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NYLON

AND IT’S
FAMILY

BY:- NANDISHWAR VERMA


INTRODUCTION
• Nylon are generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers,
based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
• Nylon is a thermoplastic silky material that can be melt processed
into fibers, film or shapes.
• Nylon is made of repeating units linked by amide links similar to the
peptide bonds in proteins.
• Nylon polymers is made by reacting monomers which are either
lactams, mixtures of diamines and diacids.
• Nylon polymers have found significant commercial applications.
HISTORY
• The first Nylon which was produced was Nylon 6,6 on February 28
1935 by Wallace Hume Carothers at DuPont research facility.
• Later, Paul Schlack at IG Farben developed Nylon 6, based on
caprolactum on January 29 1938.
• Nylon was the first commercially successful synthetic thermoplastics
polymer.
• Nylon was first commercially used in nylon bristled toothbrush in
1938.
• Later, In 1939 in New York World’s Fair it was introduced as women’s
stocking which became more famous.
HISTORY
• During World War II, almost all Nylon production was diverted
to the military use.
• Earlier, demand for nylon was much higher than the supply so,
that it took company nearly 3 years to cope up with demand.
• Later, many derivates of Nylon was formed and it introduces
wide range in Nylon with extremely broad range of available
properties.
NEW YORK
LONDON
NYLON
TYPES (FAMILY) OF NYLON
Nowadays, wide range of nylons are available in the markets. They are
as follows:-
• Nylon 66
• Nylon 6
• Nylon 46
• Nylon 510
• Nylon 1,6
• Nylon 11
• Nylon 12
NOMENCLATURE
• First, the prefix ‘PA’ or the name ‘Nylon’ are used interchangeably and
are equivalent in meaning.
• Suffix is used as the numbers to describe the numbers of carbons in
each monomer unit, including the carbons of the carboxylic acids
(for e.g.: In Nylon 6,6 six carbons from hexamethylenediamine and six
from adipic acid).
• One number after ‘PA’ or ‘Nylon’ indicates a homopolymer which is
monadic or based on one amino acid as monomer (for e.g.: Nylon 6
formed by caprolactum).
NYLON 6,6
• Nylon 66 was produced by Wallace Hume Carothers in 1935.
• It is produced by two monomers each containing 6 carbon atoms i.e.,
hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid.
• It is synthesized by polycondensation of hexamethylenediamine and
adipic acid.
• Equivalents amount of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid are
combined with water in a reactor. This is crystallized to make nylon
salt, an ammonium/carboxylate mixture. The Nylon salt goes into a
reaction vessel where polymerization takes place. Removing water
dries the reaction toward polymerization through the formation of
amide bonds. Thus molten nylon 66 is formed. It can be extruded.
NYLON 6,6
PROPERTIES:-
• It has a Melting point of 265°C.
• It is tough, strong and impact resistant.
• It is most resistant to heat and friction.
• It is good resistance to abrasion and low coefficient of friction.
• It is resistance to solvents, alcohol and also to alkalis.
• High moisture absorption.
NYLON 6,6
APPLICATION:-
• It is used in airbags
• Tires
• Ropes, conveyer belts
• Parachutes
• Swimwear
• Hoses
NYLON 6
• Nylon 6 or polycaprolactum was developed by Paul Schlack at IG
Farben using caprolactum (cyclic amides).
• This is formed by ring opening polymerisation.
• When Caprolactam is heated at about 533 K in an inert atmosphere of
nitrogen for about 4-5 hours, the ring breaks and undergo
polymerisation.
• The peptide bond within the caprolactum is broken with the exposed
active groups on each side being incorporated into two new bonds as
the monomer becomes part of the polymer backbone.
• Melting point of Nylon 6 is 220°C (509°F) i.e., lower than Nylon 6,6.
NYLON 6
PROPERTIES:-
• Nylon 6 fibres are tough, possessing high tensile strength as well as
elasticity and lustre.
• They are wrinkle proof and highly resistant to abrasion.
• They are also resistant to chemicals such as acid and alkalis.
• It has high water absorption upto 2.4% of water.
• The glass transition temperature of Nylon 6 is 47°C.
• It has density of 1.14 gm/cc.
NYLON 6
APPLICATION:-
• Gears, fittings, bearings
• Bristles for toothbrushes
• Classical musical instruments, including guitars, sitars, violins.
• Threads
• Ropes
• Gun Frames
• Power tool housing
NYLON 4,6
• It is produced by polycondensation of 1,4 diaminobutane (putrescine)
and adipic acid.
• It has higher Melting point = 290°C than Nylon 6 and 66
• It is a high heat resistant Polyamide.
• It can withstand high loads and stresses at high temperature
• It has a higher crystallinity i.e., approx. 70% compared to 50% of
Nylon 66
• It has high Heat distortion temperature of 190°C.
• It has high rigidity of molecular chain at high temperature and high
water absorption.
NYLON 4,6
APPLICATION:-
• Generally, used in under the car bonnet application.
• Engine and transmission.
• Air Inlet, Brake
• Air Cooling System
• Automotive electronic system.
• Other Automotive components.
NYLON 11
• Nylon 11 is a bio-plastics i.e., derived from renewable biomass
sources.
• It is produced from castor beans.
• It is produced by polymerisation of 11-aminoundecanoic acid.

APPLICATION:-
• Automotive fuel lines.
• Pneumatic air brake tubing.
• Electrical anti-termite cable sheathing.
NYLON 12
• Nylon 12 is a polymer with the formula [(CH2)11C(O)NH]n.
• It is made from ᾠ-aminolauric acid or laurolactam monomers that
have 12 carbon atom.
• It is formed by ring opening polymerisation formed by
polycondensation. At 260-300°C.
• Nylon 12 has melting point of 178-180°C, which is lowest among
other important polyamides.
• It’s properties is between Nylon 6 and Nylon 66
• It is mechanical property, such as hardness, tensile strength, and
resistance to abrasion is similar to that of Nylon 6 and Nylon 66.
NYLON 12
• It has low water absorption and density, 1.01 g/mL.
• Nylon 12 is also chemical resistant and insensitive to stress cracking.

APPLICATION:-
• Nylon 12 has a broad range of application.
• Nylon 12 is mainly used for films for packaging material in food
industry.
• For Making sterilized films and bags.
• It is also used for covering cables as insulating material.
NYLON 1,6
• It is produced form dinitriles using acid catalyst.
• It is produced from adiponitrile, formaldehyde and water.
• Additionally, nylons can be synthesized from diols and dinitriles using
this method as well.
NYLON 510
• Nylon 510, made from pentamethylene diamine and sebacic acid.
• It was studied by carothers even before Nylon 66 and has superior
properties but, is more expensive to make.
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YOU