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Human ServicesTitle

Presentation Funding
Additional Line if Needed

June 2020
Date Here
• The City of Cincinnati has worked to increase the amount of funding
that goes to support human services and to ensure that dollars are
allocated through a method that ensures taxpayer funds are spent
effectively to achieve the most impactful results for the community.

• The Process consists of the City of Cincinnati allocating a portion of its

general fund budget to human services providers to fulfill specific
objectives. This includes:
o Reducing homelessness
o Increasing gainful employment 
o Violence prevention
o Addiction treatment
o Senior services 
• Over the past two years, human services funding has supported
critical job training and homeless services for over 12,000 City

• Over the past decade, the city utilized a process in which the
United Way works with the City-appointed Human Services
Advisory Committee (HSAC).

• The goal is to develop and issue Requests For Proposals (RFPs) to

fulfill the policy objectives established by Council. 

• HSAC reviews the RFP submissions and recommends

organizations to be awarded along with the corresponding
funding amounts to Council.

• Council makes the final determination on awards and the United

Way facilitates and ensures compliance on awarded contracts.

• It is important to be aware of the make-up of each organization,

including the impact each organization may have for African
• We requested information regarding the organizations and the
impact that human services funding created for their organization. 
• We asked the following questions:
o What does your organization do?

o How are the human services funding used and leveraged?

o What impact does the funding have on the African American community?

o What % of your clients are African American?

o What % of your staff and board are African American?

Responses & Data Collection
• We received a 98% response rate from the HSF funded
organizations with the exception of two organizations. 

• We categorized our findings according to Human Services policy


• Out of the 45 organizations, we did not include information from 4

nonprofits in the quantitative data portion. 

• Reasons include:
▪ Data privacy in compliance to HIPPA due to services performed

▪ Minority specific information 

▪ Non-response from 2 organizations 

Total Average Percentage
• The graph represents the total average percentages of African
Americans who are clients, staff and board members.

Program Objective Average

% clients who are African American % staff who are African American % board who are African American

90% 86%

71% 70%

55% 55%
45% 44%
37% 37%
33% 32%
23% 24%
22% 21%

Reducing Homeless... Comprehensive Workforce Supports Violence Prevention Addiction Prevention Senior Services
Workforce Dev...
• The categorical graph represents the questions pertaining to the percentage
make up of African Americans from HSF funded programs and organizations. 

• Average percentage of African American clients ranged from 50% to 86% 

• Average percentage of African American employees ranged from 27% to 55%.

• Average percentage of African American board members ranged from 21% to


• The lowest percentages of African American representation are those who

serve on nonprofit boards. Low minority representation on nonprofit boards is
also a national issue that continues to need long term structural change.

• Nonprofits Times2 reported that only 7.5% of board seats are held by African
Americans on nonprofit boards.

Source: 2NonProfit Times. “Nonprofit Boards Don't Resemble Rest of America.” The NonProfit Times, 18 Feb. 2018,
Reducing Homelessness
FY20 $1.5M
Reducing Homelessness

• For FY20, Human Services allocated $1.5 million to 18 programs

specializing in reducing homelessness.

• A disproportionate number of African American people experience

homelessness both nationally and locally.

• Strategies to End Homelessness3 reported that 65% of Hamilton

County’s homeless population is African American, while the
county's population is only about 26% African American. 

• To attempt to address this imbalance & reduce the number of

African American citizens experiencing homelessness, 87% of the
people served in Shelter Diversion services are African American. 

Sources: Strategies To End Homelessness 3, 2015. https://www.strategiestoendhomelessness.org/wp-content/uploads/STEH-2015-Annual_v6_interactive.pdf

National Data on Homelessness
• In January, the Department of Housing and Urban Development 4
(HUD) released the 2019 Annual Homeless Assessment Report
• African Americans have remained overrepresented among the
homeless population compared to the U.S. population. 
• African Americans accounted for 40 percent of all people
experiencing homelessness in 2019 and 52 percent of people
experiencing homelessness as members of families with children,
despite being 13 percent of the U.S. population. 
• Four of every ten people experiencing homelessness were black
or African American (40% or 225,735 people). About a quarter of
people experiencing unsheltered homelessness were black or
African American (27% or 56,381). 

Source: The 2019 Annual Homeless Assessment Report4 (AHAR), The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development , Jan.
2020, files.hudexchange.info/resources/documents/2019-AHAR-Part-1.pdf.
National Data on Homelessness

Source: The 2019 Annual Homeless Assessment Report 4 (AHAR), The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development , Jan. 2020,
Average % from each Organization
• The average percentage of clients who received services from HSF nonprofits
were 69%. 

• The average percentage of staff was 45%.

•  Finally, the average percentage of board members was 23%. 

• Please note, we did not include information from  Center For Respite Care in
the demographic percentages.

• This particular organization specializes in healthcare and due to HIPAA,

they cannot provide certain information.

• However, they did mention that nearly 100 percent of their patients are
sent from hospitals and they determine who the organization receives.
Lastly, each patient is a unique percentage as some may use 30 nights and
some 100. 

• Therefore, percentage is not a valid calculation for the service they

Gainful Employment
FY20 $1.5M
Gainful Employment 
• Human services prioritizes the value of ongoing workplace
education and skills development; including the hiring demands
of employers.

• Human services allocated $1.5 million towards workforce


• HSF funding contributes to programs by increasing employee

retention among African Americans.
National Average 
• Historically, due to restrictions within the U.S. labor market, African Americans have long
been excluded from opportunities for upward mobility, stuck instead in low-wage
occupations that do not offer the protections of labor laws, such as those focused on
collective bargaining, overtime, and the minimum wage. 

• According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics5 (BLS), there are differences among the race
and ethnicity groups associated with many factors, not all of which are measurable. 

• The composition of the labor force consists of African Americans and Asians constituting
about 13 percent and 6 percent. Regarding the labor force participation, the participation
rate for Asians was 63.5 percent; Whites, 62.8 percent; and African Americans, 62.3

•  However, among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups,
at 69%, African Americans were least likely to participate in the labor force. 

• Among adult women (20 years and older), at 62.4 %, African Americans are more likely to
participate in the labor force. Jobless rates varied considerably by race and ethnicity.
American Indians and Alaska Natives (6.6 percent) and Blacks (6.5 percent) had the highest
unemployment rates (pre-coronavirus data)

Sources: “Composition of the Labor Force.” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics5, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1 Oct. 2019, www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-
Unemployment Rate
This chart displays the unemployment rates by race from
Average % of each Organization
• There is a total 26 programs that received funding for fiscal year 2020. 

• Please note, Catholic Charities Southwestern Ohio was excluded from

the data average. CCSWO was instructed to provide information related
to the impact and percentages related to minority communities as an
entire group which made up 97% of their total.

• With the total combination of programs, The total average of African

American clients who receive services is 71%.

• The total average percentage of African American employees who

received services is 46%

• The total average percentage of African American board members is

Violence Prevention
FY20 $168K
Violence Prevention
• Violence is a serious public health problem. From infants to the elderly, it affects people in all
stages of life. Many who survive violence and suffer physical, mental, and or emotional health
problems throughout the rest of their lives. Yet for Black women, the numbers are even more
stark. Many Black women experience threats to their safety in the United States.

• The Institute of Women’s Policy6 comprised a report called The Status of Black Women in the
United States. According to the report, Black women experience intimate partner violence at
higher rates than women overall. More than two-fifths of Black women experience physical
violence by an intimate partner during their lifetimes, compared with 31.5 percent of all women.

• More disturbingly, Black women are 2.5 times more likely to be murdered by men than white
women.  In the overwhelming majority of these cases, Black women are at an especially high risk
of homicide by men compared with all women.

• The Human Rights Campaign7 reported that at least 26 transgender or gender non-conforming
people were fatally shot or killed by other violent means in 2019. According to the report, 91% of
transgender women killed were African American, 81% were under the age of 30, and 68% lived
in the South. 

Sources: The 2019 Annual Homeless Assessment Report6 (AHAR), The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development , Jan. 2020,
 Human Rights Campaign7. “A National Epidemic: Fatal Anti-Transgender Violence in America.” Human Rights Campaign, www.hrc.org/resources/a-national-epidemic-fatal-anti-
Violence Prevention %
Local Initiatives & Demographics
• YWCA of Greater Cincinnati and Women Helping Women are the only two programs
that receive human services funding for violence prevention. Both programs received
a total of $168K.

• HSF Funding is also used to promote a culture of respect and nonviolence with
children and youth at an early age. YWCA and Women Helping Women established
programs to prevent future violent behavior.

• According to the YWCA, violence disproportionately impacts the vulnerable

populations served with City Human Services funds. 86% of those served with City
funds are African American, and 99% live below 200% of the federal poverty line. 

• Through Women Helping Women’s intervention and response work, 41% of their
survivors identify as African American. Although 23% of their client’s identified as
African American, 31% of their 1,115 clients did not indicate a racial identity.

• HSF Funding had a direct impact on African American youth from their Prevent &
Empower and Coaching Boys Into Men programs. According to the 2014 data, 64% of
Cincinnati Public Schools youth identified as African American.

• According to the average demographic %; 55% of African Americans are clients, 27%
are staff, and 37% are board members. 
Addiction Prevention
FY20 $552K
Addiction Prevention
• In 2015, the NAACP8 conducted a National Survey on Drug Use and Health. About 17 million
Caucasians and 4 million African Americans reportedly used an illicit drug within the last month.

• African Americans represent 12.5% of illicit drug users, but 29% of those arrested for drug
offenses and 33% of those incarcerated in state facilities for drug offenses.

• The American Psychological Association9 conducted a review on The Ethnicity and Health in
America Series: Substance Abuse and Addiction in the African-American Community. According
to the APA, 27 million Americans reported dependence or misuse of illicit or prescription drugs.
However, there is a disproportionate rate of drug arrests for African-Americans.

• In addition, members of racial and ethnic minority groups are more likely to experience barriers
that impede their ability to access substance abuse treatment.

• In 2017, the CDC10 reported population percentages of African Americans over the age of 12,
participating in drug use:
o  13.1% participated in illicit drug use
o 11.6% participated in marijuana drug use
o 1.3% misused prescription psychotherapeutic drugs

Source: “Criminal Justice Fact Sheet.” NAACP8, www.naacp.org/criminal-justice-fact-sheet/.

“Ethnicity and Health in America Series: Substance Abuse and Addiction in the African-American Community.” American Psychological Association9, American
Psychological Association, Feb. 2017, www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/ethnicity-health/african-american/substance-abuse.
CDC Substance Abuse Statistics10, 2018, https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2018/020.pdf
Addiction Prevention Average %
• For fiscal year 2020, Human Services allocated $552K to 11
programs specializing in addiction prevention.

• The nonprofits receiving HSF specialize in addiction recovery

centers, addiction prevention, and peer recovery/mentoring

• According to the average demographic %; 50% of African

Americans are clients, 32% are staff, and 22% are board members. 

• Please note, we did not include data from Addiction Services

Council because we did not receive a response. 
Senior Services
FY20 $144K
Senior Services
• According to the Census Bureau11, current growth of the population are ages 65
and older and is driven by the large the baby boom generation.

• Population Reference Bureau12 reported the older population is becoming more

racially and ethnically diverse. Between 2018 and 2060 the share of the older
population that is non-Hispanic white is projected to drop from 77 percent to 55

• Despite the increased diversity in the older adult population, the more rapidly
changing racial/ethnic composition of the population under age 18 relative to
those ages 65 and older has created a diversity gap between generations.

• Wide economic disparities are evident across different population subgroups.

Among adults ages 65 and older, 17 percent of Latinos and 19 percent of African
Americans lived in poverty in 2017—more than twice the rate among older non-
Hispanic whites (7 percent).
Source: US Census Bureau11. “Demographic Turning Points for the United States.” The United States Census Bureau, 7 Mar. 2020,
“Fact Sheet: Aging in the United States.” Population Reference Bureau12, 15 July 2019, www.prb.org/aging-unitedstates-fact-sheet/.
Local Initiatives
• There are three organizations that received a total allocation of $144K for
senior services. The funding is used to train and assist senior citizens. 

• According to the organization People Working Cooperatively, Human

Services Funds train seniors and people with disabilities with an evidence
based program to keep them from falling, as well as personalized home

• Mercy Ministries help seniors remain living independently in the

community for as long as possible through senior and home care

• Catholic Charities of Southwest Ohio helps local seniors with their Senior
Companions program. Last year, their clients reported increased social
support thanks to the Senior Companions program. 
Senior Services Average %
• People Working Cooperatively (PWC), Mercy Ministries, and
Catholic Charities of Southwestern Ohio (CCSO) are the three
organizations that received HSF funding. 

• According to the average demographic %; 86% of African

Americans are clients, 44% are staff, and 21% are board

• Due to the minority specific data from CCSO, we excluded them

from the quantitative data.
Conclusive Findings
• After reviewing both quantitative and qualitative data for all HSF 
organizations, we found that clients and staff largely reflects
Cincinnati's African American community & the specific
populations being served by individual programs.

• The racial makeup of nonprofit boards in Cincinnati are well above

the national average. However, local nonprofits can and should
strive to include more minority representation their boards.
Office of Councilmember
Chris Seelbach