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Marine Electrical Engineering

( A CONDENSED VERSION FOR EMTI STUDENTS)

AC FUNDAMENTALS
EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH
EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

Advantages of using
Alternating Current
 For the same power, An AC Generator/Motor
is smaller, less space consuming and cheaper.
 Maintenance problems associated with the use
of Commutator and brushes etc. eliminated.
 Voltages can be stepped up to higher values
by using Transformers. This helps in
transmission of Power economically over long
distances

(FOR TRAINING ONLY)


EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

Advantages of using
Direct Current
 Higher starting torque as required for
traction devices is possible with DC
motors.
 Finer Speed control possible with simple
cheap devices.
 Constant voltage as required for Electro-
plating and Battery Charging possible.

(FOR TRAINING ONLY)


EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

AC Terminology - 1
 An alternating quantity is one which acts in
alternate directions and whose magnitude
undergoes a definite cycle of changes at
definite intervals of time.
 A Cycle – a complete change in value and
direction of alternating quantity
 Period – time taken to complete one cycle
 Frequency(Hz) – Number of Cycles per
Second of an alternating quantity.

(FOR TRAINING ONLY)


EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

Terminology-1
EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

AC Terminology-2
 Amplitude – Highest value of current or
voltage in a half cycle.(Also called the
maximum value)
 Instantaneous value – Value at any instant
over the whole cycle.
 Sine curve – is the curve of an alternating
quantity in which all the instantaneous values
are proportional to the sine of the angle
moved.
(FOR TRAINING ONLY)
EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

Terminology-2
EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

AC Terminology-3
 Phase Angle – The angular displacement
between two or more alternating quantities.
 In Phase – If two alternating quantities reach
their maximum or minimum value at one and
the same time, they are said to be in phase.
 Out of Phase – If two alternating quantities
reach their maximum or minimum value at
different times keeping an equal phase angle
between them, they are said to be out of
phase.
(FOR TRAINING ONLY)
Terminoloy - 3
Alternating waveforms
“in-phase” & “out-of-phase”

VOLTAGE CURRRENT IN-PHASE OUT-OF-PHASE


EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

AC Terminology-4
 Inductive Reactance(xL)- The effective opposition
offered by a pure inductor to the flow of an
alternating current. It is measured in Ohms.
 Capacitive Reactance(xC)- The effective opposition
offered by a pure capacitor to the flow of an
alternating current. It is measured in Ohms.
 Impedance(Z) – The total effective opposition
offered by a series or parallel circuit containing
resistance, inductance and capacitance to the flow of
an alternating current. It is measured in Ohms.
 Power Factor – The ratio between the True Power
and the Apparent Power
(FOR TRAINING ONLY)
EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

Power Factor – Its significance

TRUE POWER
P OWER FACTOR = --------------------------- = COS O
AP PARENT POWER

WITH REFERENCE TO AC POWER GENERATION, APPARENT POWER IS TH E CAPACITY O F TH E ALTERNATOR IN 'KVA'


AND TH E TRUE P OWER IS TH E ACTUAL POWER DELIVERED TO TH E LOAD IN 'KW'

LOAD IN KW
P OWER FACTOR = --------------------------- = COS O
KVA OF ALTERNATOR

IF A LOAD OF PF 0.9 IS CONNECTED TO A 500KVA ALTERNATOR, TH E ACTUAL POWER DELIVERED = 450 KW


IF A LOAD OF PF 0.8 IS CONNECTED TO A 500 KVA ALTERNATOR, TH E ACTUAL POWER DELIVERED = 400 KW
IF A LOAD OF PF 0.6 IS CONECTED TO A 500 KVA ALTERNATOR, TH E ACTUAL POWER DELIVERED = 300 KW

TH E PF OF TH E LOAD DECIDES TH E SIZE OF ALTERNATOR, CABLES ETC.


FOR TH E SAME POWER, A LOWER PF INCREASES TH E CURRENT, COPPER LOSSES ETC AND.
DECREASES TH E EFFICIENCY OF GENRATION AND DISTRIBUTION
SUP PLY AUTH ORITIES COMP EL TH E CONSUMERS TO IMPROVE TH EIR PF BY SLAPPING PENALTY CH ARGES FOR P OOR PF

INDUCTIVE LOADS LIKE MOTOR,TUBELIGH TING ETC DECREASE TH E PF, TH E SYSTEM PF CAN BE IMPROVED BY
ADDING CAPACITIVE LOADS LIKE PF CORRECTION CAPACITO RS AND OVER-EXCITED SYNCH RONOUS MOTORS
EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

Current in A.C.Circuit
 In D.C. Circuit , value of current (I) is given by I = V/R
 In A.C. Circuit, this simple relationship does not hold
good.
 Variations in current set up magnetic effects. With
comparative low-voltage and high currents, magnetic
effects may be large.
 Variations in voltage set up electrostatic effects. In high-
voltage circuits, electrostatic effects are usually
appreciable .
 The current in an A.C.Circuit takes into all the effects
produced by the various components in the circuit

(FOR TRAINING ONLY)


EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

AC circuit with
Resistance only

V
VOLTAGE AND CURRENT WAVEFORMS ARE IN PH ASE
R I
I
I V
V

POWER PULSATES BETWEEN ZERO AND CERTAIN MAXIMUM


AND IS ALWAYS POSITIVE
FREQUENCY OF POWER CURVE IS TWICE TH E SUPPLY
POWER CURVE MEAN P OWER FREQUENCY
POSITIVE POWER INDICATES POWER IS DELIVERED TO
TH E LOAD
SH ADED AREAS REPRESENT ENERGY (POWER X TIME)

(FOR TRAINING ONLY)


EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

AC Circuit with
Inductance only

V V
I
L TH E CURRENT CURVE LAGS TH E VOLTAGE CURVE BY 90°%D%%

I I
POWER CURVE IS A SINE CURVE OF DOUBLE TH E FREQUENCY
V OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT

A POSITIVE POWER INDICATES TH AT POWER IS SUPPLIED TO


TH E LOAD.
+ +
A NEGATIVE POWER INDICATES TH AT POWER IS RETURNED
FROM TH E LOAD TO TH E SOURCE.

POWER CURVE SH ADED AREAS REPRESENT ENERGY (POWER X TIME)

AREAS ABOVE H ORIZONTAL AXIS INDICATE TH AT ENERGY IS


SUPPLIED BY TH E SOURCE TO TH E CIRCUIT

AREAS BELOW TH E H ORIZONTAL AXIS INDICATE TH AT ENERGY


IS BEING RETURNED TO TH E SOURCE

REFERRING TO TH E POWER CURVE, IT WILL BE SEEN TH AT


TH E TOTAL AREA ABOVE TH E H ORIZONTAL AREA EQUALS TH E
- - AREAS BELOW TH E H ORIZONTAL AXIS. H ENCE TH E TOTAL
ENERGY SUPPLIED IS ZERO.

(FOR TRAINING ONLY)


EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

AC Circuit with
Capacitance Only

V
I
C I TH E CURRENT CURVE LEADS TH E VOLTAGE CURVE BY 90°%D%%

V P OWER CURVE IS A SINE CURVE OF DOUBLE TH E FREQUENCY


I V OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT

A P OSITIVE PO WER INDICATES TH AT P OWER I S SUP PLIED TO


TH E LOAD.
+ +
A NEGATIVE POWER INDICATES TH AT POWER IS RETURNED TO
TH E SOURCE

SH ADED AREAS REPRESENT ENERGY (POWER X TIME)


POWER CURVE
AREAS ABOVE H ORIZONTAL AXIS INDICATE TH AT ENERGY IS
SUP PLIED TO TH E CIRCUIT

AREAS BELOW TH E H O RIZO NTAL AXIS INDICATE TH AT ENERGY


IS BEING RETURNED TO TH E SOURCE

REFERRING TO TH E P OWER CURVE, IT WILL BE SEEN TH AT


TH E TOTAL AREA ABOVE TH E H ORIZONTAL AREA EQUALS TH E
AREAS BELOW TH E H O RIZO NTAL AXIS. H ENCE TH E TOTAL
- -
ENERGY SUP PLIED IS ZERO.

(FOR TRAINING ONLY)


EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

AC Circuit with
Resistance and Inductance

CURRENT LAGS BEH IND TH E VOLTAGE BY AN ANGLE =


V V
L R I
I
I
POWER CURVE IS A SINE CURVE OF DOUBLE TH E FREQUENCY
V OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT

A P OSITIVE POWER INDICATES TH AT POWER IS SUPPLIED TO


TH E LOAD.
A NEGATIVE POWER INDICATES TH AT POWER I S RETURNED TO
TH E SOURCE
+ +
SHADED AREAS REPRESENT ENERGY (POWER X TIME)

AREAS ABOVE H ORIZONTAL AXIS INDICATE TH AT ENERGY IS


POWER CURVE SUPPLIED TO TH E CIRCUIT

MEAN POWER = VI Cos O AREAS BELOW TH E H ORIZONTAL AXIS INDICATE TH AT ENERGY


IS BEING RETURNED TO TH E SOURCE

REFERRING TO TH E POWER CURVE, IT WILL BE SEEN TH AT


TH E TOTAL AREA ABOVE TH E H ORIZONTAL AREA IS MORE TH AN
- - AREAS BELOW TH E H ORIZONTAL AXIS. HENCE TH E TOTAL NET
ENERGY SUPPLIED IS POSITIVE

(FOR TRAINING ONLY)


EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

Wattful and Wattless components of


Power in AC system

(FOR TRAINING ONLY)


EDITED BY: D.E.DHANSINGH

3-Phase Power Systems

(FOR TRAINING ONLY)