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HYDRAULIC AND

PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS

PA R T I I
PASCAL’S TALE
GENERAL OBJECTIVE

TO SIMPLIFY THE CONCEPTS OF HYDRAULIC


AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS FITTED IN
AIRCRAFT.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

LEARNING/ RECAPPING COMPONENTS OF


HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS.

LEARNING ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS


OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS.

LEARNING ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS


OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

LEARNING/ RECAPPING COMPONENTS OF


HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS.

LEARNING ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS


OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS.

LEARNING ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS


OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS.
PREVIOUS LECTURE TIE-IN

LEARNT USE OF HYDRAULIC PRESSURE.

GENERAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE PARTS OF


A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM.
HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

A P P L I C AT I O N S
SERVICES
COMPONENTS
A D VA N TA G E S
APPLICATIONS
• HEAVY
MACHINERY
APPLICATIONS
• HEAVY
MACHINERY
• CAR BRAKES
APPLICATIONS
• HEAVY
MACHINERY
• CAR BRAKES

• LOWRIDER
CARS
APPLICATIONS
SUPPLY
• PRIMARY
PRIMARY SUPPLY
+
• EMERGENCY
EMERGENCY
• SECONDARY MAIN SERVICES SUPPLY
• UTILITY
SECONDARY
SUPPLY

UTILITY SUPPLY

UTILITY SERVICES
MAIN SERVICES
• ELEVATORS

• AILERONS

• RUDDER

• SPOILERS

• AIR BRAKE

• FLAPS
UTILITY SERVICES
• RAMP

• STEERING
UTILITY
• UNDER-
SUPPLY
CARRIAGE
• WHEEL
BRAKES
PROBLEMS FACED
 NO LEAKS.
• HIGH
 SEALS.
PRESSURE
 NO CONTAMINATION.
• HIGH TEMP

 INCOMPRESSIBLE.
 NO AIR.
AIR IN SYSTEM
AIR IN SYSTEM
• TEMPERATURE
AIR IN SYSTEM
• TEMP

• PRESSURE
AIR IN SYSTEM
• TEMP

• PRESSURE

• MOVEMENT
COMPONENTS
• PRIMARY

• EMERGENCY

• SECONDARY

• UTILITY
COMPONENTS
• RESERVOIR

• PUMP

• ACCUMULATOR

• FILTER

• NRVs
COMPONENTS
• RESERVOIR

• PUMP

• ACCUMULATOR

• FILTER

• NRVs
RESERVOIR
• BIG ENOUGH
TO HOLD FLUID
• REMOVAL OF
AIR
• COOLING
• BAFFLES
• APPLY
PRESSURE

• RELIEVE
PRESSURE
PUMPS
• 10 AXIAL
PISTON AND
CYLINDERS

FLUID DRAWN IN FLUID


PUSHED OUT
PUMPS
• CONSTANT
DISPLACEMENT
PUMPS
• SELF
REGULATING
Click icon to add picture
PUMPS

• HAND PUMPS
ACCUMULATOR
• ABSORBS SHOCKS
AND SUDDEN
CHANGES IN FLUID
PRESSURE
• SMOOTHES OUT
PRESSURE RIPPLES
CAUSED BY PUMP
OPERATION AND
USE IN JACKS
• MAINTAIN
PRESSURE WHEN
PUMP FAILS TO
OPERATE
VALVES
• NON RETURN
VALVES
• PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVES
CONTROL VALVE
• ROTARY
CONTROL
VALVE
ROTARY CONTROL VALVE
ROTARY CONTROL VALVE
CONTROL VALVE
• LINEAR
CONTROL
VALVE
LINEAR CONTROL VALVE
LINEAR CONTROL VALVE
MISCELLANEOUS
•FILTERS.

• HEAT EXCHANGERS AND


TEMPERATURE WARNING
SYSTEMS.

•INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL.

• JACKS AND MOTORS.


ADVANTAGES OF HYDRAULICS

INSTANTANEOUS ACTION.

SYSTEM IS RELIABLE, COMPACT & EASY TO


MAINTAIN.

LONGER LOADS CAN BE MOVED EASILY WITH


VERY LITTLE EFFORT ON SIDE OF PILOT.
ADVANTAGES OF HYDRAULICS

GEARING FOR DIFFERENT LOADS CAN BE


ACHIEVED EASILY BY CHANGING PISTON
AREA.

HYDRAULIC FLUID ALSO ACTS AS A


LUBRICATION FOR MOVING PARTS.
DISADVANTAGES OF HYDRAULICS

INABILITY TO STORE PRESSURE.

TEMPERATURE AND AERATION.

CONTAMINATION.

FLAMMABILITY – SKYDROL vs. OM-15

HAZARDOUS LIQUID.
HAZARDS
•HIGH PRESSURE

•TOXIC NATURE
Click icon to add picture
PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS

A P P L I C AT I O N S
COMPONENTS
A D VA N TA G E S
D I S A D VA N TA G E S
APPLICATIONS OF PNEUMATICS

PRESSURE ENERGY STORAGE.

COMPRESSION.

PRESSURE ENERGY TRANSFER.

HEAT ENERGY TRANSFER.


PRESSURE ENERGY
STORAGE
• FIRE FIGHTING
SYSTEMS
PRESSURE ENERGY
STORAGE
• FIRE FIGHTING
SYSTEMS
• LIFE RAFTS
PRESSURE ENERGY
STORAGE
• FIRE FIGHTING
SYSTEMS
• LIFE RAFTS

• HYDRAULIC
BACKUP
COMPRESSION
• SHOCK
ABSORBERS
COMPRESSION
• SHOCK
ABSORBERS

• SEAL
INFLATION
PRESSURE ENERGY
TRANSFER
• AUGMENTED
LIFT DEVICES
PRESSURE ENERGY
TRANSFER
• AUGMENTED
LIFT DEVICES
PRESSURE ENERGY
TRANSFER
• AUGMENTED
LIFT DEVICES
• AIR STARTERS
HEAT ENERGY
TRANSFER
• AIR
CONDITIONING
HEAT ENERGY
TRANSFER
• AIR
CONDITIONING
• ICE
PROTECTION
COMPONENTS OF PNEUMATICS

COMPRESSOR.
RELIEF VALVE.
GROUND CHARGING VALVE.
ANTI-FREEZE.
OIL AND WATER TRAP.
REGULATING VALVE.
AIR BOTTLES.
COMPONENTS OF PNEUMATICS
ADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATICS

• SIMPLICITY OF DESIGN AND CONTROL.

• AIR ALREADY AVAILABLE FROM THE PROPULSION


SYSTEM AT A HIGH TEMP & PRESSURE. SO COST
EFFECTIVE.

• RELIABILITY.
• LONG OPERATING LIVES.

• LITTLE MAINTENANCE.
• BECAUSE GAS IS COMPRESSIBLE, LESS SUBJECT TO SHOCK
DAMAGE.
• COMPRESSED GAS CAN BE STORED, SO MACHINES STILL
RUN FOR A WHILE IF ELECTRICAL POWER IS LOST.
ADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATICS

• LIGHTER AND CLEANER.


• USED AIR CAN BE DISCHARGED TO THE ATMOSPHERE.
• HENCE SPACE AND WEIGHT EFFICIENT.
• NO RETURN PIPELINES REQUIRED.

 SAFETY.

 CAN BE USED IN HIGH TEMP HIGH PRESSURE

SYSTEMS, AS AIR IS NON-INFLAMMABLE.


• AFTERBURNERS.
LIMITATIONS OF PNEUMATICS

 LIMITED POWER.

 DIFFICULT TO MAKE AIRTIGHT JOINTS.

 DIFFICULT TO TRACE LEAKS.

 DOES NOT PROVIDE ANY INTERNAL LUBRICATION.


MUST KNOW

A P P L I C AT I O N S O F H Y D R A U L I C A N D
P N E U M AT I C S Y S T E M S .

A D VA N TA G E S A N D D I S A D VA N TA G E S
O F H Y D R A U L I C A N D P N E U M AT I C S Y S T E M S .

ROLE OF COMPONENTS
O F H Y D R A U L I C A N D P N E U M AT I C S Y S T E M S .
SHOULD KNOW

CONSTRUCTION OF COMPONENTS OF HYDRAULIC


SYSTEMS.

P R O B L E M S FA C E D I N A H Y D R A U L I C S Y S T E M .
COULD KNOW

H E N R Y ’ S L AW, D A LT O N ’ S L AW, C AV I TAT I O N .


QUESTIONS TO THE CLASS

 BAFFLES ARE USED IN A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FOR (PREVENTING


SURGES/ LEAKS/ EVAPORATION LOSS)

 IN A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, RESERVOIR IS USED FOR


__________________, _______________ AND _______.

 PNEUMATIC SYSTEM (LACKS/PROVIDES) INSTANTANEOUS


ACTION AND IS (HIGHLY/NOT SO) EFFICIENT AT TRANSMITTING
POWER.

 THERMAL RELIEF VALVE ARE FITTED IN HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS


TO RELIEVE EXCESS PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE DUE TO
THERMAL EXPANSION AND ARE SENSITIVE TO
PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE.
QUESTIONS TO THE CLASS

 BAFFLES ARE USED IN A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FOR (PREVENTING


SURGES/ LEAKS/ EVAPORATION LOSS)

 IN A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, RESERVOIR IS USED FOR STORING


THE FLUID, REMOVAL OF AIR AND COOLING.

 PNEUMATIC SYSTEM (LACKS/PROVIDES) INSTANTANEOUS


ACTION AND IS (HIGHLY/NOT SO) EFFICIENT AT TRANSMITTING
POWER.

 THERMAL RELIEF VALVE ARE FITTED IN HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS


TO RELIEVE EXCESS (PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE) DUE TO
THERMAL EXPANSION AND ARE SENSITIVE TO
(PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE).
QUESTIONS TO THE CLASS

 ________________________ IS SOMETIMES INCORPORATED TO


EQUALISE THE PRESSURE OF THE AIR IN THE HYDRAULIC
RESERVOIR.

 WHAT TYPE OF GAS IS USED TO INFLATE LIFE SAVING


JACKETS?

A MILKY APPEARANCE IN THE SIGHT GLASS OF THE


HYDRAULIC RESERVOIR IS AN INDICATION OF ____________.
QUESTIONS TO THE CLASS

 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE IS SOMETIMES INCORPORATED TO


EQUALISE THE PRESSURE OF THE AIR IN THE HYDRAULIC
RESERVOIR.

 WHAT TYPE OF GAS IS USED TO INFLATE LIFE SAVING


JACKETS?

A MILKY APPEARANCE IN THE SIGHT GLASS OF THE


HYDRAULIC RESERVOIR IS AN INDICATION OF ____________.
QUESTIONS TO THE CLASS

 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE IS SOMETIMES INCORPORATED TO


EQUALISE THE PRESSURE OF THE AIR IN THE HYDRAULIC
RESERVOIR.

 WHAT TYPE OF GAS IS USED TO INFLATE LIFE SAVING


JACKETS?

A MILKY APPEARANCE IN THE SIGHT GLASS OF THE


HYDRAULIC RESERVOIR IS AN INDICATION OF AIR IN SYSTEM.
CONCLUSION
?