Emitters
• Hotter objects emit (give out) heat
• Different surfaces emit heat at different speeds
• A dull black surfaces loses energy more quickly –
it is a good radiator
• A bright shiny or white surface is a poor radiator
• Marathon runners need to keep warm at the end
of races, covering in shiny blankets reduces
radiation and therefore heat loss.
Absorption experiment
Four containers were placed equidistant from a heater. Which container would
have the warmest water after ten minutes?

Dull metal Shiny black

Shiny metal Dull black

The dull black container would be the warmest after ten minutes because its
surface absorbs heat radiation the best. The shiny metal container would be the
coolest because it is the poorest at absorbing heat radiation.

• The Governing Equation Is The Stefan-boltzman

Q  AT 4

α is the stefan-boltzman constant that represents

energy transmitted from a perfect radiator
ε is the emissivity and this is a correction factor
between the real (0 < ε < 1) and ideal value.
– the emissivity is a function of the materials of
construction of the surface and temperature
– it ranges from very low for highly polished
conductors to very high for most naturally
occurring materials
Net radiant heat transfer between two surfaces is based on
the relative temperatures, the emissivity, and the view
factor (portion of the surface that is on a line of sight
between the surfaces)
when the surface is completely surrounded by another
surface then the view factor is 1 and the net transfer
equation is

Q  A(T  T ) 1
• A body that absorbs all wavelengths of
electromagnetic radiation and can emit all
wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
The blackbody radiation of stars produces a
continuous spectrum .rA graph of intensity
against wavelength for black body radiation is
known as a black body curve. The blackbody
curve is dependent on the temperature.

Is the  for us close to 0 or 1?
(i.e., are we white or black?)
We emit light in the IR, not the visible.
So what is our  for the IR?
NB ;For humans in the IR, we are all fairly
good absorbers (black). An estimated value
for  for us then is about .97 .
Note the following for black bodies:
 a hot object emits radiation across a wide range of
As the temperature of the object increases:-
 peak of the graph moves towards the shorter
 the peak is higher

 the area under the graph is the total energy radiated

per unit time per unit surface area.
• The peak wavelength, λmax, is the wavelength at which
maximum energy is radiated. 
• This is inversely proportional to the temperature, T, in
• This is called Wien's  Displacement Law (as the peak is
displaced towards shorter wavelengths):-
max T  0.0029 mK
• Note the units of mK means a metrekelvin.
• What is the peak wavelength of a black body
emitting radiation at 2000 K?  In what part of
the electromagnetic spectrum does this lie?

• λmax = 0.0029 mK ÷ 2000 K

• λ max = 1.45 x 10-6 m = 1450 nm

• This is in the infra-red region.

• Betelgeuse appears to be red.  If red light has a
wavelength of about 600 nm, what would the
surface temperature be? Why no green stars?
You don't get green stars because the light from
stars is emitted at a range of wavelengths, so
there is mixing of colours.  So those stars with a
λmax in the green region will actually appear to be
• The luminosity of a star is the total energy given
out per second, so it's the power. 

• From the graph the luminosity increases rapidly

with temperature, which gives rise to Stefan's
• Statement of Stefan's Law.
The total energy per unit time radiated by a black
body is proportional to the fourth power of its
absolute temperature.
• In other words double the temperature and the power goes
up sixteen times.  In symbols:

P  AT 4

• P – Luminosity or power of the star (W)

• σ – Stefan's constant = 5.67 x 10-8 W m-2 K-4
• A – surface area (m2)
• T – surface temperature (K)
• We can treat a star as a perfect sphere (A = 4πr2) and
a perfect black body.  So for any star, radius r, we can

L  4r T 2 4
• From Earth we can measure the intensity of
the star:-
4d 2

Where P is the luminosity of the star

d is the distance from the star
• If the Sun has a radius of 6.96 x 108 m and a
surface temperature of about 6000 K, what is
its total power output? 
• What is the power per unit area? 
• What is the peak wavelength?

L  4r T 2 4

• L = 4 × π × (6.96 x 108 m)2 × 5.67 × 10-8 W m-2 K-4 x (6000 K)4

• L = 4.47 × 1026 W
• The power per unit area = 4.47 × 1026 W ÷ 6.09 × 1018 m2 =
7.34 × 107  W/m2
• Peak wavelength λmax = 0.0029 mK ÷ 6000 K = 4.82 × 10-7 m =
482 nm
• An object’s temperature over time will approach the
temperature of its surroundings (the medium)

• The greater the difference between the object’s temperature

and the medium’s temperature, the greater the rate of change
of the object’s temperature

• This change is a form of exponential decay


Newton’s Law of Cooling
The rate at which an object cools is proportional to the
difference in temperature between the object and the
surrounding medium:

---- = - k(θ – θs)

Where θ is temperature of the object at any time t

k is a proportionality constant,
θs is the temperature of the surrounding medium
and t is time so θ(t) = θs + (θ0 – θs)e-kt
Example cont
Example: A potato is taken out of a 300o F
oven and left to cool in a room at 75o F. Write
a differential equation expressing the change
in rate of the temperature of the potato, T,
with respect to time, t.
dθ = k(θ – θS)
θ(t) = θs + (θo – θS)e –kt

θ(t) = 75 + (300 – 75)e –kt

θ(t) = 75 + 225e –kt