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Media & Globalization

(Creating the Global Vil

 practically no globalization without media & communicatio
ns (Terhi Rantanen, 2004).
 The electronic media & communication sector, which range
s from telecommunication networks & the Internet, through
to radio, television & film, is itself among the most active in
the current drive for the globalization of production, market
s & trade.
 process has been facilitated by a world-wide trend toward
deregulation and privatization of the mass media.
 Globalization – the growing integration of economies & soci
eties around the world – has been one of the most hotly-de
bated topics in international economics over the past few y
 Information dissemination – fast (e.g. news for Steve Jobs
Continues ….
 The social consequences of the globalization of the sector its
elf are comparable to those of many other sectors, & include t
he restructuring of employment relations & conditions, & inter
national competition for footloose capital based on cheaper la
 The media & communication industries are a leading sector i
n facilitating overall globalization.
 For instance, the social consequences of facilitating the emer
gence of globalize financial transactions (e-commerce) & ma
nufacturing industries open markets for “lifestyle” products (V
alentine Day, Mothers Day, etc.), popular culture (k-pop cultur
e), which includes fast food (KFC, McDonald, etc.) and cosm
etics (SK-II, ), are a result of the growth of these sectors (soft
ening up cultures for consumerism).
Globalization - Conceptualization
 The term globalization is linked to a variety of different perspectives
and ideas about what globalization is and how it affects people and c
ommunities around the world.
1. Encyclopedia Britannica says that globalization is the "process by w
hich the experience of everyday life ... is becoming standardized aro
und the world."
2. globalization stress convergence of patterns of production and cons
umption and a resulting homogenization of culture.
3. globalization has the potential to take many diverse forms.
4. Globalization (or Globalisation) refers to increasing global connectivit
y, integration and interdependence in the economic, social, technolo
gical, cultural, political, and ecological spheres. Globalization is an u
mbrella term and is perhaps best understood as a unitary process in
clusive of many sub-processes (such as enhanced economic interde
pendence, increased cultural influence, rapid advances of informatio
n technology, and novel governance and geopolitical challenges) tha
t are increasingly binding people and the biosphere more tightly into
one global system (*From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Continues ….
 special characteristic of the globalization of the media & c
ommunication sector is as a powerful agent in the transf
ormation of social, cultural & political structures.
 impact of the gradual commercialization of media & com
munications on critical social functions, such as the forma
tion of individual & community identity, cultural & languag
e diversity, the capacity to participate in the political proce
ss & the integrity of the public sphere, the availability of in
formation & knowledge in the public domain, & the use of
media for development, educational & human rights purp
Continues ….
 vital functions - respects democracy, human rights & econo
mic, social & cultural needs.
 Free flow of information also cause Media Imperialism (co
nfusing the whole world concerning real fact)
 “Global Village” concept by McLuhan (1964) & Meyrowitz
(1985) – existent ICT has dense space & time enable socie
ties around the globe living in borderless world.
 United Nations itself has encouraged member countries to i
nvest in digital technology as a way to achieve its millenniu
m development goals (MDG).
 The uneven development of ICT (digital divide) indicates th
at the benefits of new technology will be felt by the only few
innovative adopters at the expense of a larger group of lag
 Transformation of traditional society
into a modern society.
Changing of attitudes and norms
Adoption of innovation
Better income
 End Poverty and Hunger
 Universal Education
 Gender Equality
 Child Health
 Maternal Health
 Combat HIV/AIDS
 Environmental Sustai
 Global Partnership


3 Questions
1. What is the role of social media in social/po
litical change?
2. If social media is so important, why should
not governments simply cut it in times of cri
3. What happens if you cut communications?



Free-to-air TV Pay TV
7 channels

Alhijrah Media Cprtn Satellite TV IPTV

(TV alhijrah)
Media prima Govt
NTV 7 RTM2 110 Chnls 39 Chnls
40 Chnls
Media Coverage Among Adults (%)
(2010 – 14,943)
Radio 77%
Newspaper 56%
Internet 11%
Cinema 9%
Magazine 18%
Pos ad 48%
Vision 3%
Power Screen 26%
Internet Usage
 as “social” technology
 as a capital-enhancing activity.
 as an ‘online shopping mall’
 as recreational outlets

 “Social change” – what the Internet can offer that

mass media could not?

 “Internet Literacy” - to effectively find, use, summa

rize, evaluate, create, and communicate information
while using digital technologies
 About 57% of Internet user are between the ages of 2
0 and 24 years.
 About 71% said that their main online activities are ke
eping in touch with friends and family, instant messagi
ng, and reading local news.
 Mostly driven by people in:
central region (54%).
southern region (15%)
northern region (15%)
east coast states (4%)
Sabah and Sarawak (12%)
“Globalization" Characteristic:
 People around the globe are more connected to each oth
er than ever before. Information & money flow more quic
kly than ever.
 Goods & services produced in one part of the world are i
ncreasingly available in all parts of the world. Internation
al travel is more frequent.
 International communication is commonplace.
 Among factor which contributes to global communication de
velopment is international news exposure by printed & elect
ronics media. Printed media agencies like Associated Press
, Reuter, and Agence France Press while electronic visual
media likes Reuters and World Television Network (WTN) w
ere among international media firm which play main roles in
these process.
 Do we need to regulate media at all?
Four of the main international organizations involv
ed in regulating and governing the media at the gl
obal level are:
1. International Telecommunication Union (ITU);
2. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultur
al Organization (UNESCO);
3. Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and N
umbers (ICANN); &
4. World Trade Organization (WTO) stand out.
Continues ….
 Globalization has various aspects which affect the world in several different ways suc
h as:
1. Industrial (alias trans nationalization) - emergence of worldwide production markets a
nd broader access to a range of goods for consumers and companies
2. Financial - emergence of worldwide financial markets and better access to external fi
nancing for corporate, national and sub-national borrowers
3. Economic - realization of a global common market, based on the freedom of exchang
e of goods and capital.
4. Political - Political globalization is the creation of a world government which regulates
the relationships among nations and guarantees the rights arising from social and ec
onomic globalization.
5. Informational - increase in information flows between geographically remote locations
6. Cultural - growth of cross-cultural contacts; advent of new categories of consciousne
ss and identities such as Globalism - which embodies cultural diffusion, the desire to
consume and enjoy foreign products and ideas, adopt new technology and practices,
and participate in a "world culture".
7. Ecological- the advent of global environmental challenges that can not be solved with
out international cooperation, such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air
pollution, over-fishing of the ocean, and the spread of invasive species.
8. Social - the achievement of free circulation by people of all nations.
9. Transportation - Fewer and fewer American cars on American roads each year.
Continues ….
 Greater international cultural exchange
1. Spreading of multiculturalism, and better individual access to c
ultural diversity (e.g. through the export of Hollywood and Bolly
wood movies). However, the imported culture can easily suppla
nt the local culture, causing reduction in diversity through hybri
dization or even assimilation. The most prominent form of this i
s Westernization, but Sinicization of cultures has taken place o
ver most of Asia for many centuries.
2. Greater international travel and tourism
3. Greater immigration, including illegal immigration
4. Spread of local consumer products (e.g. food) to other countrie
s (often adapted to their culture)
5. World-wide fads and pop culture such as Pokemon, Idol series,
YouTube, Black Mental, Hip-Hop, and etc.
6. World-wide sporting events such as FIFA World Cup and the E
nglish Premier League (EPL), Olympics Games & etc.
7. Formation or development of a set of universal values.
Continues ….
 Impact of Globalizations on Developing Co
1. Trade
2. Capital movements
3. Movement of people
4. Spread of knowledge (and technology)
 Debate abounds over whether globalization i
s good or bad for the self, the family, the nati
on, and the world. Some pessimists see incr
eased interdependence as a terribly destruc
tive trend, while optimists see a more divers
e, better life for all. Some people argue that t
he world is no more globalize than it was in t
he waning days of the British Empire, but so
me see an information revolution that is unp
aralleled in history and widespread in its imp
Transformation of Traditional S
ociety Into A Modern Society
Social Change:
Changing of attitudes and norms
Adoption of innovation
Better income

Communication & Change:

Top-down Strategy
Mass Media As ‘Magic Multiplier’
Continues ….
Rethinking of the Dominant Paradigm”
stressing popular participation, self-reliance, and t
he empowerment of people involved in social cha
requires a communication model that describes th
e process of dialogue, horizontal information shari
ng, mutual understanding, agreement, and collecti
ve action.
requires a model of social change based on com
munity dialogue and collective action that specifie
s social as well as individual outcomes.
Continues ….
The Process (How it can Happen?):
 First level – accessibility
 Second level – usage
 Third level – outcomes

 End Poverty and Hunger
 Universal Education
 Gender Equality
 Child Health
 Maternal Health
 Combat HIV/AIDS
 Environmental Sustainability
 Global Partnership
Continues ….
Communication as Dialogue:
 Dialogue cannot occur between those who deny oth
er men the right to speak their word and those whos
e right to speak has been denied them.
 Dialogue cannot be carried in a climate of hopelessn
 Without dialogue there is no communication, and wit
hout communication there can be no true education
Strength of Weak Ties
 The emergence of the Internet and its extensive glob
al networks has given traditional, interpersonal face-
to-face horizontal communication a sizable boost.
 The masses who find it difficult to make themselves
heard can now depend on the Internet as a method
of expressing their views and initiating change.
 Globalization is much like fire. Fire itself is neither go
od nor bad (kecil jadi kawan, besar jadi lawan).
 ICT as alternatives enhance national development, n
ational unity, .
 While some people think of globalization as primarily
a synonym for global business, it is much more than
 As Friedman says: "[Globalization] can be incredibly
empowering and incredibly coercive. It can democrat
ize opportunity and democratize panic. It makes the
whales bigger and the minnows stronger. It leaves y
ou behind faster and faster, and it catches up to you
faster and faster. While it is homogenizing cultures, it
is also enabling people to share their unique individu
ality farther and wider."
Tutorial Task
1. Give an accessible overview of globalizatio
n & the pivotal role of the media.
2. Find the concepts & theories of globalizatio
3. What are the consequences of the globali
zation of communications?