Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 19

GENDER IN

INTERNATIONAL
RELATIONS
WHAT IS GENDER?
DIFFERENT FROM SEX

◎Gender is the social construction of
sexual difference.
No Karakteristik Seks Gender
1 Sumber Tuhan Manusia (masyarakat)
Pembeda
3 Unsur Biologis (alat reproduksi) Kebudayaan; tingkah laku
Pembeda
4 Sifat Kodrati; tetap; tidak dapat
Harkat; martabat; dapat
dipertukarkan dipertukarkan
5 Dampak Terciptanya nilai-nilai Terciptanya norma/
kesempurnaan; ketentuan yg pantas/ tidak
kenikmatan; kedamaian; pantas yg dilakukan laki-
menguntungkan kedua laki/ perempuan;
pihak merugikan salah satu
pihak
6 Keberlakuan Sepanjang masa; Dapat berubah berdasar
tidakmengenal perbedaan waktu dan tempat;
kelas; universal berbeda antarkelas

Perbedaan antara Seks dan Gender


No MASCULINE TRAITS FEMININE TRAITS
1 Athletic, strong Weak, non-athletic
2 Worriless about appearance and Worry about appearance and aging
aging
3 Breadwinner Domestic
4 Sexually experienced Virginal
5 Unemotional Intuitive
6 Leader, dominating Follower, subservient
7 Stoic Scatterbrained, inconsistent

8 Independent, free Dependent, overprotective


9 Aggressive Passive
10 Success oriented, ambitious Easily intimidated, shy
Sumber : Smelser, 1981

GENDER STEREOTYPE
GENDER INEQUALITIES
◎SUBORDINATION
◎STEREOTYPING
◎MARGINALISATION
◎DOUBLE BURDEN
◎VIOLENCE
FEMINISM
◎a movement for the social advancement of
women.
◎As such, feminist theory is based on two
central beliefs: that women are disadvantaged
because of their sex; and that this
disadvantage can and should be overthrown.
Feminism
◎Feminism has taken a wide range of
forms, with distinctions particularly being
made between:
● feminist traditions orientated around
the goal of gender equality and
●those that place a greater emphasis
on women being ‘woman-identified’.
THE WAVE OF FEMINIST MOVEMENT
◎FIRST WAVE
The early form of feminism from the mid-
nineteenth century to the 1960s, which was
based on the liberal goal of sexual
equality in the areas of legal and political
rights, particularly suffrage rights.
THE WAVE OF FEMINIST MOVEMENT

SECOND WAVE
◎The form of feminism that emerged in the 1960s
and 1970s, and was characterized by a more radical
concern with ‘women’s liberation’, including, and
perhaps especially, in the private sphere.
◎the ‘politics of everyday life’, questions about
power structures in the family and personal and
sexual relationships between women and men.
RADICAL FEMINISM
◎A form of feminism that holds gender
divisions to be the most politically
significant of social cleavages, and
believes that these are rooted in the
structures of family or domestic life.
Liberal feminism:
◎ A form of feminism that is grounded
in the belief that sexual differences are
irrelevant to personal worth and calls for
equal rights for women and men in the
public realm.
Empirical feminism
◎The ‘gender lens’ of empirical feminism is
primarily concerned to ‘add women’ to
existing analytical frameworks,
◎especially in the attempt to tackle gender
gaps between women and men.
Empirical Feminism
◎Making feminist sense of international
politics therefore means recognizing the
previously invisible contributions that
women make to shaping world affairs.
Analytical Feminism
◎The ‘gender lens’ of analytical
feminism is concerned, by contrast, to
highlight the gender biases that pervade
the theoretical framework and key
concepts of mainstream international
theory, and particularly realism.
Analytical Feminism
◎These are deconstructed to reveal
masculinist biases that, in turn, help to
legitimize gendered hierarchies and
perpetuate the marginalization of women.
Gendered Character of States

◎Feminists have drawn attention to the


gendered character of states and nations.
◎Patriarchal biases within the state dictate that
states will be competitive and at least potentially
aggressive, while nations and nationalism are
commonly entangled with gendered images that
may place a special emphasis on female ‘purity’.
Gender and National Security

◎War is often viewed as a gendered


phenomenon, reflecting tendencies such as the
prevalence of men in senior positions in political
and military life, and
◎the impact of myths about masculinity and
militarism and about the need for male ‘warriors’
to protect women and children.
Gender and Economy
◎the ways in which the sexual division of labour
serves the economic interests of capitalism as well
as the extent to which the conceptual framework of
conventional political economy has been
constructed on a masculinist basis.
◎Such ideas have influenced feminist thinking
about both globalization and development.

Оценить