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REYNOLDS NUMBER AND ITS

EFFECT ON COOLING
MECHANISM OF MOLDING
TOOLS

BY
J AJITH BRITTO
INTRODUCTION

•Prof. Osborne Reynolds conducted the

experiment in the year 1883.


•This was conducted to demonstrate the existence of two

types of flow:-

1. Laminar flow

2. Turbulent flow


1.Laminar flow:
Laminar flow is defined as that type of flow in which the
fluid particles move along well-defined paths or stream
lines and all of the stream lines are straight and parallel.

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE:

- High viscosity of fluid

- Low velocity of fluid

- Less flow area

Eg. Flow through pipe of uniform cross section.


2. TURBULENT FLOW:
Turbulent flow is defined as that type of flow in which
the fluid particles move in a zigzag way. The fluid particles
crosses the paths of each other.

Eg.

- Flow in river at the time of flood.


REYNOLDS NUMBER

• Reynolds number is the ratio of Inertial forces to


Viscous forces.
• Reynolds number is a dimensionless.
• Used to categorize the fluid system in which the effect
of viscosity is important in controlling the velocity.
 
Mathematically, the Reynolds number is defined as

NRe =

where

of liquid

of liquid

diameter of the pipe

 If Reynold number, RN< 2000, the flow is Laminar flow.

 If Reynold number, RN> 4000, the flow is Turbulent flow.


MOULDING:
 Moulding is the process of manufacturing a parts by

shaping liquid or raw material using a rigid frame.


 The most popular techniques in plastic moulding are

rotational moulding, injection moulding,


blow moulding, compression molding,
extrusion moulding, and thermoforming.
COOLING SYSTEM IN MOULD
Cooling system of an injection mould plays an
important role in the process of plastic moulding, which is
related to the production efficiency, speed of the machine
and the product quality. There are two types of cooling
system

1. Air cooling system .

2. Water cooling system.


AIR COOLING SYSTEM:
Air cooling system is generally used in small engines such as 15-20 kW
and in aero plane engines.

ADVANTAGES:

1. System is light because radiator/pump is absent.

2. There is no leakage. Coolant and antifreeze solutions are not required.

Can be used in cold climates.

DISADVANTAGES:

3. Comparatively it is less efficient.

4. Used in motorcycles and in aero planes were the engines are exposed to
air directly.
WATER COOLING SYSTEM
 Water cooling system is widely used in four wheelers

and in six wheelers etc..


 In this method, cooling water jackets are provided
around the cylinder, cylinder head, valve seats etc.
 The water when circulated through the jackets, it

absorbs heat of combustion.


ADVANTAGES:
1. Engine is less noisy as compared with air cooled
engines, as it has water for damping noise.
2. Specific fuel consumption of engine improves by using
water cooling system.
3. Uniform cooling of cylinder, cylinder head and valves.

DISADVANTAGES:
4. It depends upon the supply of water.
5. Water cooling system is high cost as it has more
number of parts.
6. It requires more maintenance and care for its parts.
PURPOSE OF COOLING SYSTEM
 To remove the excessive heat from the engine to avid

components in the engine damaged.


 Too much cooling is also mot desirable because it

reduces the thermal efficiency.


EFFECTS OF COOLING SYSTEM:
 It draws atmospheric air through the radiator and thus

increases the efficiency of the radiator in cooling hot


water.
 It throws fresh air over the outer surface of the engine,

which takes away the heat conducted by the engine


parts and thus increases the efficiency of the
entire cooling system.
In case of Engine,
• The temperature of the burning gases in the engine
cylinder reaches up to 1500 to 2000°C, which is above
the melting point of the material of the cylinder body.
Therefore, if the heat is not dissipated, it would result in
the failure of the cylinder material.
 Due to very high temperatures, the film of the
lubricating oil will get oxidized, thus producing carbon
deposits on the surface. This will result in piston seizure.
 Due to overheating, large temperature differences may
lead to a distortion of the engine components due to
the thermal stresses set up.
 Higher temperatures also lower the volumetric
efficiency of the engine.