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The Philippine Bureaucracy and Stat

e of Affairs
By Latiza, Cyrel Mallie

Definition of Bureaucracy
A bureaucracy is a large organization that is structured
hierarchically to carry out specific functions.

Administration of a government chiefly through bureaus or

departments staffed with nonelected officials.

The definition of bureaucracy means government

workers, or a group that makes official decisions
following an established process.

An example of a bureaucracy is the staff that runs a city hall.


The term "bureaucracy" originated in the French

language: it combines the French word bureau –
desk or office with the Greek word κράτος (kratos)-
rule or political power. The French economist
Jacques Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay
(1712-1759) coined the word in the mid-18th century.
Purpose of Bureaucracy

The purpose of a bureaucracy is the efficient

administration of rules, regulations, and

Governments, businesses, and other

institutions such as colleges and universities
have bureaucracies by
Purpose of Bureaucracy

They permit the performance of large-scale tasks

without the complex, yet systematic, organization
thata bureaucracy can provide, we could not
much of what we now take for granted. The emergence
of formal organizations can be traced back to the early
societies that began to under-take social projects and
tasks of increasingly larger proportions and
dimensions (Blau & Meyer, 1971).
State of Affairs defined…
The state of affairs is the combination of
circumstances applying within a society or group
at a particular time.

The current state of affairs

may be considered acceptable by many
observersbut not necessarily by all. The state of
affairs may present a challenge, or be
complicated, or contain a conflict of interest. The
status quo represents
the existing state of affairs. 
State of Affairs in Philippine Bureaucracy

The Philippine bureaucracy was traditionally

involved in service delivery and policy
implementation, but external and internal
pressures has made it a policy-making
power. The bureaucracy's performance is
important because it is attributed to be the
executive's performance that is, the
President's performance.
State of Affairs in Philippine Bureaucracy

The bureaucratic model is characterized thus: “being

lazy, rule-minded, rigid, wasteful and eager to retain
power” (Goodsell: 2000); “engulfed in a cocoon of
indifference, ignorance, incoherence and inefficiency.”
(Sosmeña: n.d.)
State of Affairs in Philippine Bureaucracy

According to PERC survey ( Political and Economic

Risk Consultancy),

In Asia, the Philippines belongs to the list of the

“Most Inefficient Bureaucracies in Asia” which
was ranked as third while India is in the first
spot then followed by Indonesia.
State of Affairs in Philippine Bureaucracy

The government "goes through the motion" of

addressing problems of bureaucratic red
tape "but nothing has really made a dent in
the problem," PERC said.

"Illegal fixing is well-entrenched in the Philippine

bureaucracy," it said, referring to people called
"fixers" who offer to facilitate transactions with
government offices for a fee and often in
collaboration with corrupt employees.
Characteristics of Philippine

Vulnerability to Nepotism Perpetuation of the Spoils

The substructures of small kinship
groups, members of the family
groups by consanguinity, by Classify service, unclassified
affinity,and by and temporary positions
ritual kinship (compadre) give top which have become
priority to family loyalty. convinient instruments for
Within such groupings, all of them
feel that they are under obligation
the practice of nepotism, of
to help patronage, and of influence
each other in a variety of ways. peddling.
Characteristics of Philippine
Apathetic public reaction of Lack of independence from
bureaucratic misconduct. politics
The people looked upon the Due to the absences of “class
consciousness” and a feeling of
phenomenon as a unity on the part of the Filipino
concomitant result of the bureaucrats and the stigma of
increasing complexity of the post- World War II ill-repute, the
government, a method of Philippine bureaucracy’s “merit
system” was easily subject to
political promises to the attack and tampering by
unemployed and politicians.
underemployed segment of the
Characteristics of Philippine
Essential instrument of Survival of historical
social change experience
The Philippine bureaucracy was
In spite of its weaknesses, the administered according to a civil
Philippine bureaucracy’s law system which the Spanish
function in nation-building will bureaucracy as the scapegoat for all
be as big, as complicated, and the weaknesses of the Philippine
as demanding as the function political bureaucracy. There are
indications, however that the
of the whole society itself.
weaknesses are not to be directly
Primarily, it will have to be a attributed to the Spanish
tool for innovations. government bureaucracy.
Characteristics of Philippine
Availability of external peaceful means
of correcting bureaucratic weakness
Devices, such as constitutional
rights and privileges- freedom of
speech, freedom of the press,
freedom of assembly, civic action
have been used for rectifying the
defects and misdeeds of
Philippine Bureaucratic Behavior

Conformity to Policies

Bureaucracy stresses unquestioning

compliance through organizational policies,
rules and regulations.

E.g. The Filipino is Authoritarian. When power is

given to him, he makes known to everyone that
he is the boss.
Philippine Bureaucratic Behavior

Preference toward continuity and


Bureaucracy puts much emphasis on

specialization hence, there is a general
preference for the bureaucrats to
maintain the status quo in the
Philippine Bureaucratic Behavior
Loss of self- direction or
self- assertion

The Filipino bureaucrats tend to

submerge themselves into a collective mode of decision- making
and responsibility that defines bureaucratic structure.

E.g. Patience in accepting and bearing consequences in life

which may or may not involve hardwork that involves deep
abiding faith that supernatural spirits will, in the long run,
reward them with good fortune for their patience and
endurance of difficulties.
Philippine Bureaucratic Behavior

Politically Supportive

The bureaucratic system in the Philippines tend to

support the political party in power. The Filipinos are
status oriented. Authority figures determine, to a large
extent, the satisfaction or frustation of the Filipino’s
aspiration for social acceptance, economic security
and social mobility.
E.g. The Filipino is Authoritarian. When power is
given to him, he makes known to everyone that
he is the boss.
Bureaucratic Pathologies

There are five major problems with bureaucracies: red tape,

conflict, duplication, imperialism, and waste.

1. Red tape is the existence of complex rules and

procedures that must be followed to get something done. Any
large organization must have some way of ensuring that one
part of the organization does not operate out of step with
Bureaucratic Pathologies

2. Conflict exists when some agencies work at

cross-purposes with other agencies. The
Agricultural Research Service tells farmers how to
grow crops more efficiently, while the Agricultural
Stabilization and Conservation Service pays
farmers to grow fewer crops. Because Congress
has little strong leadership, it is not surprising that
it passes laws that promote
inconsistent or even contradictory goals.
Bureaucratic Pathologies

3. Duplication occurs when two government

agencies seem to be doing the same thing,
such as when the Customs Service and the
Drug Enforcement Administration both
attempt to intercept illegally smuggled
Bureaucratic Pathologies

4. Imperialism refers to the tendency of agencies

to grow without regard to the benefits their
programs confer or the costs they entail.
Because government agencies seek vague
goals and have vague mandates from Congress,
it is not surprising that they often take the
broadest possible view of their powers. If they
do not, interest groups and judges may prod
them into doing so.
Bureaucratic Pathologies

5. Waste occurs when an agency spends more

than is necessary to buy some product or

An example would be the much-publicized

purchase of $300 hammers by the military.
As a social organization, bureaucracy has strong as well
as weak points. In spite of some negative characteristics,
it still the only systematized method of carrying out the
vital tasks of institution. Moreover, there are possible
solution to the problems. Each solutioms represent a
distinct method of improving its personnel
By Latiza, Cyrel Mallie