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BASIC TESTING CONCEPTS

Effective selection is very important and depends upon


basic testing concepts of Reliability and Validity:

 Reliability. It refers to the consistency of scores


obtained by the same person when retested with the
identical tests or with alternate forms of the same
test. In the absence of consistency, the test would
not be trustworthy/ not acceptable.

 Validity. It is the second major requirement for a


test and refers to ascertaining whether the test (or
yardstick) is measuring what is actually to be
measured. As such, test should be relevant to the job
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BASIC TESTING CONCEPTS
position. It is of further two types:

o Criterion Validity. A type of validity based on


showing that scores on the test (predictors) are
related to job performance (criterion). We
demonstrate that those who do well on the test
should also do well on the actual job. For an
athlete/ player, physical strength is more
relevant to measure.

o Content Validity. A content valid test is the


one that contains a fair sample of the tasks and
skills actually needed for the job in question. To
hire a clerk for data entry, a data entry test would
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BASIC TESTING CONCEPTS
be relevant. The validation process consists of
following five steps:

1. Analyze the job.


2. Choose the tests.
3. Administer the tests.
4. Relate the test scores and criteria - expectancy
chart can be used.
5. Cross- validate and re- validate.
TYPES OF SELECTION TESTS
• Tests of Cognitive Abilities:

 Intelligence Quotient Tests. IQ tests measure a


range of (not a single traits) general intellectual
abilities, including memory, vocabulary, verbal
fluency & numerical ability.

 Specific Cognitive abilities tests. These tests


measure specific mental abilities (aptitude tests)
such as inductive & deductive reasoning, verbal
comprehension & numerical ability.

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TYPES OF SELECTION TESTS
• Tests of Motor & Physical Abilities:
Motor abilities such as finger dexterity, manual
dexterity and reason time are measured by these
tests. Similarly, tests for measuring physical
abilities include static strengths (in weight lifting),
dynamic strengths (in pull-ups), body coordination
(in jumping rope) etc.

• Measuring Personality & Interests:


Along with required education, experience & skills,
the individual’s motivation and inter-personal skills
are also very important. A motivated employee
having excellent inter-personal skills can be of
immense value to the organization; for instance,
showing the candidates a clouded picture and then
TYPES OF SELECTION TESTS
asking them to interpret it or react to it. Some of
the important personality dimensions are:

 Extroversion – tendency to be sociable,


assertive, active.

 Emotional stability/ neuroticism – tendency to


exhibit poor emotional adjustments, &
experience negative effects.

 Agreeableness – tendency to be trusting,


compliant, caring, Conscientiousness,
achievements & dependability.
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TYPES OF SELECTION TESTS
 Openness to experience – always open to new
experience & ready to accept new challenges.
• Interest Inventory:
A personal development and selection device that
compares the individual’s current interests with those
of others now in various occupations so as to
determine the preferred occupation for the individual.
• Achievement tests:
Used to measure what a person has learnt e.g. typing
speed; include job knowledge, in areas like
economics, marketing or human resource.
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TYPES OF SELECTION TESTS
• Drug Tests:
Drug screening is carried out to know that candidate
is not drug addict.
• Honesty Tests:

These tests are administered to predict the applicant


proneness to dishonesty & other forms of counter-
productivity.
• Web- based Tests:

Ready made tests are available on various web


sites for the benefits of the firms. These tests,
however, be scrutinized and customized, if required,
before their institution.
WORK SAMPLE/ SIMULATION TESTS
• Work Sampling for Employee Selection:
 Work Samples. Actual job tasks/ simulators
used in testing applicants’ performance.
 Work Sampling Technique. A testing method
based on measuring performance on actual
basic job tests (on the job test).

• Management Assessment Centers:


A two to three-days simulation in which 10 to 12
management candidates are asked to perform
realistic tasks in hypothetical situations and are
scored on their performance. It usually also
involves testing and the use of management games.
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WORK SAMPLE/ SIMULATION TESTS
The center may be a plain conference room or a
special room designed for the purpose. Typical
simulated exercises are:
 The in- basket. A candidate is exposed to an
accumulation of reports, memos, notes of in-
coming calls, letters and his/ her response is
notes.
 Leaderless Group Discussion. Participants are
given a discussion question/ problem to arrive at a
solution. Interpersonal skills, leadership ability and
individual influence of the members are measured.
 Management Games. Participants solve realistic
problems as members of simulated companies
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WORK SAMPLE/ SIMULATION TESTS
competing in a market. They have to decide, e.g.,
how to advertise & manufacture, how much
inventory to stock etc.
 Individual Presentations. Communication skills
and persuasiveness of the individuals are
measured through oral presentations.
OTHER SELECTION TOOLS
• Reference Checks. By knowing the credibility of
referrals, appropriateness of the candidate may be
ascertained to a large extent.

• Pre- employment Information Services. Pre-


employment services use data basis to collect
information such as workers’ compensation and
credit histories and conviction and driving records.

• Graphology (Handwriting Analysis). It refers to use


of handwriting analysis to determine the writer’s
basic personality traits.
SELECTION

INTERVIEWS
TYPES OF SELECTION INTERVIEWS
• Structured/ Directive Interview. An interview following
a set sequence of pre-decided questions; the
questions and acceptable responses are specified in
advance and responses are rated for appropriateness
of contents. A set of standard Qs is asked from all.
 Behavioral Interviews. A series of job related
questions that focus on how the candidate reacted
to actual situations in the past. For example; can
you think of a time when you faced a strike; how
you tackled it ?
 Situational Interview. A series of job related
questions that focus on how the candidate would
behave in a given job situation.
TYPES OF SELECTION INTERVIEWS
• Un- structured:
A conversational style interview in which the
interviewer pursues points of interest as they come up
in response to questions. Such an interview can take
any direction in the absence of a set format to follow.
 Nondirective Interview. Interview in which
questions are developed from the answers to
previous questions.
 Pressure/ Stress Interviews: An interview in
which the applicant is made uncomfortable by a
series of often rude questions. This technique
helps identify hyper- sensitive applicants and
those with low or high stress tolerance.
WHO DOES INTERVIEWS ?
• Panel Interview. An interview in which a panel/ group of
interviewers interview the candidate at the same time.
• Team Interview. An interview in which applicants are
interviewed by the team members with whom they will work.
• Video Interviewing. Applicants are asked to go to video
conferencing facilities scheduled by the employer. Both the
interviewers & the applicants are video linked at pre-decided
time. It is the most cost effective method of conducting selection
interviews.
HOW TO INCREASE EFFECTIVENESS OF
AN INTERVIEW
• Interviewing is not an innate talent; rather it can be
developed with training & experience.

• Control it, i.e. decide what to ask – after reading


resume & application form.
• Plan & prepare for an interview.
• Establish rapport with applicant & ask results-
oriented questions.
• Put the applicant at ease in first few minutes.
• Use the right questioning technique – describe who,
what, when, why, tell me, which are all good ways.

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HOW TO INCREASE EFFECTIVENESS OF
AN INTERVIEW
Problems to be avoided:
• Snap judgments. Don’t be ruled by snap judgment
(initial impression).
• Negative emphasis. Any negative characteristic
displayed by the interviewee may bar an individual
from being accepted.
• Halo effects. Allowing one positive characteristic
overshadow the others (assuming all others as
positive).
• Devil’s horns effects. Allowing one negative
characteristic overshadow the others (assuming all
others as negative).
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• Biases and Stereotyping. Personal biases and
stereotyping must be avoided – do not favor those
considered to be like interviewer and vice versa.

• Cultural noise. Interviewer must learn to recognize


and handle the cultural noise – response that
applicant believes is acceptable.

• Reliability. A reliable interview must exhibit


consistency in the ability of interviewer to pick the
same capability again and again. It is of two types:

 Intra-rater reliability. When interviewer is same.


 Inter-rater reliability. When interviewer is
different.
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• Validity. An interview should be valid i.e. candidate
should perform well in the job, if he did well during
the interview. As such, job related questions should
be asked from the candidates.

• Don’t underestimate the power of silence.

• Close the interview with care & courtesy.

Note: Use of Structured Interview increases its validity


and is often most effective.
COMMON INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
• General Questions:

 What are your strengths & weaknesses?


 Why did you leave your last job?
 Why should we hire you?
 What is most important to you in a job?

• Problem Solving Questions:

 What is the most creative idea you have?


 Describe a problem that you have faced & solved.
 What problem-solving approach works best for you.
 Describe a sale you did not make, and explain why?
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• Motivation:

 What have you done that shows initiative?


 What career objective have been met?
 How do you measure success?
 What rewards mean most to you?

• Working with others:

 What kind of people do you like to work with?


 Tell me about a conflict with a fellow worker;
how was it resolved?
 Describe your management style?
 How do others see you? Conti…
• Integrity indicators:

 Tell me about a time when you were not honest.


 How would you react, if were asked to do
something unethical?
 If you saw a coworker doing something
dishonest, what would you do?
 When did you last break a rule?
 When I call your previous employer, what
comments will I get?
GUIDELINES FOR AN INTERVIEWEE

• Appearance to be taken care of.


• Know the job & the interviewer’s special interests.
• Know the problems interviewer wants to solve.
• Stress on enthusiasm and motivation to work.
• Understand how your own objectives match with
that of the organization.
• Remain cool & calm.
• Be truthful at every cost.
• Don’t leave any doubt unclear.
PLACEMENT OF EMPLOYEES
• Placement refers to fitting a person to a job.
• The ultimate aim of selection is placement.
• How well an employee is matched to a job affects
the amount and quality of the employee job.
• Poor performers (misfit) would cause loss of money
and time.
• Person- Job Fit. Matching the KSAs of employees
with the characteristics of jobs.
• Person- Organization Fit. It refers to the
congruence between individuals and organizational
factors.