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ENGINEERING

DRAWING AND PLANS


PREPARED BY: ENGR. PETER CLYDE B. LAMADRID
WHAT IS ENGINEERING DRAWING?

-It is the art of representation of geometrical objects on a drawing sheet and used to
fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items
-It is separate language for communicating between designer, manufacturer and
inspection
- It is the graphic language and called the universal language of engineers
- Is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional object
IMPORTANCE OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS

• In Engineering, a good drawing is worth even more than a thousand words


• Allow the readers to visualized what the proposed product would look like
• Provide information on dimensions, materials used to make the proposed product
• Provide views from the top, the side, and the front
TYPES OF TECHNICAL DRAWING :

• Civil
• Architectural
• Structural
• Plumbing
• Piping
• Pneumatic/Hydraulic
• Electrical
• Mechanical
MECHANICAL DRAWING

• The basics of mechanical drafting begin with understanding the concept of orthographic
projection
• Orthographic projection is a means of representing three-dimensional objects in two
dimensions.
BASIC DRAWING TOOLS

1. Drawing table  

2. Compass
3. Eraser
4. Erasing shield
5. Circle & ellipse template
6. Tissue paper
Graphite pencil hardness grading and typical applications
Tone and grade designations

GRADING AND CLASSIFICATION


Character Application examples
Europe USA RUS
9B – –

8B – –

7B •for artistic purposes:sketches


– – extreme soft,
•studies
6B – – black
•drafts
5B – –

4B – –

3B – –
•freehand drawing
2B – 2М soft
•writing (restricted)
B #1 M
HB #2 TM •writing
medium
F #2½ *
– •linear drawing

H #3 T
•technical drawing
hard
2H #4 2T •mathematical drawing

3H – –

4H – – •technical detailed plans


very hard
•graphical representations
5H – –

6H – –

7H – – •for special purposes:lithography


extreme hard,
•cartography
8H – – light grey
•xylography
9H – –
*
Also seen as 24/8, 2.5, 25/10

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pencil
FREE HAND SKETCHING

Tips
 Straight line:
1. Hold the pencil naturally
2. Spot the beginning and the end point
3. Swing the pencil back & forth between the points, barely touching the paper until the
direction is clearly established
4. Draw the line firmly with free and easy wrist-and-arm motion
ACTIVITY #1

Instructions: Make at least 5 horizontal, vertical and inclined lines in a clean sheet of paper
(A3)

Note: this is a freehand activity use only your pencil, eraser and paper other drawing
instruments are strictly prohibited
SMALL CIRCLE

METHOD 1: STARTING W/ A SQUARE


1. Lightly sketching the square and marking the mid-points
2. Draw light diagonals and mark the estimated radius
3. Draw the circle through the eight points
METHOD 2: STARTING W/ CENTER LINE
1. Lightly draw a center line
2. Add light radial lines and mark the estimated radius
3. Sketch the full circle
BASIC STROKES
PLATE # 2 (STRAIGHT LINE LETTERS)
PLATE # 3 ( CURVED LINE LETTERS &
NUMERALS)
DRAWING LINES AT STANDARD ANGLES
DRAWING SCALES

Scale is the ratio of the linear dimension (length,size) of an element of an


object shown in the drawing to the real linear dimension of the same element of
the object.
SCALE 1:1 --------------------- For FULL scale
SCALE X : 1-------------------- For ENLARGEMENT scales (X is always > 1)
SCALE 1 : X-------------------- For REDUCTION scales (X is always < 1)
UNITS OF LENGTH

English Unit
UNIT SYMBOLS EQUIVALENT
MILES mi 1mi = 1,760 yd.
YARDS yd 1yd = 3 ft.
FEET ft (‘) 1ft = 12 in
INCHES in (“) 1in = 25.4mm
TITLE BLOCK

Border line --- 0.8mm


Letters -------- HB / 4mm
Title ----------- 7mm height
DRAWING LINE TYPES

• CONTINUOUS THICK LINE VISIBLE LINE /


OBJECT LINE
• CONTIUNOUS THIN LINE DIMENSION LINE /
EXTENSION LINE / LEADER
LINE
• DASH THICK LINE HIDDEN LINE
• CHAIN THIN LINE CENTER LINE
MEANING OF LINES

• Visible lines – represent features that can be seen in the current view.
- Solid thick lines that represent visible edges or contours
• Hidden lines – represent features that can’t be seen in the current view
- A short evenly spaced dashes that depict hidden features
• Center lines – represents symmetry, path of motion, centers of circles
- Alternating long and short dashes
• Dimension & Extension lines – indicate the sizes and location of features
on a drawing
a) Dimension lines – solid thin lines showing dimension extent/
direction
b) Extension lines – solid thin lines showing point or line to which
dimension applies
c) Leaders – direct notes, dimension, symbols, part numbers, etc. to
features on drawing
• Cutting-plane and Viewing-Plane lines – indicate location of cutting planes
for sectional views and the viewing position for removed partial views
• Break lines – indicate only portion of object is drawn. May be random line
or thin dashes joined by zigzags
• Phantom lines – long thin dashes separated by pairs of short dashes indicate
alternate positions of moving parts, adjacent position of related parts and
repeated detail
STANDARD LINE WIDTH
SAMPLE APPLICATION DRAWING
MULTIVIEW DRAWING

• Is one that shows two or more two-dimensional views of a three-dimensional


object
• It provide the shape description of an object and when combined with dimensions,
Multiview drawings serve as the main form of communication between designers
and manufacturers
• All three-dimensional objects have width, height, and depth.
• Width is associated with an object’s side to-side dimension.
• Height is the measure of an object from top-to-bottom.
• Depth is associated with front-to-back distance.
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

• Is a technique that is used to create Multiview drawings


• Is any projection of the features of an object onto an imaginary plane of
projection. The projection of the features of the object is made by lines of
sight that are perpendicular to the plane of projection.
PLATE 5: MULTIVIEW DRAWING

INSTRUCTION: Draw the front, top, & Right side view


using Orthographic Projection and apply also the line type
& width if needed. Note: scale must be applied (2:1) , space
b/w views are 38mm, all units are in Millimeter (mm)
Submission: September 25,2019
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