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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM.

Prepared by:-

MR. SAIHOU SANNEH


RN, RM, BSN&RH, FWACN.
LECTURER- SONM 1
BANJUL, THE GAMBIA.
PRESENTATION OUTLINE

• INTRODUCTION
• THE KEY WORDS (Terminologies)
• GENERAL FUNCTIONS
• GENERAL DESCRIPTION &
CLASSIFICATION OF BONES.

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INTRODUCTION
• The Skeletal system consist of about 206
named bones and their joints constitute
about 360.
• A discussion of all the bones and joint may
not be possible in one session.
• On that note, the bones forming the skeletal
system will be discussed.
• Their joints will be dealt on a later session.

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KEY WORDS
Projections for Muscles & Ligaments attachments.
• TUBEROSITY:- a rough large rounded knob or projection.
• TUBERCLE:- a smaller knob on a tuberosity
• TROCHANTER:- a very large, irregular, blunt projection on
a bone.
• CREST:- a rough narrow distinct border or ridge.
• RIDGE:- a raised portion on a bone
• PROCESS:- any bony prominence
• SPINE:- a sharp pointed projection from the surface of a
bone.
• SPINOUS PROCESS:- a slender/sharp projection.
• CONDYL:- a large rounded knob or articular projection.
• EPICONDYL:- a smaller prominence above a condyl. 4
KEY WORDS Cont’d..
Projections that help to form joints.
• HEAD:- a bony expansion carried on a narrow neck.
• FACET:- a smooth, flattened surface of joints
attachment.
• RAMUS:- an arm-like bar of bone

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KEY WORDS Cont’d.
Depressions & Openings for blood vessels &
nerves passage.
• FISSURE:- Is a cleft or narrow slit-like opening.
• FORAMEN: a hole or opening between bones
that allow passage for nerves & blood vessels.
• SINUS:- a hollow air filled space through a bone.
• FOSSA:- a shallow depression on a bone
• MEATUS:- a short tunnel or canal.

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KEY WORDS Cont’d.
• ANTERIOR:- Situated in front.
• POSTERIOR:- Situated at the back.
• SUPERIOR:- Situated above or at the
upper part.
• INFERIOR:- Situated below or down.
• LATERAL:- Situated at side by side or
parallel.

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GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL
SYSTEM
1. Provides protection for the internal delicate
organs such as the brain, heart and lungs.
2. Provides support & attachment for muscles &
ligaments to facilitate movement.
3. Provides the sturdy frame work of the body.
4. Stores calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and
flouride.
5. Produces RBCs & platelets that helps to
maintain the body’s haemoglobin content.
6. Produces WBCs that helps in maintaining
protection against micro-organisms.
7. Produces lipids (fat) for the body.
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8. Helps in walking, running, standing and sitting.
TYPES OF BONES
Bones come in many different sizes and shapes.
These include:
• LONG BONES:- are naturally longer and wide.
They are mostly compact bones. E.g. The
Femur.
• SHORT BONES:- are generally cube-shaped and
contain mostly spongy bone. E.g The Carpals.
• SESAMOID BONES:- are special bones of short
bones found deep in tendons. E.g. The Knee
Cap
• FLAT BONES:- are thin, flattened and usually
curved. E.g. The Ilium
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GENERAL CLASSIFICATION
OF BONES.
• The bones of the skeletal system can be
broadly divided into 3 main divisions for
easy understanding. These are:-
1. BONES OF THE SKULL
2. BONES OF THE TRUNK
3. BONES OF THE APPENDICULAR

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THE BONES OF THE SKULL
The bones of the skull forms the framework of the
head. They can be divided into two parts.
THE BASE also called floor
THE VAULT also called calvarias
The skull can also be easily divided into two types
of bones.
a. CRANIAL BONES:- Forms the rounded box that
encloses and protects the brain.
b.FACIAL BONES:- forms the framework of the face
and open areas for the eyes, nose and mouth.
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THE CRANIAL BONES
• There are 8 cranial bones that enclose and
protect the brain. These are:-
1 FRONTAL BONE:- Forms the forehead, front of
the skull’s roof over the eyes & nasal cavities.
It contain air spaces called frontal sinuses that
link with the nasal cavities.
2 PARIETAL BONES:- Forms most part of the top
and side walls of the cranium.
2 TEMPORAL BONES:- Forms part of the sides
and base of the skull. It contains the mastoid
sinus, entire middle & inner ear, jugular
foramen, zygomatic process & styloid process.
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THE CRANIAL BONES Cont’d.
1 ETHMOID BONE:- Is a very light and fragile
bone located between the eyes. It forms part
of the medial wall of the eye sockets, a small
portion of the cranial floor and much of the
nasal septum.
1 OCCIPITAL BONE:- Forms the back and part
of the base of the skull. It contains a big
opening called FORAMEN MAGNUM which
opens for the spinal cord to communicate
with the brain.

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THE CRANIAL BONES Cont’d.
1 SPHENOID BONE:- This bone when seen from
above, it resembles a bat or butterfly flying with its
wings extended. It lies at the base of the skull in
front of the temporal bone.
The sphenoid bone has 5 very important openings:
i) Optic Canal:- This opens for the optic nerve.
ii)Superior Orbital fissure:- Opens for the cranial
nerves iii, iv and vii. (Oculomotor, Trochlear &
Facial)
iii)Foramen Rotundum:- Is round in shape and
opens for the maxilla branch of the trigeminal
nerve. 14
THE CRANIAL BONES Cont’d.
iv) Foramen Oval:- Is oval is shape and opens
for the mandibular nerve and blood vessels.
v) Foramen Spinosum:- Transmits for the
middle meningeal artery.

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THE SPHENOID BONE

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THE CRANIAL BONES Cont’d.

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THE CRANIAL BONES Cont’d.

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THE FACIAL BONES.
There are 14 facial bones that form the
framework of the face and open areas in the
skull. These are:-
2 MAXILLA BONES:- They fuse in the midline
to form the upper jaw bone and roof of the
mouth (hard palate). They contain sinuses
that link with the nasal cavity.
1 MANDIBULAR BONE:- Is sometimes called
the JAW BONE. It is the only movable bone
in the skull located below the maxilla bone.
2 NASAL BONES:- they lie side by side forming
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the bridge of the nose.
FACIAL BONES CONT’D..
2 ZYGOMATIC BONES:- Forms the
prominence of the cheeks on the sides.
2 LACRIMAL BONES:-Appear like the size
of a thumb finger nail. They lie near the
inside corners of the eye.
2 PALATINE BONES:- They form the back
part of the hard palate (roof of mouth).

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FACIAL BONES CONT’D..
2 INFERIOR NASAL CONCHEA:- These bone
extend horizontally along the lateral wall of
the nasal cavity. They form part of the
Ethmoid bone.
1 VOLMER BONE:- This bone is shaped like a
blade located deep inside.
In addition to the bones of the Cranium and
Facial bones, there are 3 small bones in the
middle ear called Ossicles – (Malleus, Anvil &
Stapes).
There is also a single U-shaped bone just below
the skull proper called HYOID BONE. It
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attaches the tongue to other muscles.
FACIAL BONES

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BONES OF THE SKULL
CONT’D..
• The cranial bones and the Facial bones are united by
slit of seam called SUTURES. There are many
Sutures but 4 are of most importance. These are:-
• SAGGITAL SUTURE:- Found between the two
parietal bones and Fontanelles.
• CORONAL SUTURE:- Found between the two
parietal bones and the frontal bone.
• SQUAMOUS SUTURE:- found between the parietal
and temporal bones.
• LAMBDOIDAL SUTURE:- Found between the
occipital bone and parietal bone.
Where sutures meet are called FONTANELLES. There
are 2 main fontanelles that usually not visible in
adults. 23
BONES OF THE SKULL
CONT’D..
• ANTERIOR FONTANELLE:- Found at the
junction between the two parietal bones and
frontal bones, at the junction of the frontal,
coronal and saggital sutures. It is diamond in
shape and sometimes referred to as BREGMA.
It closes at 18 months.
• POSTERIOR FONTENELLE:- Found at the
junction between the parietal bones and
occipital bone. It is triangular in shape and is
sometimes referred to as LAMBDA. It closes
at the age of 6 months.
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SKULL BONE SUTURES

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2. THE BONES OF THE
TRUNK
The bones of the Trunk can be divided
into two main types. These are:-
THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN and
THE BONY THORAX (CHEST).

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THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
• The Vertebral column generally supports the
weight of the body. It is composed of 33
bones called vertebrae. It is divided into 5
regions called curvatures. These regions are:
• CERVICAL CURVATURE:- Forms the neck.
Has 7 cervical vertebrae.
• THORACIC CURVATURE:- Forms the thorax.
Has 12 thoracic vertebrae.
• LUMBAR CURVATURE:- Forms the waist.
Has 5 lumbar vertebrae.
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THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
• SACRAL CURVATURE:- Forms part of the
buttocks. Has 5 fused sacral vertebrae.
• COCCYX CURVATURE:- Forms the lowest
part (tail). Has 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae.

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF A VERTEBRAE.
• Each of the vertebrae except the first two
cervical vertebrae has the following
characteristics:-
• BODY:- Drum-shaped and located to the
front. The body serves as the weight bearing
part. Has disks of cartilage that act as sock-
absorber and provide flexibility.
• AN ARCH and a FORAMEN(large hole in the
center)
• PROCESS:- projects backwards and can be
felt under the skin. They are of 3 types
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(1 Spinous, 2 Transverse & 4 Articular).
SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE VERTEBRAE.
CERVICAL VERTEBRAE
• They all have 2 openings into the
transverse processes.
• Their vertebral foramina is triangular in
shape and big.
• Their spinous process is split and
directed posteriorly.
• They have 2 small holes for nerves and
blood vessel passages. 30
SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS
OF THE VERTEBRAE Cont’d..
CERVICAL VERTEBRA 1
• It is called the ATLAS. It articulates with the
head and facilitates in nodding the head as in
saying “YES”. It has a body, anterior &
posterior arch, transverse process and a big
foramina.
CERVICAL VERTEBRA 2
It is called the AXIS. It helps in moving the
head sideways as in saying “NO”. It has a
spinous process that resembles a tooth
called DENS or ODONTOID. 31
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A

THORACIC VERTEBRAE
• They are located in the thoracic region.
• They have a large body.
• They have a spinous process that slopes
down posteriorly and inferiorly.
• Round vertebral foramina.
• They have articular demi facets that joins
and articulates with the head of rib.

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A
LUMBAR VERTEBRAE
Their body is biggest.
Their foramen in triangular in shape.
The spinous process is wide, rectangular in
shape and directed posteriorly’

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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A
SACRAL VERTEBRAE
Composed 5 fused sacral vertebrae and appear
wedged in shape. It forms the back of pelvis.
The first vertebrae has a large wing called ALA
which allow articulation with the hip bone.
At the mid line of the sacral vertebrae is a
protuberance called Sacral Promontory.
The sacrum has 2 faces. The anterior is smooth
and concave called hollow of sacrum. It contains
4 holes on either sides called sacral foramina for
nerves and blood vessels passage.
The posterior is rough and convex for muscles
attachment. 34
SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS
OF COCCYGEAL VERTEBRAE.
- Composed of 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae.
- They appear triangular in shape.
- They do not have a foramen and have short
spinous process.

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B) BONES OF THE THORAX
(CHEST)
• The bones of the thorax are the RIB
BONES and the STERNUM.
• They form the a cone-shaped cage
called the Thorax (Chest).

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THE RIB BONE
CHARACTERISTICS
• There are 12 pairs of ribs with the following
characteristics:-
• HEAD:- small and articulates with the
thoracic vertebrae.
• NECK
• TUBERCULE:- articulate with the transverse
process of the thoracic vertebrae.
• FORROWS:- also called SULCUS COSTALIS
or INTERCOSTAL SPACE for muscles, blood
vessels and nerve attachment.
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THE RIB BONE
CHARACTERISTICS CONT’D
• The first 7 ribs are called TRUE RIBS.
• Ribs 8th, 9th and 10th are called FALSE
RIBS.
• Ribs 11th and 12th are called FLOATING
RIBS.

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THE RIB BONES

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THE STERNUM
CHARACTERISTICS
• The sternum has 3 parts located in the
mediastinum:-
• Manubrim:- looks like a knife handle.
• Body.
• Xiphoid Process
• The sternum has a jugular notch in the middle and a
clavicular notch on the sides.
• Between the Manubrim and the body is a prominence
called STERNOX.
• This allows the sternum to raise forward in deep breathing.
• Between the body and xiphoid process is a joint called
xiphisternal joint.
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3. THE APPENDICULAR
SKELETON
• The Appendicular skeleton is
composed of two main divisions:-
• The upper limbs referred to as
PECTORAL GIRDLE.
• The lower limbs referred to as PELVIC
GIRDLE.

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THE UPPER LIMBS
• The upper limb bones can be divided
into two parts;-
• Attached portion – composed of the
CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.
• Free portion – composed of the
HUMERUS, ULNA, RADIUS and HAND.
The hand is composed of carpals,
metacarpals & phalanges.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF BONES OF
THE UPPER LIMBS
THE CLAVICLE.
• This bone is also referred to as Collar Bone.
• It is composed of two ends:-
• STERNAL END – which is round and concave
to join with the sternum.
• ACROMIAL END – is rough.
• It has two surfaces:-
• SUPERIOR SURFACE – is smooth.
• INFERIOR SURFACE – is irregular.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF BONES OF
THE UPPER LIMBS
THE SCAPULA
• This bone is also referred to as the Shoulder
Blade.
• It is a flat bone and can be felt as the highest
point of the shoulder.
• It has 3 angles or borders (superior, medial &
lateral). It has 2 surfaces called:-
ANTERIOR SURFACE:- is flat and
smooth.
POSTERIOR SURFACE:- contains the
spine of the scapula called ACROMION.44
CHARACTERISTICS OF BONES OF
THE UPPER LIMBS
THE SCAPULA CONT’D...
• The Scapula also has another process called
CARACIOD PROCESS that resembles a bent
finger.
• The caracoid process forms a cavity called
GLENOID CAVITY.
• This cavity articulates with to form the
scapulo-humerus joint.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF BONES OF
THE UPPER LIMBS
THE HUMERUS
• Is a long bone often referred to as the arm bone.
• It has 2 ends- PROXIMAL END (Head & neck).
• The head has 2 tubercles (Greater & lesser).
• The DISTAL END articulate with the ulna & radius.
• The Humerus has 2 surfaces called:-
ATERIOR SURFACE – contains two fossas that
articulates with the heads of ulna and raduis.
POSTERIOR SURFACE – also has a fossa called
Olecranium.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF BONES
OF THE UPPER LIMBS
THE HUMERUS CONT’D..
• It also has 2 Condyles called:-
TROCHLEA (middle part) – articulates with the
ulna bone.
CAPITULUM (small head) – articulates with the
head of radius.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF BONES OF
THE UPPER LIMBS
THE ULNA
• This is long bone.
• It has 2 ends called:-
• PROXIMAL END – resembles the neck of a
snake. The proximal end also has 2
processes called OLECRANON and
CORACOID processes of ulna. Between
these two processes, there is a notch called
TROCHLEA NOTCH where the Trochlea
nerve passes. On the lateral side of the
proximal end, there is an articular facet 48
called the RADIAL FACET.
CHARACTERISTICS OF BONES
OF THE UPPER LIMBS
THE ULNA CONT’D..
THE DISTAL END- This part has a head
and a process called styloid process.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF BONES
OF THE UPPER LIMBS
THE RADIUS
• Is also a long bone.
• It has two ends called:-
PROXIMAL END – is smaller and
contains the head and neck of radius.
THE DISTAL END – is bigger and has a
sharp process called styloid process of
radius.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF BONES
OF THE UPPER LIMBS
THE HAND
• It contain short bones also called WRIST.
• It articulates with the radius.
• It has 3 types of bones(Proximal, Medial &
distal).
PROXIMAL BONES – these are 8 arranged in
two rows of 4 and are called CARPALS.
The first 4 are- Scaphoid, Lunate, triquetral &
Pisiform.
The second 4 are – Trapezium, trapezoid,
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Capitate & Hamate.
CHARACTERISTICS OF BONES
OF THE UPPER LIMBS
THE HAND CONT’D..
THE MEDIAL BONES – these are 5 and are
called METACARPALS. They form the
framework of the hand.
THE DISTAL BONES – are 14 and are called
PHALANGES or FINGERS. They form the
framework of fingers.
The first 4 have three ends (proximal, medial &
distal ends), while the Thumb has only two
ends (proximal & distal).
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UPPER LIMB BONES

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UPPER LIMB BONES

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BONES OF THE LOWER
LIMBS
• These bone are sometimes referred to as the
Hip Bone or Bony Pelvis (Pelvic Girdle).
GENERAL FUNCTIONS
• Supports the trunk and organs in the lower
abdomen like urinary bladder, part of
intestines and reproductive organs like
uterus, ovaries and oviducts.
• Assist in walking, running, standing and
sitting.
• Gives shape to the waist.
• Is the canal through which the fetus must
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pass during normal delivery.
BONES OF THE LOWER
LIMBS
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
• The bony pelvis consist of 3 independent
bones during childhood called ILIUM,
ISCHIUM and PUBIS.
• At adulthood, these bones are fused together
into one called PELVIS.
• The Pelvis is a strong bony ring composed
of two hip bones that form the sides and
front of the ring and one sacrum that form
the back.
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• Each hip has 3 parts (Ilium, Ischium & Pubis)
BONES OF THE LOWER LIMBS….
(THE PELVIC BONES)
a) THE ILIUM
• Forms the flarred-out portion of the pelvis.
• It has 2 surfaces called:-
ANTERIOR SURFACE – smooth & concave
called Iliac Fossa. Below the fossa, is a
ridge/ring called ilio-pectineal line that
separates it with the pelvic brim/inlet. Above
the fossa, is another rigde called ILIAC
CREST on which the hand rests when placed
on the hip. Anteriorly, the iliac crest ends at a
sharp end called Anterior-superior iliac spine
above, and below it ends at the anterior-
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inferior iliac spine.
BONES OF THE LOWER LIMBS….
(THE PELVIC BONES)
a) THE ILIUM cont’d..
THE POSTERIOR SURFACE - rough and
irregular for muscles attachment. Posteriorly,
the iliac crest ends at a sharp end called
posterior-superior iliac spine above, and
below it ends at the posterior-inferior iliac
spine. On the postrior aspect of the ilium,
there is a large depression called
Acetabulum where the ilium, ischium & pubis
meet.
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BONES OF THE LOWER LIMBS….
(THE PELVIC BONES)
b) THE ISCHIUM
• It is the lowest and strongest part. It has 2
sharp projections called Ischial Spines that
forms the bases for determining the progress
of labor in women. Below the spines is a
large protuberance called Ischial Tuberosity.
This part help to support the weight of the
body when one sits.

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BONES OF THE LOWER LIMBS….
(THE PELVIC BONES)
c) THE PUBIS
• These bones form the anterior (front) part.
The two anterior ends join to form the
Symphysis Pubis.
• Each pubic bone divides into two small
bones called Rami, one runnig upwards and
one downwards. This creates a large opening
called Obturator Foramen where the nerves
& blood vessels pass.

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THE PELVIC BONES

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BONES OF THE LOWER
LIMBS
THE FEMUR
• The femur is a long bone called thigh bone.
• It has 2 parts.
PROXIMAL END - called Shaft. It contain the
head of femur which has two projections
called Trochanters (Greater & Lesser).
DISTAL END - has two condyles (Medial &
Lateral condyles). Between the condyles is a
notch called intercondylar notch.
The distal end also contain the KNEE CAP or
PATELLA buried deep in the tendon. 62
BONES OF THE LOWER
LIMBS
THE TIBIA
• The Tibia is a long bone also called SHINE
BONE. It is the weight-bearing bone.
• It has two ends called:-
PROXIMAL END – has 2 condyles (medial &
lateral).
DISTAL END - is small and contains a Medial
Malleolus and Articular Facet.
- The tibia has a sharp anterior ridge/tuberosity
that can be felt at the surface.
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BONES OF THE LOWER
LIMBS
THE FIBULA
• Is a long bone.
• It does reach the knee joint and
therefore is not a weight-bearing bone.
• It has a Lateral Malleolus that forms the
ankle.

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BONES OF THE LOWER LIMBS
THE FOOT
• The foot is composed of short bones similar
to the hand. It is divided into 3 types of
bones(Proximal, Medial & Distal).
PROXIMAL BONES - are 8 arranged in two rows
of 4 called TARSALS. The first 4 are:-Talus or
Astragalus, Calcaneus, Navicular/Ship and
cuboid. The second 4 are all called Cineiform.
They all form the framework of the ankle.
THE MEDIAL BONES – are 5 called
METATARSALS and they form the framework
of the sole.
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BONES OF THE LOWER
LIMBS
THE FOOT CONT’D..
THE DISTAL BONES – are 13 called
PHALLANGES or TOE BONES and they
form the framework of the toes.

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LOWER LIMB BONES

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LOWER LIMB BONES

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LOWER LIMB BONES

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BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE BONE
• The Blood Supply to the Bone is from:-
• NUTRIENT ARTERY:- supply the center
of bone.
• EPIPHYSEAL ARTERY:- enters the end
part of the bone through the epiphysis.
• PERIOSTEAL ARTERY:- enters the
periosteum.
• VENOUS RETURN:- is from the
corresponding veins.
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THE END

THANK YOU

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