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The Preliminaries

The Main Body of the Report

The Preliminaries

Approval Sheet
Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Plates
1. Preliminaries Pages
Abstract – it should describe the most
important aspects of the study that include the
research problem, the statement of the problem
of hypotheses, type of subjects and
instruments involved, the data collection
procedures, the statistical techniques, the major
results, and the major conclusions.
Title Page – It usually indicates the title
of the report, the author’s name, and the
submission requirements, which include the
faculty of school, the name and location of the
college or university, the degree sought, and
the date of submission of a report.
Approval Sheet – Provides space for the
signatures of the advisers, readers, department
chairpersons, graduate dean and other
indicating acceptance of the work.
Acknowledgement page – This page
permits the writer to express appreciation to
persons who have contributed significantly to
the completion of the report.
Dedication – You may or may not
include this in the research report. More often,
the research report is dedicated to the members
of the family or special group.
Table of Contents – is basically an
outline of the research report which indicates
on which page each major section/chapter and
subsection begins. The beginning page number
of each section is indicated along the right-
hand margin. The numbering of chapters and
wording, capitalization, and punctuation of
titles and headings should be exactly the same
as they are in the text.
List of tables, figures and plates – It should
follow the table of contents. Each type of
illustrative matter should be presented on a
separate page. All captions should appear in
the listing exactly as they are in the text. They
should be numbered consecutively in Arabic
Numerals throughout the text.
The Main Body of the Report
The Problem and Its Setting

Conceptual/theoretical Framework
Statement of the Problem
Statement of Hypotheses
Limitations/Delimitations of the study
Significance/Importance of the Study
Definition of Terms

Introduction – This section contains

basic background information and
assumptions that show the state of the art of a
particular research. It discusses what the
research intends to do after establishing the
need to provide bridges between what have
already been known about the field and what
still needs to be done. The section provides the
rationale or justification for the study, as well
as the structure to be followed in the study.
Theoretical/Conceptual Framework –
The research should have a theoretical or
conceptual underpinning that provides the
legitimate basis for defining its parameters.
This is used to guide and direct research. The
theoretical framework presents the theory
from which the research problem is derived.
Statement of the Problem – This
section defines the main and sub-problems
(research questions) of the study. The main
problem begins with the statement of purpose
which describes succinctly the overall direction
or purpose of the study. This statement of
purpose is narrowed down to specific sub-
problems/research questions that the researcher
seeks to answer in his/her study.
Statement of Hypotheses – is a
proposition that is empirically testable. It is an
empirical statement concerned with
relationship among variables.

Null hypotheses – make predictions that in the general population

there is no relationship between variables or no difference
between groups on measured variables.

Alternative Hypotheses- make predictions that in the general

population there is n relationship between variables or difference
between groups on measured variables.
Limitations/Delimitations of the study –

We need to know precisely what the

researcher intends to do. We also need to know
precisely what the researcher does not intend to
What the researcher intends to do is
stated in the problem. What the researcher is
not going to do is stated in the delimitations.
Significance/Importance of the Study–
Within theses, dissertations, or research
reports, researchers frequently set forth their
reasons for undertaking the study. Such
discussion may be especially important since
the researcher has to convince the audiences or
the readers of the worthiness of such research
Definition of Terms – Each term must
be defined operatively; that is, the definition
must interpret the term as it is employed in
relation to researcher’s project.
Review of Related

-Conceptual Literature
local and foreign literature
-Research Literature
local and foreign studies
-Synthesis of the Literature/Concluding
Review of Related Literature – The
review describes theoretical perspectives
and previous research findings related to
the problem at hand. Its function is to
“look again” (re + view) at what others
have done in areas that are similar,
though no necessarily identical, to one’s
own area of investigation.
The Conducting Statement of the
Review– It summarizes the major themes
found in the literature and it provides rationale
for the need for your study or the importance
of the research.

Method Used/Design of the Study

Population Frame and Sampling
Scheme/Subjects of the Study
Description of Subjects/Respondents
Data Gathering Procedures
Statistical Treatment of Data