Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49

E-mail:
m.Kharseh@gmail.com
mohkh3@Hotmail.com

1
Solar Constant

## Solar Constant is the intensity of the solar radiation hitting one

square meter of the Earth

## Or it is the intensity of radiation from the spherical black body,

whose temperature is 5785oK and diameter is 696·106 m, per
square meter on a spherical surface whose radius is 150.109m
and with the Sun placed at its center.

2
The Solar Constant

2
4  4 .R  2
Gsc   .T .   1367 W / m
 4 .D 
Where
s = 5.67⋅10-8 W/m2.K4 is the Stefan-
Boltzmann constant.
R= 696·106 m is the Sun radiuses
D=150 ·109 m is the average distance
between the Sun and the earth

What is the average intensity per square meter of the Earth’s surface?

3
1- Latitude φ

latitude is used to state how far north or south you are, relative
to the equator.
• If you are on the equator your
latitude is zero.
• If you are near the north pole
or the south pole your latitude
is nearly 90 degrees.

e
Latitud
Longitu
de
5
1- Latitude φ

## Latitude is the angle measured at the centre of the Earth,

between the Equator plane and where you are. It is expressed
either north or south, and varies from 0° to 90°.
6
2- Longitude ‘L’

## Longitude shows your location in an east or west direction,

relative to the Greenwich meridian.
• Places to the east of Greenwich have longitude angles up to
180 degrees east.
• Places to the west of Greenwich

e
Latitud
180 deg west.

Longitu
de
7
2- Longitude ‘L’

## Longitude is the angle at centre of the Earth, between where you

are and Greenwich. It can be measured either east or west and
varies from 0° to 180°.
8
3- Declination δ

## Declination is the angle made between the plane of the equator

and the line joining the two centres of the earth and the sun:
 284  n 
δ  23.45 sin 360  
 365 

10
3- Declination δ

## The Declination varies between -23.4523.45

and is positive during summer and negative during winter

11
3- Declination δ

12
4- Hour Angle ω

13
4- Hour Angle ω

## Two corrections must be applied

If the longitude is different from
the current time zone meridian
E  229.2  (0.000075  0.001868cosB
of the location.
- 0.032077sinB - 0.014615 cos2B - 0.04089 sin 2B)
Because the earth's orbit and rate
B = (n-1)360/365
of rotation are subject to small
fluctuations.
Lst is the standard longitude of the place. you can find it out
by using the time difference between the local time and GTM

## Lloca is the longitude of the considered place, which can be

https://youtu.be/SWYQVRWWjZA

## What is the hour angle in your place at 3 PM?

14
15
5- Sun altitude hs

## Angle between horizontal plane

and line joins the site with the
centers of the sun (sun
elevation).

## What is the Sun altitude in your place at 10 AM?

16
6- Solar azimuth γ

## Angle between the projection of the straight line joins

the site with the centers of the sun on the horizontal
plane and due south.

 cos( ). sin( ) 
  Arc sin  
 cos( hs) 

## What is the Solar azimuth in your place at 3 PM?

17

18
8- Incidence Angle on Sloped Plane

The angle of tilted surface ‘’ is angle between the surface and
the horizontal.
Incidence angle on a surface of tilt β and azimuth γ on the
latitude φ at a time when the declination is δ and the hour
angle is ω, is:

cos θ  sin δ  sin φ  cosβ  sin δ  cosφ  sin β  cos γ  cosδ  cosφ  cosβ  cosω
 cosδ  sin φ  sin β  cos γ  cosω  cosδ  sin β  sin γ  sin ω

## What is the incidence angle on a sloped surface in your place  = 45?

19
9- Zenith Angle z

z
Zenith Angle, z is incidence angle of
sunbeam on a horizontal surface
It is found by inserting β=0 in incidence
angle equation

0  z  90

## What is the relationship between zenith angle and Sun altitude?

20
9- Zenith Angle z

## What is the zenith angle today in your place at 10 AM?

21
Incidence Angle on Sloped Plane

## The incidence angle on surfaces with slope β due north or

south at latitude φ is equivalent to the Zenith Angle at an
artificial latitude (φ -β) for the northern hemisphere, or (φ
+β) for the southern hemisphere.

## cosθ  cos(φ   )  cosδ  cosω  sin(φ   )  sinδ

22
Sunset, Sunrise & Day Length

θz=900

## • Since the hour angle increases 15/hour,

s can be used to define the day length
through the relation
2
N  Arcos  tan   tan   Sun
15

## How long does the sun shine in your place today?

23
Sunset Hour Angle of Sloped Surface

## • The sunset hour angle for a plane tilted towards the

south is defined as the hour angle when  = 90:

## cos st   tan     tan 

24
Slope surface

Nu m b er o f h o u r su n sh in e
effect of slope angle on the incident angle & day long

incidend angle
50 17

45
40 16

35
30 15

25
20 14

15
10 13

5
0 12
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

slope angle

## Increasing β is decreases θ this is positive effect

simultaneously it decreases day long which it is negative effect.

25

26

## • Radiation is a composition of many wavelengths

• Waves of different length carry different amount of energy
• 98% of SR is carried by wave of length 0.3    3 m

UV Visibl IR
e

27
Solar Spectrum

## Ultraviolet: Visible light: Infrared:

0.2 m <  < 0.38 m 0.38 m <  < 0.78 m  > 0.78 m

28
Solar Spectrum

## 1- What is the fraction of the solar radiation in:

• the ultraviolet (λ<0.38μm),
• the visible (0.38μm<λ<0.78μm), and
• the infrared (λ>0.78μm).

29
Solar Spectrum

30
Solar Spectrum

Conclusion
 About 6.5% of the total energy is contained in the
ultraviolet region (λ < 0.38 μm);
 another 47.9% is contained in the visible region (0.38 μm
< λ < 0.78 μm); and
 45.6% is contained in the infrared region (λ > 0.78 μm).

31
Solar Constant

## Solar Constant, Gsc: is radiation received per square meter of the

atmosphere at incidence angle  = 0 when the earth is at the
mean distance from the sun

## The solar constant is a mean value:

• the earth's orbit is elliptical
• the distance between the sun and earth varies by 3.3%
• Solar irradiation must vary approximately over the year

32
Solar Constant

## The exact irradiation incident on a surface of θ=0 just outside

the atmosphere, Gon [W/m2], is calculated from the solar
constant, Gsc, and the day number as follows:
 360  n 
Gon  Gsc  1  0.033  cos 
 365 
Solar constant during an entire year
1420
1410
1400
solar constan (w/m2)

1390
1380
1370
1360 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
1350
1340
1330
1320

time (day)

##  Solar irradiation varies approximately 45 W/m2 over the year

33

surface tangent to the outer surface of the atmosphere.
It is function of zenith angle, z, thus, it is function of:
latitude, time during the day and number of the day
ER is given by:

z

34

## Integrating ET over a specified time, usually an hour or a day,

we obtain hourly or daily radiation:

## 12  3600  360  n     (ω2  ω1) 

Io   Gsc  1  0.033  cos    cosφ  cosδ   sinω2  sinω1   sinφ  sinδ 
  365   180 

24  3600  360  n     ωs 
Ho   Gsc  1  0.033  cos 
  cosφ  cosδ  s in ω s  sinφ  sinδ 
  365   180 

m2] 35

## 3- What is the daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface

in the absence of the atmosphere today in your place ?

## 4- What is the solar radiation on a horizontal surface in the

absence of the atmosphere today in your place between
the 13 &14?

36

## - The atmosphere is ~100-500 km thick and consists of gas

molecules, particles and dust of different concentration
• The composition varies with height, weather, location
and number of pollution sources

## - The density of the atmosphere decreases with the altitude

• The atmosphere has no sharp border to space
• 75% of the atmosphere’s mass below 10 km

37

## Thermosphere (“Upper Atmosphere”)

– Temperature > 1700C due to solar radiation
but the particles are so few that heat transfer
is low
– Meteors and shooting stars burn up while
passing
Mesosphere
– Altitude 50-85 km above ground
– Temperature falls to -93C
Stratosphere
– Altitude from 10-50 km
– Includes the ozone layer (19-30 km)
– Temperature increases due to UV-absorption
Troposphere (“Lower Atmosphere”)
– Temperature drops from 15C to about -55C
38

##  Significant amount of solar radiation is attenuated as it travels

through the atmosphere.
 This attenuation is due to:
• absorption of solar radiation by different particles in the atmosphere
• backward scattering and reflection of solar radiation by air particles,
water vapor, dust...

39

30% is reflected.
17% is absorbed by the atmosphere.
53% reaches the earth surface:

40

 Solar rays reaching the  Solar rays reaching the
ground without change in ground after a change in
direction direction by particles in
the atmosphere

– Solar rays reflected from
surrounding
– Albedo, g, is ground
reflectance of both beam and
surrounding
41

## Air Mass ‘m’

The ratio of the path length, which beam radiation passes
through the atmosphere, to the path it would pass through if the
Sun were at the zenith, i.e. directly overhead.
C 1
m 
h cos z

42
Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day

surface is:

Gc  Gcb  Gcd

43
Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day

The atmospheric transmittance for beam is the ratio of
incident at the top of atmosphere:

Gcb
b   ao  a1  e( k / cos z )
Go

## Gcb   b  Gon . cosφ  cosδ  cosω  sinφ  sinδ 

44
Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day

## Where a0, a1and k are constant calculated suing next equations:

a 0  r0  0.4237 - 0.00821  6  A  
2

2
1 1

## k  r   0.2711  0.01858   2.5 - A  

2
k

Climate Type r0 r1 rk

## Where ”A" in the equations is Tropical 0.95 0.98 1.02

the altitude of the site above the sea Midlatitude summer 0.97 0.99 1.02

## Midlatitude winter 1.03 1.01 1.00

45
Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day

0.7

0.6
transmittance for beam

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
air mass

46
Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day

## 5- Calculate the transmittance for beam radiation of the

standard clear atmosphere at your place (altitude 0 m)
today at 1:30 PM solar time. Estimate the intensity of
beam radiation at that time and its component on a
horizontal surface.

47
Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day

The atmospheric transmittance for diffuse radiation is the ratio
incident at the top of atmosphere
The transmission coefficient for diffuse radiation is:

Gcd
d   0.271  0.294  b
Go

## G cd   d  Gon . cosφ  cosδ  cosω  sinφ  sinδ 

48
Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day

## 6- Estimate the standard clear-day radiation on a horizontal

surface for your place today at 13:30 PM solar time

49
Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day

Gc  Gcb  Gcd

 360  n 
Gc  ( b   d )  Gsc  1  0.033  cos    cosφ  cosδ  cosω  sinφ  sinδ 
 365 

50
Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day

## The hourly radiation on a horizontal surface is written

I = I b + Id

b: Beam d: Diffuse
component component

## 12  3600  360  n     (ω2  ω1) 

Ic   ( b   d )  Gsc  1  0.033  cos    cosφ  cosδ   sinω2  sinω1   sinφ  sinδ 
  365   180 

hours.

## 7- What is the solar radiation on a horizontal surface today

in your place between the 13 &14?
51